Eroding pulse plasma accelerator

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: cathode (1) and anode (2) of an eroding pulse plasma accelerator (EPPA) are of flat shape. Between discharge electrodes (1 and 2) there are two dielectric pellets (4) made of ablating material. An end wall insulator (6) is installed between the discharge electrodes in the area of dielectric pellets (4) placement. An electric discharge initiator (9) is connected to electrodes (8). A capacitive storage (3) of the power supply unit is connected through current leads to the electrodes (1 and 2). The EPPA discharge channel is shaped by surfaces of the discharge electrodes (1 and 2), the end wall insulator (6) and end walls of the dielectric pellets (4). The discharge channel is made with two mutually perpendicular middle planes. The discharge electrodes (1 and 2) are mounted symmetrically in regard to the first middle plane. The dielectric pellets (4) are mounted symmetrically in regard to the second middle plane. A tangent to the surface of the end wall insulator (6) faced to the discharge channel is oriented at an angle from 87° up to 45° in regard to the first middle plane of the discharge channel. In the end wall insulator (6) there is a well with (7) a rectangular cross-section. In the well (7) from the cathode (1) side there are electrodes (8). A tangent to the front surface of the well (7) is oriented at an angle from 87° up to 45° in regard to the first middle plane of the discharge channel. The well (7) along the surface of the end wall insulator(6) has a trapezoid shape. The larger base of the trapezoid is located near the anode (2) surface. The lesser base of the trapezoid is located near the cathode (1) surface. At the end wall insulator (6) surface there are three straight-line grooves oriented in parallel to surfaces of the discharge electrodes (1 and 2).

EFFECT: increase in service life, reliability, pulling efficiency, efficiency of the working agent use and stability of the EPPA pull characteristics due to even evaporation of the working agent from the working area of the dielectric pellets.

9 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to plasma technology and plasma technology, in particular for pulsed plasma accelerators that can be used to create thrust, such as electric propulsion engines of the spacecraft, and also for the generation of high-speed plasma streams at the experimental investigations and model tests. In addition, the invention can be used to implement various technological operations related to processing of products and the modification of the properties of materials.

In erosion pulsed plasma accelerators (AIPU) used solid working substance in the form of dielectric pieces, made of ablative material, in particular PTFE Acceleration of plasma by using EIPO as follows. Originally manufactured electrical breakdown of the interelectrode gap, then ignites the main electric discharge between the electrodes. Released due to arc discharge energy is erosion (ablation) and evaporation of the working medium from the working surfaces of the dielectric blocks, ionization of the working substance and the acceleration of the ionized gas. Electrical discharge in AIPU is of short duration: the duration of the discharge is from 1 to 100 μs. EIPO widely applies the are as the Executive bodies of the control systems of spacecraft, as well as in pulsed injectors low-temperature plasma.

Known designs EIPO, the principle of which is based on ablation (erosion) of the solid dielectric material under the action of the energy generated in the generating pulsed electric discharge in the electrode gap. For example, in patent US 6373023 B1 (published 16.04.2002) described the design EIPU, which is the acceleration of the plasma flow. Bit accelerator formed by two parallel spaced planar electrodes and the end surface of the dielectric checkers made of ablative material. In the process EIPO is to initiate an electrical discharge between the anode and cathode using thermometer electrons installed in the hole of the cathode opposite the anode. After electrical breakdown of the interelectrode gap evaporation and ionization of the working substance and the subsequent acceleration formed by a plasma clot in the acceleration channel under the action of electromagnetic forces. While using ablative working material during its evaporation is filing dielectric checkers along the acceleration channel in the direction towards its outlet opening of the discharge channel.

In the patent RU 2143586 C1 (published 27.12.1999) rusk is it design EIPU, which contains a bit flat electrodes (cathode and anode)connected via ohmic and inductive load for capacitive energy storage. The device includes in its membership the end of the ceramic insulator separating the discharge electrodes, and a dielectric checkers made of ablative material. Dielectric pieces are installed between the discharge electrodes. The energy accumulator is connected to the discharge electrodes via the thin copper bus bars (leads). The walls of the channel formed by the electrode surfaces, the front insulator and dielectric checkers. The device initiating discharge (igniter) is placed in the recess formed in the end insulator. Dielectric checkers made with the possibility of movement toward the midline of the discharge channel with the help of special funds transfer (spring pusher). Moving dielectric Checkers is fully inserted in the lock, which has the form of a protrusion on the surface of one of the electrodes.

When turning on the accelerator is the supply voltage from the capacitive energy storage device to discharge electrodes. After this is accomplished through periodic formation of a stable plasma clot in the form of a string (the current harness) in the area of deepening the end of the insulator, i.e. at the entrance to rasra is hydrated (accelerator) channel. Prior to the formation of stable current jumper before dielectric checkers reduces the probability of formation of carbon film on the surface of the evaporated material and to reduce the unevenness of its evaporation. As a result of breakdown between the electrodes of the device initiating the discharge produced plasma clot that fills the interelectrode gap of the discharge channel. It should be noted that the discharge electrodes in the process of breakdown under "standby" capacity through applying voltage to them with capacitive energy storage.

After closure of the discharge electrodes of the plasma jumper is a breakdown of the main electrode gap. The result in the discharge channel is formed by an electrical discharge arc type. Under the action of heat produced in the discharge, evaporation of the working of the dielectric material and the resulting acceleration of the plasma clot under the action of electromagnetic forces and hydrodynamic pressure.

It should be noted that the solution to the problem of generating a stable plasma column during the initial part of the discharge channel does not completely eliminate the deposition of carbon films on the working surfaces of the dielectric checkers. The uneven production of the working substance is observed is also when using the ceramic end of the insulator with a cavity, hosts the device initiating the discharge. When working EIPO not possible formation of carbon films on the working surfaces of the dielectric checkers due to the instability of the spatial position of the channel initiating discharge. Consequently, when using the known device is analog, the increase in the rate of expiration of the generated plasma flow is possible only by increasing the energy supplied to the discharge, resulting in reduced traction efficiency of the accelerator.

The closest analogue of the invention described in patent RU 2253953 C1 (published 10.06.2005). Known EIPO includes two flat electrodes, between which there is a dielectric checkers made of ablative material, and separation of the end insulator, the device of the initiation of the discharge and the energy storage unit connected through the contact with the electrodes. When the accelerator originally voltage is applied to the discharge electrodes and then periodically ignition of the electric discharge between the discharge electrodes from the device initiating the discharge. In operation, the accelerator is moving dielectric checkers into the cavity of the discharge channel EIPO as the evaporation ablative material with the working surfaces of the sticks. In the process EIPO bit in the bottom channel of light and support quasiperiodicities pulsed discharges when the value of the discharge voltage of at least 1000, this ensures the agreed parameters of external and internal electric circuit of the plasma accelerator.

However, despite the synchronization of the processes of evaporation of the working substance and acceleration of a plasma clot, between the working end surface of the insulator and the current harness is formed of a spatial area in which it is possible precipitation of carbon from the plasma on the working surface of the dielectric checkers. This phenomenon is characteristic of all known structures AIPU. The deposition of the products of thermal decomposition of PTFE carbon film in an under-heated surface of the dielectric checkers is because the heat of vaporization of carbon is significantly higher heat of evaporation of PTFE. As a result, the carbon deposited on the surface, remote from the driven current harness, i.e. less heated plots compared with plots of the surface in direct contact with a plasma clot.

The formation of the carbon film on the working surface of the dielectric checkers leads to a significant decrease in surface area from which evaporation of the working substance (PTFE). As a result of this phenomenon is the decrease in the consumption of the working substance and the fall of the draught created AIPU. In addition, because of the formation of working on the second surface of the dielectric checkers carbon film is uneven development of the working substance, reducing the supply of gaseous working substance in the discharge channel. This reduces the traction performance and resource AIPU.

The invention is directed to prevent the formation of carbon films on the working surfaces of the dielectric checkers due to the exclusion in the discharge channel free from electric discharge spatial zones, located between the working end surface of the insulator and initiated the current harness. The solution to this technical problem can increase the life, increase reliability, traction efficiency, the efficiency of the working substance and stability and traction characteristics EIPO due to uniform evaporation of the working medium from the working surface of the dielectric checkers during the life of the device.

Achieving the above technical result is achieved when using EIPU, includes two discharge electrode having a flat shape. One of the electrodes is a cathode and the second anode. EIPO also includes in its membership two dielectric checkers made of ablative material. Checkers symmetrically installed between the discharge electrodes. The device contains a means of moving dielectric checkers, position lock dielectric checkers, end isolate is, installed between the electrodes in the layout area of the dielectric checkers, and the device initiating electric discharge electrodes arranged in the slot in the cathode. The power supply system includes a capacitive energy storage device and the current leads connecting the energy accumulator discharge electrodes.

Bit accelerator formed by the surfaces of the discharge electrodes, the end of the insulator and the end parts of the dielectric checkers and performed with two mutually perpendicular to the median plane. The discharge electrodes are placed symmetrically with respect to the first median plane of the discharge channel and the dielectric checkers - symmetrically with respect to the second median plane of the discharge channel. End insulator is located in the acceleration channel in such a way that the tangent to the surface end of the insulator facing the discharge channel, is directed at an angle of 87° to 45° relative to the first median plane of the discharge channel.

Technical results are provided due to the fact that the end surface of the insulator facing the discharge channel is inclined relative to the median plane of symmetry of the discharge channel at an angle corresponding to the angle of the current harness electrical discharge, which trouble the AET between the discharge electrodes when voltage is applied to the electrodes of the device initiating the discharge. These electrodes are located in the slot in the cathode.

As a result of experiments, it was found that when the device initiating discharge within ~500 NS after the initiation of electric discharge between the discharge electrodes is the angular displacement of the electric discharge with respect to the first median plane of the discharge channel. Part of the current harness on the anode side is shifted in the direction of the outlet of the discharge channel relative to the opposite side of the current sheet is located at the cathode in the region of the electrode device initiating discharge. Consequently, the current harness over a period of time of development initiating discharge is located at an angle of 87° to 45° relative to the first median plane of the discharge channel. At this particular angle of the current bundle (in the range from 87° to 45°) depends on the specific design EIPO and its electrical characteristics.

Choosing the angle of the tangent to the end surface of the insulator facing the discharge channel, with respect to the first median plane of the discharge channel in the range from 87° to 45°, depending on the results of the preliminary experiment conducted for the selected design EIPO can be placed end isostorage way what is the current harness initiating electric discharge will be oriented along the end surface of the insulator. In this case, all areas of the working surfaces of the dielectric blocks, adjacent to the end insulator, will be in the area of high-temperature plasma formations generated at the initial stage of the electric discharge. With the side face of the insulator is missing the relatively cold surface of the dielectric checkers, which may be deposited carbon to form a carbon film. The whole working surface of the dielectric checkers facing the discharge channel is uniformly heated high-temperature plasma formation, spatial limited by the end surface of the insulator.

As a result of using the above selection criteria, the angle of the end surface of the insulator relative to the median plane of the discharge channel provides uniform heating and uniform evaporation of the working substance from the whole surfaces of the dielectric blocks, facing to the discharge channel. This phenomenon improves the efficiency of the use of solid working substance, to ensure high stability of the flow of the working substance and traction EIPO during the whole period of its operation. In addition to t the th, due to the uniform evaporation of the working substance from the entire working surface of the dielectric checkers increases the service life and increases traction performance and reliability AIPU.

The shape of the end surface of the insulator facing the discharge channel is selected in each case depending on the design and performance AIPU. In particular, in the simplest design, the end surface of the insulator may have a flat shape.

An additional effect associated with increasing the stability of the electric discharge, is achieved by using the end of the insulator, which is made rectilinear recess located between the discharge electrodes. In the cavity of this deepening installed the electrodes of the device initiating electric discharge. For the considered versions AIPO should run the following condition: the tangent to the surface of the recess is angled from 87° to 45° relative to the first median plane of the discharge channel.

The recess made in the end insulator may have a rectangular cross-section. Preferably constructive performance end of the insulator, wherein the recess along the end surface of the insulator facing the discharge channel has a trapezoid shape. When this pain is the base line is located at the surface of the anode, and a lower base surface of the cathode. In this case, the angle of the side surfaces of the recesses relative to the second median plane of the discharge channel is selected in the range from 5° to 45°.

The surface of the dielectric checkers facing the discharge channel may be directed at an acute angle with respect to the second median plane of the discharge channel. In this embodiment, the design AIPU the distance between the opposite surfaces of the dielectric checkers from the side face of the insulator is less than the distance between the opposite surfaces of the dielectric checkers from the outlet of the discharge channel.

In the process of operation of the accelerator on the end surface of the insulator may be deposited carbon, which leads to the formation of carbon-containing conductive film. For exception of a short circuit between the cathode and anode, which may occur because of the formation on the working surface of the end insulator carbon-containing conductive film, between the discharge electrodes is at least one straight groove. Such a groove (or grooves) is oriented parallel to the adjacent end of the insulator surfaces of the discharge electrodes. So, for example, on the end surface of the insulator can be made three grooves, R is Vomero located on the end surface of the insulator between the anode and cathode. The dimensions of the grooves preferably are selected as follows: the depth of the grooves is 1 mm to 3 mm, the width of the grooves is from 0.5 mm to 1 mm

Hereinafter the invention is explained in the description of a specific example of implementation of the invention. On the accompanying drawings shows the following:

figure 1 - section of the discharge channel along the second median plane and block diagram EIPO;

figure 2 - cross section (a-a) bit channel EIPO with the front end of the insulator;

figure 3 - cross section b-B discharge channel along the first middle plane.

Erosion of the pulsed plasma accelerator, shown in figures 1 to 3 of the drawings, includes two bit electrode: cathode 1 and the anode 2. The discharge electrodes are connected through the contact with the capacitive energy store 3 (UNES). Between the cathode 1 and anode 2 are symmetrically installed two dielectric checkers 4, made of ablative material, which is Teflon.

The cathode 1 and the anode 2 has a flat shape and consists of two areas, which are located along the direction of plasma acceleration. The first sections of the discharge electrodes are parallel to each other. These sites electrodes limit the side surface of the dielectric checkers 4 in the electrode gap. The second parts of the discharge electrodes are located on sides of the output of the plasma accelerator and inclined at an acute angle relative to the first sections respectively of the cathode 1 and anode 2.

For fixing the position of the dielectric checkers 4 in the discharge channel of the accelerator on the first segment of the anode 2 is made tab 5, limiting the movement of the dielectric checkers 4 in the process of erosion of their working surface. Between the discharge electrodes in the layout area of the dielectric checkers 4 is an end insulator 6 made of ceramic.

Bit accelerator formed by the surfaces of the cathode 1 and anode 2, the end of the insulator 6 and the end parts of the dielectric checkers 4. Bit channel is made with two mutually perpendicular to the median plane, the Cathode 1 and the anode 2 are installed symmetrically with respect to the first median plane of the discharge channel. Dielectric pieces 4 are arranged symmetrically with respect to a second median plane of the discharge channel.

Facing the discharge channel is working surfaces of the dielectric checkers 4 is directed at an acute angle with respect to the second median plane of the discharge channel. The distance between the opposite surfaces of the dielectric checkers 4 from the side face of the insulator 6 is less than the distance between the opposite surfaces of the dielectric checkers 4 from the outlet of the discharge channel of the accelerator.

End insulator 6 is installed in the discharge channel so that the tangent to the surface of the butt the first insulator, facing the discharge channel, directed at an angle of 60° relative to the first median plane of the discharge channel. In this example, execution design AIPU the end surface of the insulator 6, facing the discharge channel has a flat shape.

In the end insulator 6 bit between the electrodes is made rectilinear recess 7 having a rectangular cross-section. The depth of the recesses 7 is 3 mm In the cavity of the recess 7 are electrodes 8 that are separated by a dielectric insert, which is connected to the device 9 initiating electric discharge (SCPI). The electrodes 8 are installed in the slot in the cathode 1, and is electrically isolated from the discharge electrodes. The electrode Assembly 8 initiation of discharge is located in the Central part of the cross-section of the recess 7, and the outer portion of the block touches the end surface of the insulator 6.

The recess 7 is made in the end of the insulator so that a tangent to the flat front surface of the recess 7, facing the discharge channel, directed at an angle of 60° relative to the first median plane of the discharge channel. In this example, execution EIPO flat front surface of the recess 7 is inclined relative to the median plane of the discharge channel under the same angle as the flat end surface of the insulator 6, directed to the discharge channel.

Rectilinear recess 7, located along the end surface of the insulator 6, facing the discharge channel, in this example of construction of the accelerator has a trapezoid shape. The larger base of the trapezoid is located at the surface of the anode 2, and its lower base surface of the cathode 1. The angle of the side surfaces of the recesses 7 with respect to a second median plane of the discharge channel is 30°.

During long-term operation EIPO on the end surface of the insulator 6 of the plasma formations containing products of evaporation of Teflon, may be deposited conductive carbon film. To prevent a short circuit between the cathode 1 and the anode 2 through the conductive film on the end surface of the insulator 6, facing the discharge channel is made of three rectilinear grooves 10. The depth of the grooves 10 in the region of the recess 7 is 2 mm, the width of the grooves is 1 mm Groove 10 evenly spaced between the cathode 1 and anode 2 (equally spaced relative to each other and relative to a nearby bit of electrodes) and is oriented parallel to the surfaces of the discharge electrodes.

The operation EIPO by using systems management 11 (SU). The control inputs of the WEIR 9 and UNE 3 are connected to appropriate ejstvujuschij outputs SU 11. Moving dielectric checkers 4 in the process AIPU is performed using a mover, which in the example design consists of two mechanical devices move 12 and 13 (UP and UP) with elastic pushers spring type

Work EIPO, the construction of which is depicted in figure 1-3 of the drawings, as follows.

The control signal generated by SU 11, UNE 3 cathode 1 and the anode 2 is fed discharge voltage. Then the control signals SU 11 passed in SCPI 9, and electrodes 8 of the initiation of the main discharge is fed a high-voltage pulse voltage, ensure the ignition of the electric discharge. Generated in the recess 7 of the end insulator 6 plasma clot extends into the discharge channel and closes the interelectrode gap. In the result between the cathode 1 and anode 2 is ignited by electrical charge.

When using the recesses 7 in the end insulator increases the stability of the auxiliary ignition initiating electric discharge and the main discharge between the cathode 1 and the anode 2. Due to the fact that the shape of the recess 7 is selected corresponding to the shape of the edges of the dielectric checkers 4 adjacent to the end insulator 6, ensures the stability of the shape of the working surface of the dielectric checkers 4 in the process arose and evaporation hard working substance. This process occurs as a result of heat flow from the plasma formation (clot)generated in the discharge channel.

Match the shapes of the recesses 7 form adjacent edges of the dielectric checkers 4 for the given design AIPU is ensured by the fact that the recess 7 has a trapezoid shape. The larger base of the trapezoid is located at the surface of the anode 2, and a lower base surface of the cathode. The angle of the side surfaces of the recesses 7 with respect to a second median plane of the discharge channel is 30°.

Under the action of radiation and convection from the region of the electric discharge (plasma clot) evaporation (ablation) of PTFE with the working surfaces of the dielectric checkers 4. In the discharge channel is a partial ionization of the working substance and the subsequent acceleration of the plasma clot under the action of electromagnetic forces and hydrodynamic pressure. Flowing from the discharge plasma channel flow creates a jet thrust.

After discharge UNE 3 stops the supply voltage on the cathode 1 and the anode 2, the pulse discharge voltage and, respectively, the acceleration of the plasma flow. Then there is the charge UNE 3 to the working level of the stored energy W=20 j, applying discharge voltage to the discharge electrodes and follow the its the ignition of an electrical discharge between the cathode 1 and the anode 2 through the electrodes 8, to which is supplied a voltage pulse of SCPI 9. The process of charge-discharge UNE 3 and the ignition of the electric discharge between the discharge electrodes is periodically repeated, whereby organized pulsed mode AIPU. The possibility of a short circuit between the cathode 1 and the anode 2 on the end surface of the insulator 6 is prevented by using rectilinear grooves 10.

In the process, ICS is moving dielectric checkers 4 in the discharge channel as the evaporation ablative material with the working surfaces of the sticks 4. Checkers 4 mounted for movement toward the midline of the discharge channel. Moving checkers 4 is provided with a spring loaded pushers, who are part of the device UP 12 and UP 13. The position of the working surfaces of the dielectric checkers 4 in the discharge channel is fixed by means of the protrusion 5, performed on the surface of the cathode 1. Tab 5 secures the estimated distance between the working surfaces of the sticks 4 along the second median plane of the discharge channel.

Uniform erosion of hard working fluid along the surface of the dielectric checkers 4 facing the discharge channel is achieved by tilting the working end surface of the insulator 6, limiting the working surface of each of the two Sha is EC 4, with respect to the first median plane of the discharge channel. This effect is provided by selecting an appropriate angle of inclination of the working surface of the end insulator 6 in the range of calculated values. The specified condition is defined as follows: the angle of the working end surface of the insulator 6 with respect to the first median plane of the discharge channel must match the angle of the current harness electric discharge between the discharge electrodes on the stage of development of the discharge, the results of experimental studies established that this essential condition is met when the tangent to the surface end of the insulator 6, facing the discharge channel, is directed at an angle of 87° to 45° relative to the first median plane of the discharge channel.

Similarly chosen and the angle of the front surface of the recess 7, is made in the end insulator 6: tangent to the surface of the recess should be directed at an angle of 87° to 45° relative to the first median plane of the discharge channel.

The angle of the working end surface of the insulator 6 and the front surface of the recess 7 is selected within a given range of values for each particular design EIPO based on the results of high-speed f is toregistration the initial stage of the electric discharge between the cathode 1 and the anode 2. The choice of a value for the angle of the end surface of the insulator 6 and the surface of the recess 7 is measured by the angle of the current harness, which is within 500 NS, starting from the moment of initiation of electrical discharge.

In this example, execution design EIPO end insulator 6 is installed in the discharge channel so that the tangent to the surface end of the insulator facing the discharge channel, directed at an angle of 60° relative to the first median plane of the discharge channel. Tangent to the front surface of the recess 7, is made in the end insulator 6, also directed at an angle of 60° relative to the first median plane of the discharge channel. The selected angle of inclination of the end surface of the insulator and the front surface of the recess in the insulator corresponds to the angle of tilt of the current sheet formed in the discharge channel EIPO when applying voltage to the electrodes 8 of block SCPI 9.

When performing the specified essential terms is provided a stable flow of the working substance evaporated from the working surfaces of the dielectric checkers 4. Furthermore, the reduced probability of formation on the working surface of the end of the insulator 6, the conductive film consisting of the precipitated during evaporation of PTFE operatie this increases traction efficiency, the life and reliability EIPO while reducing the consumption of the working substance.

If the above condition is not satisfied, the angle of the working end surface of the insulator 6 does not match the angle of the current harness. Between the working end surface of the insulator 6 and the current harness electrical discharge forms free zone, in which there is deposition of carbon from the plasma discharge at a relatively cold part of the surface of the dielectric checkers 4, which is remote from the current harness, as well as on the working end surface of the insulator 6, also remote from the current harness. With surface areas of dielectric pieces, covered with a carbon film, in the process of electric discharge does not occur evaporation of the working substance.

Due to this phenomenon, as well as taking into account that the surface areas of the dielectric checkers 4 with deposited carbon film are in contact with the tab 5, which is limited to the movement of pieces 4, the difficult solids of the working fluid in the cavity of the discharge channel of the accelerator. After some time, the moving dielectric checkers 4 in the region of the combustion electric discharge is stopped despite the force applied by the spring plungers UP 12 and UP 13. The part of the working surface diele the electrical checkers 4 with erosion of hard working substance is removed from the spatial domain combustion electric discharge. In the stops functioning AIPU in design mode because of the significant reduction in the consumption of the working substance.

Thus, the condition of selection of the angle of the tangent to the end surface of the insulator facing the discharge channel, allows to exclude part of the working surface of the dielectric pieces, removed from the field generating current harness at the stage of initiation of electrical discharge. Selecting on the basis of experiments, the optimal value of the angle of the tangent to the surface end of the insulator in a predetermined range of values (from 87° to 45°), it is possible to provide a full match of the angle of the working end surface of the insulator 6 and the inclination of the current harness electric discharge between the discharge electrodes. In this case, the entire working surface of the dielectric checkers will be located in the actions pane, heat flows from plasma formation. As a consequence, increases the service life, increased reliability, traction efficiency, the efficiency of the working substance and stability and traction characteristics EIPO due to uniform evaporation of the working medium from the working surface of the dielectric checkers during the life of the device.

The above example of the invention, the bases of which rests on a specific preferred form of construction EIPU, however, this does not preclude the achievement of the technical result and in other cases the implementation of the invention. For example, the end surface of the insulator facing the discharge channel can be not only flat, but also cylindrical, conical, or other curvilinear shape. The recess in the end of the insulator can also be performed with a cross-section of various forms. The shape of the recesses is selected depending on the angle of inclination of the working surface of the dielectric checkers relative to the second median plane of the discharge channel. The number and size of rectilinear grooves located between the discharge electrodes is selected depending on the size of the discharge channel and performance AIPU.

There are also options of design EIPO, in which the surface of the dielectric checkers facing the discharge channel, parallel relation to each other and relative to the second median plane of the discharge channel. End insulator EIPO can be done without deepening, in which are placed the electrodes of the device initiating electric discharge, and without rectilinear grooves located between the discharge electrodes.

It should be noted that the main achievement of the technical result consists in increasing traction now is ti, the efficiency of the working substance, stability, traction, resource and reliability EIPO directly associated with a specific location of the end surface of the insulator in the discharge channel EIPU, namely the tangent to the surface end of the insulator facing the discharge channel must be directed at an angle of 87° to 45° relative to the first median plane of the discharge channel. When executing this condition ensures uniform evaporation of the working substance from the entire working surface of the dielectric checkers during the lifetime AIPU.

1. Erosion of the pulsed plasma accelerator, containing two bit electrode having a flat shape, one of which serves as a cathode and the second anode, two dielectric checkers made of ablative material and symmetrically installed between the discharge electrodes, means for moving the dielectric checkers, position lock dielectric checkers, end insulator installed between the electrodes in the layout area of the dielectric checkers, the device initiating electric discharge electrodes arranged in the slot in the cathode, a power supply system that includes a capacitive energy storage device and the current leads connecting the energy accumulator bit e what ectrode, when this bit channel formed by the surfaces of the discharge electrodes, the end of the insulator and the end parts of the dielectric checkers and performed with two mutually perpendicular to the median plane, the discharge electrodes are placed symmetrically with respect to the first median plane of the discharge channel and the dielectric checkers - symmetrically with respect to the second median plane of the discharge channel, characterized in that the end of the insulator is located in the acceleration channel in such a way that the tangent to the surface end of the insulator facing the discharge channel, is directed at an angle of 87° to 45° relative to the first median plane of the discharge channel.

2. The accelerator according to claim 1, characterized in that the end surface of the insulator facing the discharge channel has a flat shape.

3. The accelerator according to claim 1, characterized in that the end insulator between the discharge electrodes is made hollow, the cavity of which there are electrodes of the device initiating electric discharge, while the tangent to the front surface of the recess is angled from 87° to 45° relative to the first median plane of the discharge channel.

4. The accelerator according to claim 3, characterized in that the recess made in the end insulator, has a rectangular cross-section.

. The accelerator according to claim 3, characterized in that the recess along the end surface of the insulator facing the discharge channel has a trapezoid shape, a larger base of which is located at the surface of the anode, and a lower base surface of the cathode, while the angle of the side surfaces of the recesses relative to the second median plane of the discharge channel is from 5° to 45°.

6. The accelerator according to claim 1, characterized in that the surface of the dielectric checkers facing the discharge channel, is directed at an acute angle with respect to the second median plane of the discharge channel so that the distance between the opposite surfaces of the dielectric checkers from the side face of the insulator is less than the distance between the opposite surfaces of the dielectric checkers from the outlet of the discharge channel.

7. The accelerator according to claim 1, characterized in that the end surface of the insulator facing the discharge channel between the discharge electrodes are made of at least one rectilinear groove, oriented parallel to the surfaces of the discharge electrodes.

8. The accelerator according to claim 7, characterized in that the end surface of the insulator is made of three grooves, evenly spaced on the end surface of the insulator between the discharge electrodes.

9. Uskoritel who according to claim 7, characterized in that the depth of the grooves in the region of the recesses is selected in the range from 1 mm to 3 mm, the width of the grooves is selected in the range from 0.5 mm to 1 mm



 

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12 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electric-arc plasmatrons with water stabilisation of electric-arc, and can be effectively used when cutting any metal. The electric-arc plasmatron has coaxially and series-arranged cooled cathode assembly, insulator, swirl chamber, a system for feeding plasma-supporting gas and liquid and an anode assembly with an anode nozzle, placed in the inter-electrode gap relative the cathode assembly and forming a cavity for liquid stabilisation transitioning at the outlet into a water screen. The cavity in the anode nozzle is made of two interfaced conical surfaces: a wall which is 2/3 of the length of the initial section of the cavity makes an inclination angle α1=5-10°, then α2=30-45° to the cylindrical section at the outlet, the length of which is equal to 0.5-0.8 times its diameter, wherein parameters of the anode nozzle define the nature of liquid stabilisation of the plasma jet and protective characteristics of the water collector-distributor.

EFFECT: simple design, high power of the plasmatron, enthalpy of the obtained plasma and cutting speed.

1 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: transformer-type plasmatron has a closed gas-discharge chamber with a system of magnetic conductors with primary windings, a holder for holding the treated material and a power supply. The gas-discharge chamber has a working chamber and one or more identical flat-topped chambers with a smaller inner diameter and a shorter or equal length, each having a system of dismountable magnetic conductors with primary windings, and arranged so as to form a closed path for gas discharge current with the working chamber.

EFFECT: considerably higher rate and quality of the process and efficiency of the apparatus.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: arc plasma generator with multistage gas supply contains cathode and anode. Anode is made of at least two sections, at that any two adjoining anode sections are connected electrically to each other. Between any two adjoining anode sections there are gas guide holes which are tangential holes or holes ensuring gas flow which direction of velocity has tangential and axial components at the same time.

EFFECT: increasing operational reliability of arc plasma generator.

9 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: at least one rotary motion is given to a structural element or structural elements (1) relative to at least one row of fixed elementary sources (2) arranged as fixed into a line. The row or rows of elementary sources (2) arranged within a line are placed in parallel to the axis of the structural element or axes of rotation of structural elements.

EFFECT: higher homogeneity of treatment on multiple surfaces of structural elements.

11 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed are versions systems for compressing plasma and methods of compressing plasma in which plasma pressure higher than the ultimate strength of solid material can be achieved by injecting plasma into funnel of molten metal in which plasma is compressed and/or heated.

EFFECT: high density of plasma.

17 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method involves placing a probe in plasma, applying discrete stepped voltage pulses to the probe, recording the voltage versus current curve, measuring potential of the plasma space; voltage of each next step in a pulse is greater than that of the previous step; steps are formed with time intervals between them during which potential on the probe is set equal to the potential of the plasma space. The duration of each step and time intervals between the steps is set not shorter than the restoration time of plasma quasi-neutrality. The apparatus for probe diagnosis of plasma has a power supply, a probe, a discrete stepped voltage pulse generator and a measuring unit, a trigger pulse generator connected to the discrete stepped voltage pulse generator. The discrete stepped voltage pulse generator consists of a switching unit, constant emf sources and a microprocessor which controls the switching unit, and the measuring unit includes a set of switched resistors.

EFFECT: high accuracy of determining plasma parameters.

7 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises at least: one primary ionisation and acceleration circular channel 21 with open end, anode 26 accommodated inside said channel, cathode 30 located outside said channel, at its outlet, and magnetic circuit 4 to induce magnetic field in a portion of said circular channel. Magnetic circuit comprises at least circular inner wall 22, circular outer wall 23, and bottom 4 connected said walls to make magnetic circuit outlet part. Note here that said circuit 4 can induce magnetic field at circular channel outlet 21 independent of azimuth.

EFFECT: increased probability of ionising collisions between electron and inert gas atoms.

46 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed engine comprises main circular ionization and acceleration channel, at least one hollow cathode, circular anode, pipe with header to feed anode with ionised gas, and magnetic circuit to induce magnetic field in said main circular channel. Said main circular channel is composed around engine axis. Said node is arranged aligned with said main circular channel. Magnetic circuit comprises at least one axial magnetic core surrounded by first coil and inner rear polar tip that makes a solid of revolution, and several outer magnetic cores surrounded by outer coils. Said magnetic circuit incorporates extra, in fact radial outer first polar tip making the concave inner peripheral surface and, in fact, radial inner second polar tip making the convex outer peripheral surface. Said peripheral surface represent corrected profiles. The latter differ from circular cylindrical surface to make variable-width clearance there between. Maximum clearance is located at sections aligned with location of outer coils. Minimum clearance is set at sections located between said outer coils to produce uniform radial magnetic field.

EFFECT: higher power output, decreased amount of wires and their weight.

7 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: stationary plasma engine model comprises circular dielectric discharge chamber accommodating circular gas distribution anode, magnetic system and cathode. Extra ring-shape gas distributor is arranged inside said discharge chamber and attached via insulator to gas distribution anode. Said ring has coaxial blind holes arranged uniformly in azimuth, each being stopped by cover with a through calibrated bore. Every said blind bore and cover makes a vessel filled with crystalline iodine. Note here that extra ring-shape gas distributor is arranged inside said discharge chamber so that said calibrated holes face said gas distribution anode.

EFFECT: stationary plasma engine running on crystalline iodine, lower costs at first stage of the analysis of engine efficiency and characteristics.

2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: engine is composed by anode, cathode and electrode gap filled with liquid film-like working fluid. Said anode and electrode are made of m-metal while magnetic field source is electrically insulated from electrodes by ferrite core pickups.

EFFECT: higher engine efficiency and specific performances.

1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in creating field-emission electrons of density over 1000 A/m2 at regular intervals nearby aircraft airfoil at electric field intensity making, at least, 1 V/mcm. Negative-charge air oxygen ions are generated and accelerated by electric field of section electrode system distributed said airfoil to generate ionised airflow about said airfoil and lift acting at aircraft.

EFFECT: aircraft increased power efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal control systems and its application in electric rocket engine. Proposed heat sink comprises radiating ribs SS made integral with casing SM, and heat transfer system TC. The latter is made, mainly, from hypereutectoid alloy At-Si and includes ring element LM and LP. Elements LP are connected to polar tips PR while elements LM are connected with permanent magnets MR. Heat conducting layers made of more magnetically soft material, for example, gold may be arranged at said connections. Thermal expansion factor of TC differs by 10%…30% from that of polar tips and permanent magnets. Surface of magnets MR facing chamber wall K.W has reflection coating RE reducing heat transfer from chamber wall to magnetic core. Said coating, for example of gold, in interrupted in lengthwise direction nearby polar tips PR. In operation of ion accelerator chamber wall KW is heated to emit heat outward toward magnetic system. Heat absorbed by magnetic system is carried via magnets MR, pole tips PR and TC (elements LP, PM) to casing SM and emitted by ribs SS in space.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of heat transfer and operation of ion accelerator.

23 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed MIA consists of capsule-shape hollow solid of revolution made from light strong refractory metal alloys. Rolled rings are welded together to make fragments produced by design sections perpendicular to MIA axis. Said rings are interconnected by circular stiffness ribs bolted together. Device is rigidly secured behind jet engine nozzle to interact herewith to make multistage (five stages and more) structure of chamber with injector connections. Said chambers are surrounded by high-power electromagnets (solenoids) with ionisers arranged at MIA inlet diffusers. Partial return of gas-air mix and its repetitive pass into injector connections via cavity channels.

EFFECT: higher thrust of jet engine and fuel efficiency.

6 dwg

Vtol aircraft // 2476351

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to VTOL aircraft. Proposed aircraft comprises flying saucer airframe with top and bottom airfoils, power plant, and takeoff/landing, power supply, communication and control means. Power plant is composed of sectional electrode system distributed over airfoil and provided with devices for electron field-emission, generation and acceleration of air oxygen negative-charge ions connected with power supplies means consisting of fuel cells and solar battery panels arranged in airframe and on its surface. Said electron field-emission device and fuel cells are built around carbon nanotubes. Relation between spacing power plant electrodes and ambient air particle approximates to 50.

EFFECT: decreased weight and sizes, higher fuel efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used to develop plasma accelerators with a closed electron drift and an extended acceleration zone (CEDA). CEDA comprises a discharge chamber (1) with external (2) and internal (3) dielectric walls. Walls (2 and 3) form an acceleration channel closed in azimuthal direction with a closed end part and an open output part. An anode - gas distributor (4) is installed in an accelerating channel at the side of its closed end part. The compensator cathode is placed behind the accelerating channel cut. Sources of magnetomotive force are made in the form of electromagnetic magnetisation coils (5, 6). A magnetic conductor comprises magnetic conducting elements (7) and cores (8 and 9). External (10) and internal (11) magnetic screens made of a soft magnetic material are arranged at the external sides of the walls (2 and 3) and surround the accelerating channel at the side of its closed part. External and internal magnetic poles (12, 13, 14, 15) are closed in azimuthal direction and are arranged at the outer sides of the walls (2 and 3). Poles are divided into two pairs, every of which forms a pole-to-pole gap. Poles (12 and 13) of the first pair form the first pole-to-pole gap near the accelerating channel cut. Poles (14 and 15) of the second pair form the second pole-to-pole gap in the area between the anode - gas distributor (4) and the accelerating channel cut. Poles (14 and 15) of the second pair are installed creating gaps relative to poles (12 and 13) of the first pair and relative to magnetic screens (10 and 11). Length of poles (14 and 15) of the second pair forms at least a half of the accelerating channel width. End planes of poles (14 and 15) at the side of the channel cut match the plane of the accelerating channel cross section, stretching via the gap between end planes of magnetic screens (10 and 11) and magnetic poles (12 and 13) of the first pair.

EFFECT: reduced flow of accelerated ions directed towards discharger chamber walls and accordingly higher traction efficiency and increased CEDA resource.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: ion accelerator has a device for reducing the effect of positively charged ions on the surface area, an ionisation chamber and a device for ionising the working gas. The working gas is fed into the ionisation chamber. The ion accelerator also has electrodes for electrostatic acceleration of the formed ions using a high-voltage static field and emission of said ions in form of a plasma beam from the beam output opening of the ionisation chamber. A screening surface is provided. The screening surface lies with lateral shift from the output opening and surrounds it. The screening surface also faces the emitted plasma beam. During operation of the ion accelerator, the screening surface is spatially located between the emitted plasma beam and elements with mass potential. The elements outer surfaces of spacecraft with mass potential. The screened surface has electric potential separate from the mass potential of the spacecraft.

EFFECT: reduced damage to surfaces exposed to ions.

12 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: space engineering; ground tests and operation in space of plasma jet engines and electric jet engine plants.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes performance of shortened endurance tests which are part of total service life; in conducting these tests, erosion of discharge chamber (δt), change in thrust at the beginning (Fo) and in the course (ft) of shortened endurance tests are measured, regressive analysis for determination of approximating dependences is performed in form of monotonic function of erosion of discharge chamber and thrust versus time of operation; prediction of behavior of thrust is performed by definite dependence Ft=f(Fo, t), at the beginning of shortened tests and in the course of conducting these tests erosion areas (So, St) are additionally determined; approximating dependence of erosion area versus time St=f(t) and functional dependence of thrust versus erosion area F=f(k,S) are determined by regressive analysis, where k is proportionality factor between thrust and erosion area which are taken into account in prediction of thrust behavior during total service life; thrust is determined by dependence Ft=f(Fo, k,.St, So)

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of prediction of parameters of stationary plasma jet engine.

2 dwg

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