Modifier of solid, liquid and gaseous fuel burning

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to modifier of solid, liquid and gaseous fuel burning, in particular, wood, natural gas, coal, mazut and other hydrocarbons in power boilers, in closed or open chambers, characterised by the fact that said modifier contains from 10 to 30 wt % of water, from 20 to 80 wt % of at least one aliphatic alcohol, from 5 to 15 wt % of carbamide or its derivatives, selected from alkyl urea of type R1R2N(CO)NR1R2, where R1, R2 are similar or different and represent C1-C6 alkyl groups, and from 5 to 15 wt % of monoacetylferrocene. Object of invention also includes method of modifying process of burning said types of fuel and application of fuel burning modifier. Modifier can also be applied as catalyst in power boilers, for afterburning of soot, furnace gases and other admixtures, present in combustion chamber.

EFFECT: claimed invention makes it possible to increase output of solid, liquid and gaseous fuel burning.

10 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex

 

The object of the invention is the modifier of combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, in particular wood, natural gas, coal, fuel oil and other hydrocarbons, the method of inoculation of the combustion of fuel and the use of the modifier of combustion of fuel.

The combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels are still being improved. In particular, examine all the ways to increase the output of the process and to limit the emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere. Often used additives of various types, modifying the processes occurring during fuel combustion in power boilers. In particular, it is desirable to prevent the formation of soot and other sludge precipitated in boilers running on coal, brown coal, coke or coal.

In the patent Poland PL 165406 proposed a catalyst for post-combustion carbon black containing sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, hydrated copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide. The catalyst is a mixture of inorganic compounds in the solid state and is used as an additive to solid fuel.

Derivatives of ferrocene belong to the ORGANOMETALLIC compounds of the group cyclopentadienyl complexes. Complexes of iron (II represent sandwich system in which two ligand associated with the metal cation, a sh is between them. Derivatives of this type are known and used as catalysts for chemical processes.

From the description of the invention the Japan patent JP 2000247990 known application cyclopentadiene complexes in chemical synthesis, for example, upon receipt of aromatic amines.

From the patent Switzerland CH 599464 know the use of ferrocene as a catalyst combustion processes to add to the fuel used in engines such as automotive engines.

The present invention is to develop a universal modifier of combustion of all fuels in power boilers, acting as the catalyst, limiting the deposition of soot and chemicals like coal tar, ensuring their oxidation and reduce the emission of undesirable substances, such as carbon monoxide, into the atmosphere, and - at the same time significantly increasing the output of the combustion processes by reducing consumption of the respective fuels.

The object of the invention is the modifier of combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, in particular wood, natural gas, coal, fuel oil and other hydrocarbons, power boilers, closed or open cells, characterized by a content of from 10 to 30 wt.% water, from 20 to 80 wt.% at least one aliphatic alcohol, from to 15 wt.% urea or its derivatives, and from 5 to 15 wt.% monoacetylmorphine.

Preferably the modifier contains from 10 to 30 wt.% water, from 20 to 40 wt.% isopropanol, 20 to 40 wt.% n-butanol, from 5 to 15 wt.% urea and from 5 to 15 wt.% monoacetylmorphine, more preferably the modifier contains from 15 to 25 wt.% water, from 25 to 35 wt.% isopropanol, 25 to 35 wt.% n-butanol, from 8 to 12 wt.% urea and from 8 to 12 wt.% monoacetylmorphine.

Preferably the modifier contains 20 wt.% water, 30 wt.% isopropanol, 30 wt.% n-butanol, 10 wt.% urea and 10 wt.% monoacetylmorphine.

The object of the invention is also a method of modification of the process of burning solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, in particular wood, natural gas, coal, fuel oil and other hydrocarbons, power boilers, closed or open chambers, characterized in that the modifier of combustion containing from 10 to 30 wt.% water, from 20 to 80 wt.% at least one aliphatic alcohol, from 5 to 15 wt.% urea or its derivatives, and from 5 to 15 wt.% monoacetylmorphine, further diluted with water in a ratio of from 2.5 to 40 ml of the modifier per 1 liter of water, and the resulting diluted composition is metered served in the aeration system of the combustion chamber together with air, preferably with a pump.

Preferably the method is used modifier containing from 10 to 30 wt.%, b is more preferably 20 wt.%, water, from 20 to 40 wt.%, more preferably 30 wt.%, isopropanol, 20 to 40 wt.%, more preferably 30 wt.%, n-butanol, from 5 to 15 wt.%, more preferably 10 wt.%, urea and from 5 to 15 wt.%, more preferably 10 wt.%, monoacetylmorphine.

In the case of aeration of combustion chamber cold air, modifier metered served by spraying, and in the case of aeration of combustion chamber with hot air using a corresponding evaporator.

According to this method provide a metered supply from 10 to 50 ml of the modifier per 1000 kg of coal, or from 5 to 47 ml of the modifier per 1000 m3natural gas Gz-50, or from 10 to 100 ml of the modifier per 1000 litres of liquid fuels such as fuel oil and heating oil. These amounts of modifier were counted in the calculation of its composition prior to dilution with water.

The object of the invention is also the use of the modifier of combustion described above, to increase the output of the combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, as well as the use of this modifier as a catalyst in power boilers, as well as for post-combustion carbon black, furnace gases and other impurities present in the combustion chamber, for example, dust, and substances like coal tar, and to clean the combustion chambers and channels in power boilers from cuttings.

The volume of the drive of the invention is also the use of the modifier of combustion, containing water, aliphatic alcohols, urea or its derivatives and monoacetyldapsone, to increase the output of the combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, as well as the use of this modifier as a catalyst in power boilers, as well as for post-combustion carbon black, furnace gases and other impurities present in the combustion chamber, for example, dust, and substances like coal tar, and to clean the combustion chambers and channels in power boilers from cuttings.

One of the promising areas of application of the modifier of combustion according to the invention is its application for modification of the combustion of fuel in boilers for heat and energy generation plants. Conducted by the inventors of the study showed that the modified combustion reduction in relative consumption is natural gas GZ-50 not less than 4-6%, for diesel fuel 8-12%, and for fuel oil and coal 10-15%.

Experiments concerning the practical implementation of the modifier according to the invention, i.e. in particular, the composition of the modifier, known as Reduxco (trademark filed for registration in the Patent office of the Republic of Poland, application # Z-350906)showed that fuel savings can reach up to 25% per unit of product produced. More effective is Yunosti processes was achieved by making minor modifications to the aeration system of the combustion chamber, not associated with changes in the construction of power boilers. The use of the modifier according to the invention leads to ensure good condition of boilers without the need for changes in the equipment of the boiler.

It is also extremely important that the modifier is valid in all branches of the boiler, i.e. in the area of the furnace, the combustion chamber and across all channels and ducts, which leads to positive changes in all the above areas, and when this happens the afterburning of flue gases, dust and sludge, including outside of the furnace.

The modifier according to the invention can be successfully used in power boilers of any type, for example, of the kind OR, OP, OB, WP, WR, EK, BB, using different fuels, such as coal, brown coal, briquettes of various types of biofuels and its composition in a mixture with the products of processing of coal, fuels based on wood and all kinds of wood waste, both processed and unprocessed, low-grade fuel species such as the fuel on the basis of peat, sawdust, bark or straw. The invention is also applicable to gaseous and liquid fuels such as fuel oil or crude oil, and various mixtures and contaminated fuel.

The use of a modifier in accordance with the present invention can be used as a fuel is very wet the materials, such as wood, straw and other cellulosic fuels with high humidity. The modifier also allows control of waste disposal by burning of wastes, such as plastics, waste meat and bone, and chemical wastes without environmental risk. To properly process the moisture content should be about 50%. The only products of combustion are carbon dioxide and water vapor.

At the first stage of the organic mass gain monoxide. At the second stage burn it with obtaining carbon dioxide. At this stage, the decomposition of water (water vapor) into hydrogen and oxygen. Under normal conditions for carrying out this step, the desired temperature of about 1600°C, however, the application of the modifier according to the invention, the process temperature can be lowered to 450-850°C. In the third stage of the combustion of hydrogen with the release of a large amount of heat.

A required component modifier according to the invention is complex, representing a source of iron - monoacetylated: cyclopent-1,3-diene; 1-(1-cyclopent-2,4-dienylidene)ethanolate Fe ion is 2+. For transformations that occur during combustion processes, the presence of hydroxyl groups in the reaction environment is essential. The inoculant contains also ramid or its derivatives, such as alkylbetaine R1R2N(CO)NR1R2where R1, R2are the same or different and represents a C1-C6alkyl group such as a methylene or ethylene group.

The aliphatic alcohols used in the modifier according to the invention can have a linear or branched chain. The modifier must include at least one alcohol (carrier OH-groups). Preferably the alcohol is selected from the group of C3-C11alcohols, more preferably C3-C8alcohols, in particular, C3-C6the alcohols. Examples of alcohols include ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, pentanol, heptanol and octanol. Due to the choice of alcohol alter the ratio of hydroxyl groups and the number of carbon atoms in the chain and the ratio of hydroxyl groups to the weight of the other components of the modifier. The best effect is achieved by the use of alcohols with an average length of the chain, for example, isopropanol and n-butanol. Thus, the modifier is preferably used a mixture of the two alcohols. On the other hand, the modifier can contain only one alcohol of the aforementioned groups, or a mixture of three or four alcohols.

The mixture component modifier may also contain additives that do not affect its properties, for example, dyes, designed the for in order to distinguish between different types of modifier.

It can be assumed that during the combustion processes in the reaction mixture formed a complex ligands based on N-radicals, having the center complexometry formed by ion iron with integrated hydroxyl groups and hydrocarbon chains in the corresponding position.

Roughly speaking, these compounds can be defined as derivatives of the form C5H5FeC5H4COCmHnbut this is only illustrative formula, and it is impossible to distinguish these compounds from the reaction mixture.

It is believed that the method according to the invention through the use of a specific modifier of combustion leads to the formation of carbon nanostructures (carbon nanotubes), which increases the output of the combustion processes in question. The modifier affects the speed of the chain reaction of combustion and increases the power of infrared and ultraviolet radiation (luminescence) in the low temperature range. This reduces the size of the flame and increases the power that produces the effect of increasing the temperature and heat by radiation. The temperature rise is forcing staff to serve less fuel, which in turn leads to a reduction of its consumption. At the same time, a consequence of the ongoing processes what is the impact on parts of the heating elements and their treatment. In addition, the cleaning surface of the combustion chamber, located in the convective part of the boiler, soot and smoke can burn coal net calorific values in the energy and thermal equipment without the need to change its design or components.

Stable combustion and early radiation effects allow you to disable additional source maintain the temperature in the furnace, for example, a gas flame.

In the flowing chemical processes modifier Reduxco significantly reduces smoke emissions and toxicity.

In the method according to the invention the composition comprising the modifier, using a dosing pump is supplied to the air pressure system, without affecting the temperature of supplied air. The modifier in the aqueous solution is metered served by spraying in the air, sucked into the boiler and is then pumped into the combustion chamber. In the case of the use of cold air it is pumped through the injector, whereas in the case of hot air using a corresponding evaporator, from which the modifier is evaporated in a stream of hot air and is sucked into the combustion system of the boiler.

Example 1

There was obtained an aqueous solution of a modifier of the following composition: 20 wt.% water, 30 wt.% isopropanol, 30 wt.% n-butanol, 10 wt.% urea and 10 wt the.% monoacetylmorphine.

Example 2

There was obtained an aqueous solution of a modifier of the following composition: 30 wt.% water, 35 wt.% isopropanol, 25 wt.% n-butanol, 5 wt.% urea and 5 wt.% monoacetylmorphine.

Example 3

There was obtained an aqueous solution of a modifier of the following composition: 20 wt.% water, 50 wt.% isopropanol, 15 wt.% urea and 15 wt.% monoacetylmorphine.

The following Table presents the results of physico-chemical properties of the modifier according to the invention.

TestsValueUnitMethod for determining
The HEAT of COMBUSTION8.2835MJ/kgCALORIMETRY
The CHLORINE CONTENT0.0297%ION CHROMATOGRAPHY
The SULFUR CONTENT0.0038%ION CHROMATOGRAPHY
ASH%PN-EN 15169
Flashpoint>55°CPN-EN ISO 3680
pH2TEST MN 902 04
H2O2TEST0mg/DM3TEST MN QUANTOFIX 913 12
NO2and NO2TEST0/0mg/DM3TEST MN QANTOPIX 913 13
CN-TESTa negative resultTEST MN 906 04
OXIDANTSa negative resultTEST MN 907 54

Example 4

The modifier according to Example 1 was diluted with water at a ratio of 5, 10 and 30 ml per 1 litre of water. The resulting solution is metered applied under pressure at a speed of 5 ml/HR in power boilers, in which the fuel used coal, natural gas Gz-50 or oil. Used 10, 20 or 30 ml of dilute modifier per 1000 kg of coal, or 10, 20, and 30 ml of dilute modifier per 100 m 3natural gas Gz-50, or 20, 40 and 80 ml of dilute modifier per 1000 litres of fuel oil (in terms of fuel mass). Dosing is also carried out in coal-fired boiler equipped with a recirculation system hot air. The modifier according to Example 1, diluted in a ratio of 10 ml of the modifier per 1 liter of water gradually evaporated in the system, including the corresponding evaporator, through which the boiler was sent recirculated hot air.

When applying the modifier according to Example 1 was made gains power equal to at least 1890 kJ/ton of coal, compared with burning coal without the use of a modifier.

1. The modifier of combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, in particular wood, natural gas, coal, fuel oil and other hydrocarbons, power boilers, closed or open chambers, characterized in that the modifier contains from 10 to 30 wt.% water, from 20 to 80 wt.% at least one aliphatic alcohol, from 5 to 15 wt.% urea or its derivatives selected from alkylbetaine type R1R2N(CO)NR1R2where R1, R2are the same or different and represents a C1-C6alkyl group, and from 5 to 15 wt.% monoacetylmorphine.

2. The modifier according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains from 10 to moss.% water from 20 to 40 wt.% isopropanol, 20 to 40 wt.% n-butanol, from 5 to 15 wt.% urea and from 5 to 15 wt.% monoacetylmorphine.

3. The modifier according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains from 15 to 25 wt.% water, from 25 to 35 wt.% isopropanol, 25 to 35 wt.% n-butanol, from 8 to 12 wt.% urea and from 8 to 12 wt.% monoacetylmorphine.

4. The modifier according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains 20 wt.% water, 30 wt.% isopropanol, 30 wt.% n-butanol, 10 wt.% urea and 10 wt.% monoacetylmorphine.

5. The method of inoculation of the process of burning solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, in particular wood, natural gas, coal, fuel oil and other hydrocarbons, power boilers, closed or open chambers, characterized in that the modifier of combustion containing from 10 to 30 wt.% water, from 20 to 80 wt.% at least one aliphatic alcohol, from 5 to 15 wt.% urea or its derivatives selected from alkylbetaine type R1R2N(CO)NR1R2where R1, R2are the same or different and represents a C1-C6alkyl group, and from 5 to 15 wt.% monoacetylmorphine, further diluted with water in a ratio of 2.5 to 40 ml of the modifier per 1 liter of water and the resulting diluted composition is metered served in the aeration system of the combustion chamber.

6. The method according to claim 5, wherein is shown the diluted composition is metered served in the aeration system of the combustion chamber by injection into the aeration system together with air.

7. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the combustion modifier contains from 10 to 30 wt.%, preferably 20 wt.%, water, from 20 to 40 wt.%, preferably 30 wt.%, isopropanol, 20 to 40 wt.%, preferably 30 wt.%, n-butanol, from 5 to 15 wt.%, preferably 10 wt.%, urea and from 5 to 15 wt.%, preferably 10 wt.%, monoacetylmorphine.

8. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that in the case of aeration of combustion chamber cold air modifier metered served by spraying, and in the case of aeration of combustion chamber with hot air using a corresponding evaporator.

9. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that it is served from 10 to 50 ml of the modifier per 1000 kg of coal, or from 5 to 47 ml of the modifier per 1000 m3natural gas Gz-50, or from 10 to 100 ml of the modifier per 1000 litres of liquid fuels such as fuel oil and heating oil, and the data amount of the modifier counted in the calculation of its composition prior to dilution with water.

10. The use of the modifier of combustion according to claim 1, containing from 10 to 30 wt.% water, from 20 to 80 wt.% at least one aliphatic alcohol, from 5 to 15 wt.% urea or its derivatives selected from alkylbetaine type R1R2N(CO)NR1R2where R1, R2are the same or different and represents a C1-C6alkyl group, and from 5 to 15 wt.% monoacetate is rozena, to enhance the yield of combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels and as a catalyst in power boilers, as well as for post-combustion carbon black, furnace gases and other impurities present in the combustion chamber, such as dust and chemicals like coal tar, and to clean the combustion chambers and channels in power boilers from cuttings.



 

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5 cl, 3 tbl, 2 dwg, 9 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: bird lime is previously dehydrated and dried, heated up to the temperature of its destruction without oxygen access with subsequent separation into carbonaceous residue and steam and gas mixture. The steam and gas mixture is condensed to form a liquid and a non-condensed part of the steam and gas mixture. The non-condensed part is processed into power, which is used for power supply to drives during realisation of the method and to supply electric loads of poultry factories. The liquid part is used as liquid fuel and is separated into two parts. Heat produced from combustion of the first part of liquid fuel is used for power supply to processes of heating up to the destruction temperature and bird lime drying. The second part of the liquid fuel is collected into an accumulating tank, is used as a commercial product or for process and household needs of an enterprise. The carbonaceous residue is used as adsorbent for cleaning of gases that are discharged after bird lime drying and in process of treatment of water that was produced at the stage of preliminary dehydration of bird lime. After saturation of carbonaceous residue it is used as a fertiliser and an additive to improve soil structure.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce costs for execution of bird lime recycling process, to use recycling products in a complex manner and to ensure environmental safety of the recycling process.

8 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: reactor of synthetic gas has jacket-tubular configuration. Also, a flow of fluid medium has a lengthwise configuration in tube space through a tube bunch. The reactor has a distributing plate of fluid medium at inlet of tube space below a lower end of the tube bunch and a flow sleeve on outlet circular space of increased diametre at an upper end adjacent to a tube sheet, which prevents direct inflow of fluid medium of tube space into outlet of fluid medium of tube space. The tube bunch includes multitude of circular partitions and grate partitions. A lengthwise configuration of flow facilitates lower pressure drop in tube space and lower cost in comparison with regular heat exchanger of reforming with cross flow.

EFFECT: improved main design of heat exchanger of reforming.

18 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: composition contains 0.1-49.9 pts.wt alkyl sulphide of formula: R1-S-R2. R1 and R2 are identical or different and denote: an alkyl radical containing 1-4 carbon atoms; or R1 and R2 together with the sulphur atom denote a saturated or unsaturated ring containing 3-5 carbon atoms which is possibly substituted. The composition also contains 50-99.8 pts.wt of at least two acrylic esters whose alkyl radicals contain 1-12 carbon atoms, preferably 1-8 carbon atoms. The mixture also contains 0.001-0.1 pts.wt of a compound which inhibits polymerisation of acrylic esters, preferably containing a stable nitroxide radical. The composition is used to ordourise ordourless gaseous fuel. To this end, an effective amount of the composition in pure or diluted form is added to gaseous fuel. Content of the composition in the gaseous fuel ranges from 1 to 500 mg/Nm3, and preferably from 20 to 50 mg/Nm3. The composition gives gas a strong smell which enables to detect gas leakages and eliminate explosion hazards.

EFFECT: composition is highly environmentally friendly and can be used on injection stations requiring one storage reservoir, one pump and one injection nozzle, which significantly simplifies servicing.

12 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of inhibiting formation of particles in renewable fuels or mixtures of renewable fuels and light fuels, which includes stages, at which added are: additive composition, inhibiting particles, to fuel or mixture, where additive composition, inhibiting particles, includes one or more of: agglomeration inhibitor, disperser of particles, inhibitor of particle precipitation; or amplifier of compatibility.

EFFECT: increased resistance of renewable fuel or mixture of renewable fuel and light fuel to formation of non-soluble particles during long storage or exploitation at low temperatures.

15 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl

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