Microwave-gradient activation of coal fuel with help of protective film

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microwave-gradient activation of coal fuel with the help of protective coat. This is performed by bringing microwave effects to coal fuel to activate coal particle. Note here that coal lump surface is coated with protective film to arrest the escape of volatiles during the microwave activation. Note here that pressure inside coal lump is over 10 atm and does not factures nor crack in the film. Protective film availability allows arresting the escape of volatiles and to sustain temperature approximating to 700°C without film fracture and crack formation.

EFFECT: higher completeness of combustion, lower rate of boiler inner surface slagging.

3 ex

 

The invention relates to a process of preparing the coal fuel of various types of coal, including coal from the oxidized dumps, for combustion in power boilers CHP, transportation of coal over long distances, especially at low temperatures, to the technology of coal, obtain from coal hydrocarbon products for various industries, including primarily metallurgical and chemical industries.

A known method of burning coal fuel with additional burning jet of pulverized coal in boilers by passing this stream through the plasma arc generated by the plasma torch electrodes. In the particles of coal dust are heated and upon further movement within a large power boilers burn faster (Zhukov F and other Plasma bhasmasura firing boilers and stabilization of combustion of pulverized coal flame. - Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1995. - 304 S.; Imankulov E.R. and other Plasma ignition and stabilization of combustion torch Donetsk AL // thermal engineering. - 1990. No. 1. - P.51-53).

Disadvantages: high power plasma torch, sometimes up to 10% of electricity generation by boiler power plant, pollution of streams of coal dust particles of the material of the electrodes of the plasma torch, rapid wear of the electrodes of the plasma torch, the method cannot be applied to the low power (less than 0.1 MW) power boilers, since the plasma is a complex and expensive technical devices and they can only pay off when working on large power plants and coal-fired boilers with a capacity of over 30 MW.

A known method of burning coal in the form of coal dust in the high-frequency microwave plasma (Burov V.F., Strizhka J.V. microwave plasma torch with a freely floating plasmoid // Combustion and plasma chemistry, - V. 4, No. 2, 2007, S-109; Burov V.F., Strizhka J.V. microwave plasma torch with a freely floating plasmoid // Sat. Dokl. VI all-Russian conference "solid fuel Burning" November 8-10, 2006, Novosibirsk: it SB RAS, 2006; Burov V.F., Strizhka J.V. microwave plasma torch for ignition of coal dust use a freely floating plasmoid. Equipment. Development. Technology, No. 2 (02), 2007, p.45-48; RF Patent №2328095, filing date: 23.06.2006). In this method, microwave plasma generated by the electrodeless plasma torch is lit in the base of the jet carbon powder fed to the furnace of the boiler, however, the discharge plasma type is created by ionization of a gas bearing coal powder.

The disadvantages of this method are: low, less than 10-15%efficiency, because almost all the energy of the microwave discharge is spent on heating of the plasma gas and maintaining a gas discharge, and the particles of coal fuel absorb only a small fraction of their energy expenditure (less than 10-15%); microwave plasma at the base of the jet is very nestabilna requires special complex design with a gas flow for implementing the method.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed method microwave-gradient activation coal fuel using the protective film is "a Method of microwave-gradient activation coal fuel" (patent RF №2458107, filing date: 10.11.2010). In this way the activation coal fuel, including microwave effects on coal, produce microwave graded activation in high-gradient microwave field in the control mode the slew rate of the microwave field to occur in the piece of coal cracks deep fracture that does not lead to its complete destruction.

The disadvantage of this method is that when the microwave gradient internal activation occurs microwave heating of the internal volume of the coal piece, the formation and heating of water vapor, which leads to a rapid formation of cracks in the coal piece from the center to the surface. Through the cracks begin to stand out volatile hydrocarbons, as light and heavy, light hydrocarbons mainly ignited above the surface of the coal, and heavy hydrocarbons predominantly form an aerosol of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere above the surface of the coal that does not reduce the ignition temperature of the fuel up to 500-600° C and to increase the combustion efficiency of up to 98% of the content of hydrocarbons in the primary angle.

Object of the present invention the two is by lowering the temperature of ignition of volatile up to 500°C, the increase of volatile hydrocarbons, the decomposition of heavy hydrocarbons inside a piece of coal, including heterogeneous decomposition of the mineral part of coal that will provide high-efficiency coal combustion of all fuels industrial grades of fuel to increase the combustion efficiency of up to 98% of the content of hydrocarbons in the primary angle.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the process of microwave-gradient activation coal fuel using the protective film surface of the individual piece of coal before activation of the cover film, which retains the primary volatile during microwave activation, the pressure inside the matrix of the coal increases and exceeds 10 atmospheres without the formation of cracks and discontinuities in the deposited film.

There are dozens of ways to create a protective film made of different materials. The type of film and how you can get depends on the specific activation of coal and coal properties (for example, sizes of coal, times microwave activation, grade coal). Performed in various ways, the protective film must meet the following requirements: to delay the release of volatile during the activation process, to withstand the pressure inside a piece of coal up to 10 atmospheres, to withstand temperatures up to 700°C without the formation of cracks and breaks during the process of the activation.

The presence of the protective film on the piece of coal allows to increase the temperature of a piece of coal without cracking up to 600-700°C, so in the implementation of the proposed method, the rate of decomposition of volatile inside a piece of coal, covered with a film, under the influence of the microwave field gradient increases 10 to 100 times, depending on the grade of coal and as a consequence the activation process to 5-20 times depending on the activation parameters (power, time, the duty cycle of the microwave pulses) increases the yield of light hydrocarbons, incapable of forming visible aerosols, chemical composition ejected from coal piece consists of much more light, and hence, more volatile and flammable hydrocarbons, which in turn leads to a reduction of the ignition temperature up to 500°C, to increase the combustion efficiency of 98% and a reduction in the rate zashlakovyvaniya internal surfaces of the boiler equipment by reducing the fraction of aerosols in the flue gases. With further combustion activated by the claimed method of coal in boiler furnaces, the combustion is in the mode of the gas torch, without a large emission of soot and unburned pieces of coal particles of the oxide (consisting of oxides, for example, Al2O3, SiO2and other mineral part of coal fuel goes not in aerosol fraction, AB compact sediment at the bottom of the furnace, what 3-8 times depending on the boiler design reduces the rate of salakoski designs of boilers and economizers.

The presence of the protective film prevents premature release of volatile, which allows 3-8 times to reduce the energy consumption of microwave generators, as now splitting a piece of coal in many parts or the appearance of cracks is not a disadvantage of this method, because the internal activation of the piece of coal is from 1 to 5 and has time to finish before the start of the rupture or splitting a piece of coal into separate parts. In addition, the presence of the protective film on the surface of the coal particles allows for additional power savings spend microwave generators for heating coal particles by reducing heat loss from the coal particles.

Another important consequence of the proposed method at the end of the process internal activation is the explosive expansion of activated lump of coal. This phenomenon is very important for combustion in boilers of various types, and particularly in cauldrons of boiling and lower boiling bulk layer as the pieces of a piece of coal fall immediately in an oxygen environment fluidized layer and continue intense combustion is already as microwave activated fragments of coal.

Heating of the microwave radiation is carried out directly in topoc the ω space of the coal boiler to the destruction of the film by the internal pressure. While the destruction of the film is not over the entire surface simultaneously, but only in some places, often even in one. A powerful stream of light hydrocarbons instantly pulled away from the ruined places, and mixing with an external oxidant (air) flashes a high-temperature flame (>1600° C), which in turn leads to efficient combustion splinter from a piece of coal of coal particles of micron size. Under this regime, the size of the breakaway charcoal particles are not large (up to 100-300 μm), so they effectively burn down almost all designs of boilers, including fluidized bed. It follows that the claimed method not only increases the energy efficiency and environmental impact of burning coal, but its use should lead to reduction of the sizes of boilers.

Example 1

A sample of coal cylindrical shape with a size of 4.5 cm was set so that the maximum of the microwave field was located in the center or close to center. Without the protective film when exposed to intense microwave pulse pattern instantly scattered in several pieces falling out of the microwave focal volume. If the same conditions were tested the same sample, covered with a protective film, the sample is not destroyed and its internal activation occurred with increasing power of the microwave generator from 600 W to 3500 W, and the pressure vodenicharov inside the sample at the end of the activation was 13 ATM.

In this example, the protective film was formed by dipping the primary piece of coal in diluted concrete solution with the addition of some salts (e.g. sodium chloride) to improve adhesion properties of the film. Drying the protective film was under the influence of heat from the microwave activation. The wet film is useful in that it fills the cracks of a piece of coal, characteristic of low-grade high-ash coals.

Example 2

Experiments were carried out in model modes of burning coal in a fluidized bed and combustion of coal on the grate on small boilers with a capacity of 0.8 and 0.3 MW production plant There (Novosibirsk region). The experiments were carried out under microwave activation of coal covered with a protective film.

In this example, the protective film was created on the basis of application of the finished material, concrete blocks, mechanical way. Coal was placed inside a solid form of aerated concrete and tightly pressed against the surface of the concrete wall form pressure. This mechanical method of manufacturing a protective film allows you to change the thickness and shape of the protective film in a wide range from thousandths to hundredths of a meter, depending on the technological challenges and the speed of the microwave activation for power boilers.

Analysis of the combustion of the coal fuel were conducted using infrared is jamci with infrared dalnevostocnoe lens and a high speed camera in the optical range up to 4000 frames/sec For the selection of the aerosol fraction of the flame used high-speed vacuum samplers. Experiments have shown that emitted from a piece of coal, covered with a protective film, activated particles of coal have a temperature of at least 1600°C and burn in mode external diffusion flame. At the same time, particles of coal from non-activated piece of coal raised in the volume of combustion air flow fluidized bed (air nozzle), burn in mode heterogeneous surface reactions with temperatures below 950°C, which leads to incomplete burning, the ash from the boiler space and megadosage.

Example 3

Experimental studies were performed microwave activation coal pieces, covered with a protective film for different samples of coal (Kemerovo coal, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk). In this example, the applied polymer adhesive method of manufacturing a protective film. Namely, pieces of coal for a few seconds, immersed in a mixture of paper glue and ceramic particles with a size of 1-10 μm. After this piece of coal was immediately subjected to microwave activation. Drying the protective film, as in example 1, was under the influence of heat from the microwave activation.

It was found that microwave activation coal pieces, not covered with a protective film, the grade of coal is quite a strong effect on the choice of modes of activation of the and and selection of the optimal modes, and to activate the coal pieces, covered with a protective film, grade coal has virtually no effect on the choice of modes of activation and selection of the optimal modes. That, of course, is another positive feature of the invention.

The way microwave gradient activation coal fuel with the use of a protective film by microwave exposure to coal, which produce microwave gradient activation of the coal particles, characterized in that the surface of the lumps of coal are covered with protective film, which delays the release of volatile during the process of microwave activation, the pressure inside a piece of coal exceeds 10atmospheres without the formation of cracks and gaps in the film.



 

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