Tap charger with semiconductor switching elements

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to an on-load tap charger with semiconductor switching elements for uninterrupted switching between fixed contacts of the tap charger which are connected electrically to the tapped winding of the tapped transformer. Each of the fixed contacts of the tap charger can be connected to the device for charging either directly or through interconnected semiconductor switching elements. According to the invention the tap charger has separated and fixed tapping contacts for electric insulation of the semiconductor switching elements from the transformer winding during the static mode of operation.

EFFECT: excluding high load of switching elements and guaranteeing electrical separation of the tap charger from the transformer winding in the static mode of operation.

9 cl, 3 dwg

 

The technical FIELD

The invention relates to a switch branches with semiconductor switching elements for uninterrupted switching between branches of the winding in the transformer with taps. In this case, the invention concerns a switch taps in accordance with the principle switch taps under load.

PRIOR art

Switches outlets are known in various types of embodiments, in principle, they may vary on the switches taps under load, on a device with separate switches for selecting a new branch of the winding to which you want to switch when the power is off, and on separate switches bends under load for consistent actual switch. In the publication Axel Kramer: Switches bends under load for power transformers, the publication of MR, 2000, offers a good overview on the different forms of construction. The details are explained on page 7f of this publication. Regardless of the type of design, all switches outlets have a common load shunt, which, as a rule, independently of the momentary switch mounting taps produces a connection of the main winding with transformer.

For example, the switch taps are known from the document is that WO 99/60588, which, as is generally accepted, in accordance with the prior art, contains one such load shunt. In the known solution, this load shunt is constructed as an electrically conductive annular bypass, concentrically surrounding the distribution column. Part of the contact bridges slides along the circular shunt, and the other part of the contact bridges electrically connected with the corresponding fixed contact of the winding.

Almost the same layout switch taps are known from DE 3833126 A1. In particular, figure 4 of this document are shown in solid shunt, and here he presents in the form of a schematic illustration.

For switches, outlets with mechanical contacts or with vacuum switching elements, used as a means of switching, is not problematic use of these continuous annular shunts or, in the case of a linear switch taps, also the guides of the shunt, they make possible a structurally simple layout. In contrast, switches outlets with semiconductor switching elements has various disadvantages. Due to the constant application of operating voltage and load of the electronic system power supply through voltage lightning p is the would be loaded on, requires a large insulating gap, which are not desirable. In addition, through the wall of the transformer required expensive high-voltage cable channels. In General, the known load shunts lead to a constant load on the components of the electronic system.

A BRIEF STATEMENT of the substance of the INVENTION

The present invention is to eliminate these disadvantages and the view selector taps with semiconductor switching elements, which eliminates the increased load switching element in a static mode of operation is guaranteed electrical Department switch taps on the transformer.

This task is solved through the switch of taps in accordance with the category with the characteristic features of the first claim. The dependent claims relate to preferred embodiment of the invention.

A particular advantage of the solution according to the invention is that in static mode all connectors of the components of the electronic system electrically separated from the transformer. Thus, the components of the electronic system is reliably separated from the pulse voltage of the lightning discharge, as well as from constant load by the operating voltage. is only during phase switching and therefore, the actual load switching an electric connection with the winding of the transformer.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Further, the invention is illustrated by the description of the preferred variants of the embodiment with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 depicts a diagram of the switch of taps in accordance with the invention;

Figure 2 depicts a further variant form of the implementation of the switch of taps in accordance with the invention;

Figure 3 depicts the switch taps in accordance with the invention in another of its connection with the transformer.

DESCRIPTION of the PREFERRED embodiments of the INVENTION

Figure 1 shows the switch branches containing the electronic switch 1 bends under load. In this case, given two semiconductor switch 2, and 3, with the corresponding electrical input 4 or 5 and a total power output 6. Thus, the switch 1 bends under load consists of two circuits, one for the hand, which should be turned off, and one for the party that accepts the function off hand, implemented respectively by means of semiconductor switches 2 or 3. Electrical inputs 4, 5, as well as electric outlet 6 are, through the cable channel is 7, the system 8 mechanical contacts. System 8 mechanical contacts contains the holder 9 pin, which is indicated in the drawing simply by dotted lines. The holder 9 contacts includes contact bridges 10, 11, 12, 13, which are arranged in him still. Contact bridges 10 to 13 are electrically conductive, but in relation to each other they are isolated at their ends have contact rollers, the layout of the rolling contact or a similar tool, which, essentially, are known and that the drawing shows only schematically. Later more fully discussed contact bridges 10 and 13, and also attached the extension roller 14. Each of the contacts 15 of the tap illustrated in figure 1, corresponds to the tap of winding n, n+1,..., regulating winding of the transformer with taps.

In addition, the system of mechanical contacts provided with three contact rails 16, 17, 18, each of which is electrically conductive and are electrically connected respectively to the electrical input 4, power input 5 and an electric output 6 of the semiconductor switches 2, 3.

In accordance with the invention, the load shunt is divided, that is, it has no solid guide shunt or the like, is known from the prior the match technique. Instead, in this case there are separate contacts 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5 shunt and, as seen in the direction of movement of the holder 9 contacts correspond to the length of the fixed contacts 15 of the winding. In other words: the location and sizing of contacts with 19.1 through 19.5 shunt correspond, in another horizontal plane, location and sizing of fixed contact 15 of the switch branches. In the case depicted in this document forms a variant implementation, the contact rails 16 and 18 and individual contacts with 19.1 through 19.5 shunt are parallel to each other, the holder 9 pin performs a linear translational movement to create a contact. Individual contacts with 19.1 through 19.5 shunt are connected together by electrical connections, that is, the shunt 20, and is directed to the main winding 21. The connection 20 shunts can be done not only inside, but also outside of the switch branches.

One free end of the first contact bridges 10 can be connected to the contact 15 of the switch branches, and the other free end moves along the guide pin 16, which is electrically connected to the input 4 of the first semiconductor switch 2. Similarly, one free end of the second contact bridges 11 can be connected to the fixed contact 15 of the switch taps, and the other free end moves on to the next contact of the guide 17, which is electrically connected to the input 5 of the second semiconductor switch. One free end of the third contact bridges 12 moves along the guide pin 18, which is electrically connected to a common electrical outlet 6 e of the power switch. The other free end corresponds to the contacts with 19.1 through 19.5 shunt. Physically between the two above mentioned contact bridges 10 and 11 provided with additional contact jumper 13, that is, the jumper shunt, one free end which can be connected with a fixed contact 15 of the switch branches, and the other free end is in contact with the contacts 19.1 through 19.5 shunt. In addition, symmetrically with respect to the above-described contact bridges 12, is located the jumper 14, which is electrically connected to the contact bridge 12, and, similarly, may be connected with the contacts 19.1 through 19.5 shunt. You will notice that can be performed electrical connection not only contact bridges 12 and, thus, the total output 6 electronic switch taps under load, but also contact bridges 13 with one of the contacts with 19.1 through 19.5 shunt, depending on the respective installation turning the surrounding holder 9. In static mode, the jumper 13 assumes the functions of a direct electrical connection between the United appropriately contact 15 of switch taps and the corresponding contact of the shunt, and he may be one of the contacts with 19.1 through 19.5 shunt, depending on the respective switch mounting. On the contrary, the contact bridges 10 and 11, which lead to the inputs of the electronic switch 1 taps under load, not connected, and the semiconductor switches 2 and 3 switch in the unlock position.

In the case of switching the load holder 9 pin moves to the left or right depending on whether or not to be switched in the direction of "above" or "below". As a consequence, one of the two contact bridges 10 and 11 moves to the contact 15 of the switch from the switch branches for re-connection and, thus, electrical connection to the corresponding input 4 or 5 of the respective semiconductor switch 2 or 3. At the same time, the jumper 13 is detached from one of the fixed contact 15 of the switch branches.

Switching ends, if the holder 9 pin moved forward to such an extent that both inter-connector 10 and 11 again disconnected and contact what I jumper 13 again assumes the function of a constant conductivity.

Figure 2 depicts an additional variant embodiment of the invention with a circular layout. In this case also provided the semiconductor switches 2 and 3, each of which has a separate electrical input 4 or 5 and a total power output 6. It provides the contact rollers 22, 23, 24, each of which moves on to the appropriate contact ring 25, 26, 27. These contact rings 25 and 27 correspond in respect of their actions, contact the guide rails 16 and 18 of figure 1. The stationary contact 15 of switch taps provided on concentric circles.

Shows the Central axis 28 of the switch. In addition, it portrays the contacts with 19.1 through 19.3 shunt. These contacts with 19.1 through 19.3 shunt located in the horizontal plane, different from the fixed contact 14 of the switch branches. However, they have the same geometry of the contacts, as well as vertical layout, and the fixed contact 15 of the switch branches.

In addition, is provided with a switch segment 29 of insulating material, which is indicated simply by a dotted line, and he has the ability to rotate around the axis 28 to switch the load angle, which corresponds to the interval between the two fixed contact 14 of switch taps or two contacts with 19.1 through 19.3 shunt. On lane is glucouse segment 29 in the first horizontal plane provided with contact rollers 30, 31, 32, which have the possibility of connection through the fixed contact 15 of the switch branches. In addition, in the second horizontal plane provided additional contact rollers 33, 34, 35, which have the ability to connect with one of the contacts with 19.1 through 19.3 shunt, depending on the respective installation switching segment. Contact rollers 30 are electrically connected through the contact ring 25 to the input 4 of the first semiconductor switch 2. The contact roller 32 is electrically connected to the input 5 of the second semiconductor switch 3 through the contact ring 26. Both the bottom of the contact roller 33 and 35 are connected through the contact ring 27 with a total output of 6 two semiconductor switches 2 and 3. And finally, the upper contact of the roller 31 and the lower contact roller 34 have such a conductive connection 36 that contact the roller 31, which is physically located between the contact rollers 30 and 32 may be directly connected with the bottom of the contact roller 34, depending on the installation, with one of the contacts with 19.1 through 19.3 shunt.

As already explained, in this embodiment of the invention, a switch segment 29, and with it the contact rollers 30 through 35, performs a rotational movement at each load switching. However, the principles of the PI operation remains the same: in static mode, accordingly connected to the fixed contact 15 of the switch taps electrically connected directly to one of the contacts with 19.1 through 19.3 shunt through the contact roller 34 until such time as the semiconductor switches 2 and 3 are not only switch in the trip position, but also electrically separated from the winding of the transformer. Only in the case of switching, depending on the direction of rotation, in each case, one of the two inputs 4 and 5 of the electronic switch for switching under load, short-circuited is connected through the associated contact rollers 30 and 32 with the corresponding fixed contact 5 of switch branches, which should be switched. Then, at the same time, one of the contact rollers 33 and 35 assumes the functions, that is, only at the time of switching, depending on the direction of rotation, the electrical connection of one of the contacts with 19.1 through 19.3 shunt.

Figure 3 depicts the changed connection switch outlets with transformer in accordance with the invention. In this case, the transformer is additionally provided with a switch 37 branches, which, essentially, is known and which switches the method, involving the absence of electric current. By means of this switch 37 branches, caste and 39 of the transformer winding can be connected in another way to increase the total available number of stages of the voltage.

For all variants of the implementation of the described switch taps in accordance with the invention has, compared to the prior art, a significant advantage of the fact that all the connecting lines to the electronic switch taps under load, and it is electrically separated from the transformer. Oil paths winding between the separate contact bridges and the individual contact elements in this case take on the role of isolation between these components. Electronic switch taps under load in the case of the invention is separated not only from the voltage of the lightning discharge, but also from the constant load by the operating voltage. Only during the actual switching of the load, namely the phase shift in the time range of approximately 100 milliseconds, there is an electrical connection with the winding of the transformer and, consequently, with a supply voltage. Isolation of the passages 7 and the insulating gaps in the air, can be designed in such a way as to be smaller in comparison with the prior art.

1. Switch taps with semiconductor switching elements for uninterrupted switching between the fixed contacts (15) of the switch taps, elec is rejeski connected to the taps of the transformer winding with taps, with fixed contacts (15) of the switch taps are located along the movement direction, and a holder (9) of the contacts is movable along the movement direction, with the holder (9, 29) contacts are electrically conductive and mutually insulated contact bridges(10, 11, 12, 13, 14) and two electrically isolated from the additional electrically interconnected contact bridges (12, 14; 33, 35) so that through these jumpers in the static mode of operation, selectively, one of the stationary contacts (15) of the switch taps directly connected with shunt (20) load, and at the time of switching a corresponding one of the stationary contacts (15) of the switch taps is temporarily connected to the input (4, 5) of one of the semiconductor switches (2, 3), and optionally the output (6) of the respective semiconductor switch (2, 3) is connected with a shunt (20) load and shunt (20) load contains a still separated contact elements (19.1, 19.5...) such that the semiconductor switching elements (2, 3) in a static mode electrically separated from shunt (20) load and, thus, winding of the transformer.

2. Switch taps according to claim 1, characterized in that the stationary separated contact elements (19.1, ... 1.5) shunt located in an additional direction, parallel to the direction of the fixed contacts (15) of the switch taps and have the same three-dimensional and geometrical structure.

3. Switch taps according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the fixed contacts (15) of the switch branches and stationary contact elements (19.1, 19.5...) shunt located appropriately along the direction in the plane, and the holder (9) is moved linearly.

4. Switch taps according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the fixed contacts (15) of the switch branches and stationary contact elements (19.1, 19.5...) shunt located appropriately in a circular direction, concentrically around the axis of rotation of the holder (9) contacts, with possibility of rotation.

5. Switch taps according to claim 1, characterized in that the semiconductor switching elements (2, 3) are IGBTs (bipolar transistors with insulated gate).

6. Switch taps according to claim 1, characterized in that each of the two semiconductor switching elements (2, 3) has a separate power input (4, 5) and a total power output (6).

7. Switch taps according to claim 1, characterized in that the electrically conductive, but mutually insulated contact guides(16, 17, 18, 25, 26, 27), each of which is in electrical connection with one of the electrical input is s (4, 5) or with electrical outlet (6), parallel to the direction of the fixed contacts (15) of the switch branches.

8. Switch taps according to claim 7, characterized in that the direction of the contact elements (19.1, 19.5...) shunt parallel pin guide(16, 17, 18, 25, 26, 27) and they are also electrically isolated relative to them, and the contact elements of the shunt, in turn, electrically connected to the shunt (20) load.

9. Switch taps according to claim 1, characterized in that the contact bridges(10, 11, 12, 13, 14) installed on the holder (9) contacts with this definition of the size and physical layout that they correspond to the contact guides(16, 17, 18, 25, 26, 27) or one of the contact elements (19.1, 19.5...) shunt and have the opportunity to exercise by them, depending on the switch, the electrical connection selectively between one of the stationary contacts (15) drain directly with one of the contact elements (19.1, ... 19.5) shunt, or the electrical connection between one of the stationary contacts (15) of the bend and one of the electrical inputs (4, 5), or additional electrical connections between the electrical output (6) and one of the contact elements (19.1, 19.5...) shunt.



 

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