Fibre-optical sensor of spiral structure

FIELD: measuring equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention belongs to fibre-optical sensors and can be used for check and measurement of parameters of voltage. The fibre-optical sensor of spiral structure is the multi-turn spiral element created by a spring wire. The set of a teeth of deformation is continuously distributed on the top surface and the bottom surface of a spring wire in the longitudinal direction along a spring wire; in two adjacent turns of the spring wire the deformation teeth on the bottom surface of the top turn of the spring wire and deformation teeth on the top surface of the bottom turn of the spring wire are arranged in staggered order to each other. An alarm optical fibre is clamped between deformation teeth on the bottom surface of the top wire of the spring wire and deformation teeth on the top surface of the bottom turn of the spring wire and is connected to the test facility by the optical fibre of transfer.

EFFECT: increase of accuracy of measurement.

10 cl, 10 dwg

 

The scope of the invention

The present invention relates to fiber optic sensors in the area of sensor technology, in particular to the spiral-type fiber-optic sensor to test and measure voltage parameters with high precision.

Prior art inventions

There are various types of fiber-optic sensors, which are mainly comprised of fiber-optic sensor based on the modulation of the radiation intensity, fiber optic sensor with a diffraction grating, an interference optical fiber sensor, etc. the Last two are characterized by high sensitivity. However, they have disadvantages such as the complexity of the used apparatus, the high cost of the and so, what the scope of these fiber-optic sensors is significantly limited. The main feature of the fiber-optic sensor with high sensitivity, such as interferometric fiber-optic sensor is responding in use to changes in various environmental conditions due to its high sensitivity. In practice, however, due to the specified sensor characteristics environmental factors such as temperature, air pressure, vibration, etc. can have a negative influence on its operating parameters. Therefore, during operation of such sensors need to take many preventive measures for the prevention and elimination of the action of the above-mentioned environmental factors, which leads to the complexity of the design of the equipment (current) control and surveillance and a significant increase in the value of its use in action.

Fiber optic sensor microthiol opticable is a fiber-optic sensor based on the modulation of the radiation intensity and is characterized by low cost, high sensitivity and a certain capacity antiinterference environment. This is achieved on the basis of losses at bends or microshear optical fiber. Changes in light intensity caused by changes in the level (degree of curvature) of the bending of the optical fiber.

The rule of the loss of light power is that losses at bends can occur if the optical fiber is damaged by bending and, as a rule, represent losses on microshear and losses macroshear. Both types of losses in the curves are caused by a connection channeled fashion part of the fiber core with the shell (optic fiber), when the optical fiber is bent, which can be calculated according to theoretical formula Marcuse (Marcuse), as follows:

POUT=PINexp(-γS),

where PINand POUTthe light power at the input and the output, respectively, γ is the ratio of losses on the curve and S is the arc length of the bend. You may notice that the higher the loss factor on the curve γ, the smaller the bend radius of the optical fiber, the greater the loss. However, even a slight bend radius can cause a significant reduction of the service life of the optical fiber and affect the service life of the sensor, whereby the bend radius of the optical fiber in the practical use is limited to certain limits. On the other hand, when the same loss rate on the curve γ, the attenuation (attenuation) of the signal may increase with increasing arc of the curve S. the arc Length of the curve S can be significantly increased with the goal of significantly improving the dynamic range and precision fiber optic attenuator.

The solution proposed in the patent CN No. 8710210 relates to fiber-optic voltage meter is mainly based on the loss microshear optical fiber. However, since the fiber-optic probe voltage is obtained by means of two flat plates that may be not very large, the length of the possibly curved optical fiber is limited, which affects the dynamic range and accuracy of such fiber optic attenuate the RA. In addition, the most suitable distance between the two flat plates in a corresponding move is only a few hundred micrometers, and these two flat plates should substantially maintain parallelism when moving. Therefore, a higher requirement is adjusted mechanical structure, so attenuator not only increases the cost of the equipment, but also restricts the improvement of the dynamic range and precision fiber optic attenuator.

The invention

Technical task

With the aim to overcome the drawbacks of the aforementioned prior art the present invention provides a scroll type fiber-optic sensor high precision on the basis of losses in the bend of the optical fiber, which has a simple structure and high-quality construction, convenient in use, and has a flexible mode of operation, a capacitance of antiinterference environment and high sensitivity, which allows to extend the range of its application. Further, the optical fiber sensor of the present invention has a great advantage in cost, because it performs measurement on the basis of losses in the bend of the optical fiber. Currently, tests loss on the curves are the basis of all the interference method, metadatastore and other types of testing when testing optical fiber, and also are the most Mature (perfected) and stable technology with the lowest cost. In addition, can be performed quasidistributions or distribution measurement using technologies such as time division (Time Division), optical measurements of the reflection coefficient by the method of temporal intervals (Optical Time Domain Reflection, OTDR) and frequency-modulated continuous harmonic wave (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave FMCW), which provide a wide range of application of fiber-optic sensor of the present invention.

Solved technical problem

To solve the above technical problems, one aspect of the present invention is to develop a fiber-optic sensor spiral structure characterized by a multiturn spiral element formed of spring wire, in which the set of first teeth deform continuously distributed over the upper surface and the lower surface of the spring wire in a longitudinal direction along the spring wire; in two adjacent coils of spring wire, the first teeth of the strain on the lower surface of the upper coil of spring wire and the first teeth of the deformation on the upper surface of the bottom coil of spring wire are in relation to each other in a checkerboard pattern; p the pout signal optical fiber is squeezed between the first teeth of the deformation on the lower surface of the upper coil of spring wire and the first teeth of the deformation on the upper surface of the bottom coil of spring wire; the location of both ends of the coiled element is changed when applying voltage, and the distance between two adjacent coils of spring wire in spiral element is changed so that the position of the first teeth, the strain on the lower surface of the upper coil of spring wire relative to the first teeth, the strain on the upper surface of the bottom coil of spring wire in the two coils of spring wire is changed, and the curvature of the bend of the first signal optical fiber clamped between the two prongs of the deformation is changed; and the first signal optical fiber is connected to the test unit (control device) via the optical fiber transmission.

When the location of both ends of the coiled element is changed, for example, when the spiral element is lengthened under tensile stress or shortened under compression, the distance between two adjacent coils among the many sets of adjacent turns of the spring wire forming the spiral element is increased or decreased so that the distance between the first teeth of strain on the lower surface of the upper coil of spring wire and the first teeth of the deformation on the upper surface of the bottom coil of spring wire in two adjacent coils among the many sets of adjacent turns of ruinas wire increases or decreases. As a result the curvature of the bend of the first signal optical fiber clamped between the teeth of the deformation of two adjacent coils of spring wire, decreases or increases, and that increases or decreases the power of the light signal transmitted in the first optical fiber. The first signal optical fiber attached to the test system via the optical fiber transmission so that the change in power of the light signal was detected with the test facility. The test rig can be a light source and a power meter light. In addition, the test facility, adapted to the technology of optical measurement of the reflection coefficient by the method of temporal intervals (Optical Time Domain Reflection, OTDR) and frequency-modulated continuous harmonic wave (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave FMCW), can be performed quasidistributions or distribution measurement.

The following technical aspect, which is solved by a fiber-optic sensor of the present invention is that the helical element is in a spiral form or in the form of a flat spiral spring.

Further technical aspect, which is solved by a fiber-optic sensor of the present invention is that the layer of elastic material is placed between the upper and lower surface is hostame spring wire, forming the helical element. A layer of elastic material may be formed of macromolecular materials, wavy (bandpass), springs or similar means. With application of an external force to the layer of elastic material is greater deformation. Therefore, when the position of both ends of the coiled element is changed, the relative positions of teeth of strain on the lower surface of the upper coil of spring wire with respect to the teeth of the strain on the upper surface of the bottom coil of spring wire in two adjacent coils of spring wire is slightly modified.

Another technical aspect that decides the fiber optic sensor of the present invention is that the height of the first teeth deformation, distributed on the surface of the spring wire, or the distance between the first teeth deformation, distributed on the upper surface of the spring wire, or the distance between the first teeth deformation, distributed on the bottom surface of the spring wire is changed.

The following technical aspect, which is solved by a fiber-optic sensor of the present invention is that the second signal optical fiber is clamped parallel to the first signal optical fiber between the first teeth of the deformation at the bottom of the Ergneti the upper coil of spring wire and the first teeth of the deformation on the upper surface of the bottom coil of spring wire in two adjacent coils of spring wire.

Further technical aspect, which is solved by a fiber-optic sensor of the present invention is that the second teeth of the strain placed on the upper and lower surfaces of the spring wire, respectively, the second signal optical fiber is squeezed between the second teeth of strain on the lower surface of the upper coil of spring wire and the second teeth of the deformation on the upper surface of the bottom coil of spring wire in two adjacent coils of spring wire.

Another technical aspect that decides the fiber optic sensor of the present invention is that the cross-section (profile) of the spring wire has the shape of a circle, ellipse, rectangle or round rings.

The following technical aspect, which is solved by a fiber-optic sensor of the present invention is that the test rig is connected to the processing unit (CPU).

Further technical aspect, which is solved by a fiber-optic sensor of the present invention is that the signal optical fiber is an optical fiber having multiple protective layers on the outside, such as impervious buffered optical fiber coated carbon fiber, coated with polyimide op is practical fiber.

Still a further technical aspect, which is solved by a fiber-optic sensor of the present invention is that the signal optical fiber is a multi-core optical fiber, macromolecular polymer optical fiber or a photonic crystal optical fiber.

Technical results

The present invention has the following advantages compared with the prior art.

First, its design is simple, the production is simple, it has a different structural forms and how to use it flexible.

Secondly, the device is simple and convenient in operation, the connecting link between the corresponding nodes of the device is designed to achieve high-quality operation. The spiral element and the test rig to determine the losses in the bending optical fibers are used together to achieve their goals in real time, and accurate, reliable and rapid test applied force in a large range.

Thirdly, the costs of production and operation of the device is low, the effect is high, in addition, the practical value of the device and high economic benefit from its use is essential. The design of the known test device is simplified, the cost of the awn manufacture and operation of the device is reduced, however, reducing the influence of environmental factors on the test results. Therefore, the test results are accurate, in addition, it is easy and straightforward, and accurate determination can be performed simultaneously on the basis of losses on macroshear and losses on microshear optical fiber.

Fourth, because of the spiral element is in a spiral form or in the form of a flat spiral springs, the force F is applied to the signal optical fiber teeth deformation between two adjacent coils of spring wire in spiral element with application of an external voltage F tension, compression or torsion, etc. of a signal optical fiber receives a force generated losses microshear, thus, the effective length of the optical fiber forming microengine, greatly increases and, thus, the sensitivity of the test increases.

Fifthly, it can be used as adapted attenuator optical fiber.

Sixth, when the external voltage F is applied to one or both ends of the spiral element, and thus the entire helical element is in a state of bending, the bend radius of the entire spiral element can be accurately determined by the processing unit according to the defined test facility d is I losses in the bends of the optical fibers.

Seventh, the spiral element in a spiral form, on each circle at approximately 360°, in the case when the height of the opposing teeth, deformation or the distance between the teeth of the deformation between two adjacent coils of spring wire is the same and gradually increases or decreases, the direction of application of the external voltage F to any point on the spiral element can be calculated.

Eighth, because the helical element is in a spiral form or in the form of a flat spiral springs, the amount of torque or torsion angle can be calculated according to the loss of signal in optical fiber using force rotation or torsion.

In summary, the present invention has a simple design and distinctive design, easily manufactured and has a flexible way of use, high sensitivity and good effect of the use. The determination may be performed simultaneously by using loss macroshear and losses on microshear optical fiber so that the dynamic range becomes larger and the results of the tests are more sensitive and accurate. In addition to well-known applications, testing parameter voltage through losses in the bends of the optical fibers, the area may be asserta on other physical characteristics, including tensile stress (tensile strength), the curvature of the bend, the direction of bending, torsion angle and torque. The range of applications can be further expanded.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 - image, schematically illustrating the construction of the first variant of implementation according to the present invention.

Figure 2 is a top view schematically illustrating the spiral element in figure 1.

Figure 3 - schematic partial view in section, taken in the direction a-a' spiral element in figure 2.

Figure 4 - image, schematically illustrating the construction of the second variant of implementation according to the present invention.

5 is a partial view in section, schematically illustrating helical spring wire, having a complex structure.

6 is an image schematically illustrating the construction of the third variant of execution according to the present invention.

Fig.7 - image, schematically illustrating the construction of the fourth version of the execution according to the present invention.

Fig - schematically a partial view in section, taken in the direction of the In-' 7.

Fig.9 - image, schematically illustrating the construction of the fifth variant of the execution according to the present invention.

Figure 10 - image, schematically illustrating the structure of the sixth variant execution according to the present izopet the tion.

Indicate on the submitted drawings

1 - fiber transmission

4 - spiral

5 testing the installation

6 - the first signal optical fiber

7 - device data processing

8 - second signal optical fiber

10 - layer upper surface of the spring wire

11 is a layer of elastic material

12 - layer bottom surface of the spring wire

4-1 - the first teeth of the strain on the lower surface of the spring wire

4-2 - the first teeth of the deformation on the upper surface of the spring wire

4-3 - the second teeth of the strain on the lower surface of the spring wire

4-4 - the second teeth of the deformation on the upper surface of the spring wire

4-5 - the first teeth of the deformation on the outer surface of the inner coil spring wire

4-6 - the first teeth of the deformation on the inner surface of the outer coil spring wire.

Preferred embodiments of the present invention

The first version of the design

As shown in figures 1, 2 and 3, the present invention includes a multiturn spiral element 4 formed of spring wire. Many teeth deform continuously distributed on the upper surface and the lower surface of the spring wire in a longitudinal direction along the spring wire; in two adjacent wick the x spring wire first teeth deformation 4-1 on the lower surface of the upper coil of spring wire and the first teeth of the deformation 4-2 on the upper surface of the bottom coil of spring wire are in relation to each to each other in a checkerboard pattern. The first signal optical fiber 6 is squeezed between the first teeth deformation 4-1 on the lower surface of the upper coil of spring wire and the first teeth of the deformation 4-2 on the upper surface of the bottom coil of spring wire. The location of both ends of the coiled element 4 is changed when a voltage is applied, and the distance between adjacent coils of spring wire in spiral element 4 is changed so that the position of the first teeth deformation 4-1 on the lower surface of the upper coil of spring wire relative to the first teeth deformation 4-2 on the upper surface of the bottom coil of spring wire in the two coils of spring wire has changed. As a result the curvature of the bend of the first signal optical fiber 6, wedged between the teeth of the deformation of the two coils of spring wire, is changed, and thus, the power of the light signal transmitted in the first optical fiber 6, is changed. The first signal optical fiber 6 is connected to the optical fiber transmission 1 to the test system 5, which is connected with the processing unit.

In this embodiment, the spiral element 4 is completely in a spiral form. When the location of both ends of the coiled element 4 is changed, for example, the spiral elements is 4 extended under tensile stress or shortened under tension compression the distance between two adjacent coils among the many sets of adjacent turns of the spring wire forming the helical element 4 increases or decreases so that the distance between the first teeth deformation 4-1 on the lower surface of the upper coil of spring wire and the first teeth of the deformation 4-2 on the upper surface of the bottom coil of spring wire in two adjacent coils among the many sets of adjacent coils of spring wire increases or decreases. As a result the curvature of the bend of the first signal optical fiber 6, wedged between the teeth of the deformation of two adjacent coils of spring wire, decreases or increases, and increases or decreases the power of the light signal transmitted in the first optical fiber 6. The first signal optical fiber 6 is connected to the test facility 5 through the optical fiber transmission 1 so that the change in power of the light signal was determined with the test facility. The test device 5 may be a light source and a light power meter. Also quasi-distribution or a distribution measurement can be performed by a test apparatus adapted to technology optical measurement of the reflection coefficient by the method of temporal intervals (Optical Time Doman Reflection, OTDR).

The first signal optical fiber 6 is an optical fiber having multiple protective layers with external parties, such as impervious buffered optical fiber coated carbon fiber, coated with polyimide fiber, etc. First signal optical fiber 6 may also be a plastic optical fiber or a photonic crystal optical fiber.

The second variant of the design

As shown in figure 4, the difference between this version of the design from the first variant is that the direction F the application of an external voltage on the spiral element 4 is the direction of the winding, i.e. the spiral element wound from the top or bottom end. In this embodiment, the design, the connecting link and the principles of operation of the other parts are identical to the first variant of the design.

The third variant of the design

As shown in Fig.6, the difference between this version of the design from the first variant is that the direction F of the application of the external voltage is the direction of rotation, i.e. the spiral element 4 rotates from the top or bottom end. In this embodiment, the design, the connecting link and the principles of operation of the other parts are identical to the first variant of the design.

The fourth variant of the design

As shown in Fig.7 and 8, the difference between this version of the design from the first variant is that the spiral element 4 is made entirely in the form of a flat spiral spring. Two adjacent coils of spring wire are adjacent the inner and outer coils of spring wire. First, the teeth of the deformation 4-5 on the outer surface of the inner coil spring wire and the first teeth of the deformation 4-6 on the inner surface of the outer coil spring wire are in relation to each other in a checkerboard pattern with the first signal optical fiber 6, squeezed between them. When the location of the inner end of the spiral element is changed relative to its outer end, the location of two adjacent turns of the spring wire is changed so that the position of teeth, deformation distributed over the surface of the inner and outer coils of spring wire, respectively changed. As a result the curvature of the bend of the first signal optical fiber 6, wedged between the teeth of the deformation of two adjacent turns, changes and causes a change in the power of the light signal transmitted in the optical fiber 6. The first signal optical fiber 6 is connected to the optical fiber transmission 1 to the test system 5, which is connected with the processing unit 7. In this embodiment, design is I, the connecting links and the principles of operation of the other parts are identical to the first variant of the design.

The fifth variant of the design

As shown in figure 5, the difference between this version of the design from the first variant consists in that the spring wire forming the spiral element 4 has a three-layer profile, including layer 10 on the upper surface of the spring wire with the first teeth of the deformation 4-2 on the upper surface of the spring wire, the middle layer of the elastic material and the layer 12 of the lower surface of the spring wire with the first teeth of the deformation 4-1 on the bottom surface of the spring wire. In this embodiment, the design, the connecting link and the principles of operation of the other parts are identical to the first variant of the design.

The sixth variant of the design

As shown in Fig.9, the difference between this version of the design from the first variant consists in that the second signal optical fiber 8 is parallel to the first signal optical fiber 6. The change in the power of the optical signal in the second signal of the optical fiber 8 may be detected by other test units (not shown in the drawing). In this embodiment, the design, the connecting link and the principles of operation of the other parts are identical to the first variant of the design.

p> Seventh variant of the design

As shown in figure 10, the difference between this version of the design from the sixth option is that the second teeth deformation 4-3 on the bottom surface of the spring wire and the second teeth deformation 4-4 on the upper surface of the spring wire is supplied with the second signal by the optical fiber 8, squeezed between them. In this embodiment, the design, the connecting link and the principles of operation of the other parts are identical to the first variant of the design.

The above design options are only preferred variant implementation of the present invention and are not limiting of the present invention. Any simple variations, modifications and changes in equivalent structures made to the above-mentioned variants of the design, according to the technical essence of the present invention, are also within the scope of the protection of technical solutions of the present invention.

1. Fiber optic sensor spiral structure characterized by a multiturn spiral element formed of spring wire, wherein the set of first teeth deform continuously distributed on the upper surface and the lower surface of the spring wire in a longitudinal direction along the spring wire; in two neighbouring idah first spring wire teeth of strain on the lower surface of the upper coil of spring wire and the first teeth of the deformation on the upper surface of the bottom coil of spring wire are in relation to each to each other in a checkerboard pattern; the first signal optical fiber is squeezed between the first teeth of the strain on the lower surface of the upper coil of spring wire and the first teeth of the deformation on the upper surface of the bottom coil of spring wire; the location of both ends of the coiled element is changed when a voltage is applied, and the distance between two adjacent coils of spring wire in spiral element is changed so that the position of the first teeth, the strain on the lower surface of the upper coil of spring wire relative to the first teeth, the strain on the upper surface of the bottom coil of spring wire in the two coils of spring wire has changed, and the curvature of the bend of the first signal optical fiber clamped between the two prongs of deformation, has changed; and the first signal optical fiber is connected to the test facility through the optical fiber transmission.

2. Fiber optic sensor helical structure according to claim 1, characterized in that the helical element formed of spring wire, is in a spiral form or in the form of a flat spiral spring.

3. Fiber optic sensor helical structure according to claim 1, characterized in that the layer of elastic material is placed between the upper and lower surfaces of p is winney wire, forming helical element.

4. Fiber optic sensor helical structure according to claim 1, characterized in that the height of the first teeth deformation, distributed on the surface of the spring wire, or the distance between the first teeth deformation, distributed on the upper surface of the spring wire, or the distance between the first teeth deformation, distributed on the bottom surface of the spring wire are changed.

5. Fiber optic sensor helical structure according to claim 1, characterized in that the second signal optical fiber is clamped parallel to the first signal optical fiber between the first teeth of strain on the lower surface of the upper coil of spring wire and the first teeth of the deformation on the upper surface of the bottom coil of spring wire in two adjacent coils of spring wire.

6. Fiber optic sensor helical structure according to claim 1, characterized in that the second teeth of the deformation is made on the upper and lower surfaces of the spring wire, respectively, and the second signal optical fiber is squeezed between the second teeth of strain on the lower surface of the upper coil of spring wire and the second teeth of the deformation on the upper surface of the bottom coil of spring wire in two adjacent coils of spring wire.

8. Fiber optic sensor helical structure according to any one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the test device is connected to the processing unit.

9. Fiber optic sensor helical structure according to any one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the signal optical fiber is an optical fiber having a protective layer.

10. Fiber optic sensor helical structure according to any one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the signal optical fiber is a multi-core optical fiber, macromolecular polymer optical fiber or a photonic crystal optical fiber.



 

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24 cl, 2 ex, 6 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology; electric-power industry; geological prospecting; aircraft industry.

SUBSTANCE: device can be used for inspecting deformations in big structures, for measuring temperature modes of transformers and temperature distributions along wells and for checking structural deformations in flying vehicles. Device has comparator, pulse former and pulse sampling unit for selecting optical pulses after they were reflected from reference point. As reference points the optical connectors are used mounted among sections of fiber-optic cable, which is used as measuring transformer. Selected pulses run auto-oscillating mode through positive feedback circuit. Oscillation repetition period defines delay in propagation of optical signal to selected reference point. Changes in temperature and influence of mechanical stresses resulting to deformation of optical fiber change refraction factor of material of optical fiber core. Due to change in refraction factor the delay of optical signal changes. Value of temperature or value of deformation acting on any section of measuring transformer are determined by change in delay of optical signals from any reference point.

EFFECT: simplified design; improved precision; widened dynamic range of operation.

2 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: sensor has tactile part and image forming aid. Tactile part of sensor has transparent flexible case and many groups of markers disposed inside flexible case. Any group of markers is made of many dyed markers. Markers composing different groups have different color in any group. Behavior of dyed markers is photographed by means of image forming aid in case when object touches flexible case. Different groups of markers preferably have different spatial disposition. Measurement is carried out by means of multi-channel reading-out which uses color or optical spectrum for tactile optical sensor to get info for many degrees of freedom at any point on surface.

EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.

33 cl, 21 dwg

FIELD: measuring technique.

SUBSTANCE: deformation measuring aid has at least one light guide for supplying light from wide band light source or at least from one narrow band light source to case and removal of light away from case to optical signal reception and processing unit. Case of detector is capable of resilient twisting. There is light polarization aid in case and/or outside case. At least one end of light guide is disposed in case. It forms at least one light radiator, supplied to case, and at least one light receiver for removal light away from case. There is polarizer in case, which polarizer is disposed in series behind radiator and receiver and is motionless connected with case. Plane of polarization of polarizer is oriented at angle to plane of light polarization. There is mirror behind polarizer. Optical signal receiving and processing unit provides procession of light reflected from mirror, and measurement of deformation of twist. Selective light reflector is disposed between end of light guide and polarizer. Selective light reflector is motionless connected with case to provide reflection of second part of wide band light spectrum or second part of light spectrum from second narrow band light source, differing from first part of wide band light spectrum or from first part of narrow band first light source reflected by mirror. Longitudinal-lateral deformation and/or vertical deformation (compression-extension deformations), twist deformations and/or curve deformations can be measured simultaneously.

EFFECT: widened functional abilities of deformation detector; simplified process of manufacture; improved reliability of detector.

44 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns polymer material displaying optically detectable response to load (pressure) change, including polyurethane elastomer adapted for load change detection, containing aliphatic diisocyanate, polyol with end hydroxyl, and photochemical system including fluorescent molecules for distance probing, modified and transformed into chain-extending diols, with molar diol to polyol ratio approximately within 10:1 to 1:2 range, and photochemical system selected out of group of exciplex and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) systems. The invention also concerns solution containing the said polymer material, and polymer material displaying detectable response to pressure change, including polyacryl or silicon elastomer and photochemical system including definite number of fluorescent molecules for distance probing, modified for penetration into the said elastomer, selected out of group including exciplex and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and solution containing this polymer material. To eliminate oxygen sensitivity in pressure detection the material includes photochemical system selected out of group including exciplex and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Systems including these photochemical systems enable fast response to pressure change; in addition, compression of material containing these systems is reversible, therefore elimination of oxygen influence on pressure change detection allows shorter response time and higher sensitivity when the claimed material is used.

EFFECT: increased material sensitivity to loads and reduced sensitivity to oxygen presence.

24 cl, 2 ex, 6 dwg

FIELD: physics, measuring.

SUBSTANCE: invention concerns the electronic technics, in particular, to microelectronics, and can be used at manufacturing of IS crystals and discrete semiconductor devices. The essence of declared expedient of the control of mechanical voltages in structure film - substrate consists in formation between a film and a substrate of the intermediate stratum which is selectively etched through windows in a film of the round shape with formation in a backlash film - substrate of the interference figure reflecting quantity and a direction of a vector of mechanical voltages.

EFFECT: expansion of technical possibilities of method at expense of possibility of control of direction of vector of mechanical voltages.

4 dwg

FIELD: physics; measurement.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a device and method of determining a force vector and can be used in a touch sensor of a robot arm. The optical touch sensor has a sensitive part and photographic unit. The sensitive part comprises a transparent flexible case and several groups of markers, placed inside the flexible case. Each group of markers contains several coloured markers and the markers, which make up different groups, have a different colour in each group. The flexible case has an arbitrary curved surface. Behaviour of the coloured markers when an object touches the curved surface of the flexible case is interpreted as information about the markers in form of an image using the photographic unit. The sensor also has a device for reproducing force vector distribution, meant for reproducing the force applied to the surface, based on information on the behaviour of markers, which is obtained based on the given information on markers in form of an image.

EFFECT: design of an optical touch sensor with an arbitrary curved surface, which allows for measuring three-dimensional distribution of a force vector, which can be used as a touch sensor for a manipulator (robot arm).

26 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: declared invention refers to the measurement of the stress of wall in hollow product. Method of determination of circumferential stress of wall in the hollow product is based on the polarization optical method. When implementing the method the hollow product located in immersion liquid is X-rayed with polarized light. The analysis made of the image of double refraction of polarised light rays from their passing through the mentioned product. Upon the results of the analysis the circumferential stresses in the mentioned product is determined. When determining the circumferential stresses the Y-raying of the hollow product located in the immersion liquid with polarised light is realised from inside of the hollow product, and the analysis of the watched image of double refraction of polarised light rays is made from the their passing through one of the diametrically opposite parts of the mentioned product's wall.

EFFECT: improvement of the measurement accuracy, simplification of construction and expansion of the features.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed transducer comprises load secured on controlled element and strain-gage transducer to convert voltage across stress-optical element into electric signal, and signal processing unit. Load is made up of plate to concentrate strain at stress-optical element. Stress-optical element is fixed in said plate as-stressed so that initial stress force acts in two mutually perpendicular directions. Note that stress-optical element is fixed at plate thinned center by means of Morse taper. Note also that, additionally, two mutually perpendicular through cuts are made not corrupting plate integrity, cuts axes being directed at 45° to loads axis. Cuts axes are aligned with that of taper hole for stress-optical element attachment.

EFFECT: higher sensitivity, thermal compensation.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: optical fibre structure with Bragg lattices is put into composite material during production thereof. The spectral position of peaks of the Bragg lattices is measured after making the structure from the composite material and distribution of mechanical and thermal deformations inside the structure of the composite material is determined by solving the system of equations: , where f(T,ε) is the distribution function of mechanical and thermal deformations on the structure made from composite material (T is the temperature value, ε is the deformation value); f(Ex, y, z) is the distribution function of elastic properties of the structure made form composite material, Ex, y, z is the Young 's modulus tensor; f(αx, y, z, vx, y, z) is the distribution function of thermal characteristics of the composite material (αx, y, z is the coefficient of volume expansion tensor, vx, y, z is the thermal conductivity coefficient tensor);f(Fload, FT) is the distribution of mechanical and temperature effects on the structure made from composite material (Fload is the value of the mechanical effect, FT is the value of the temperature effect); fFBG(T,ε) is the function of total deformation on the path of the optical fibre with Bragg lattices (T is the temperature value, ε is the deformation value); fi-FBG(Δλ) is shift transformation function of the position of the i-th peak of the Bragg lattice to the temperature value and deformation (Δλ is the displacement of the peak of the Bragg lattice). The optical fibre contains two or more Bragg lattices which are not more than 5 mm long. The distance between the Bragg lattices and one optical fibre is not less than 5 mm.

EFFECT: high measurement accuracy.

3 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: glass fibre is introduced in composition used for forming controlled object as a material similar to that used as a filler for forming part carcass matrix, that glass fibre allows channeling light beam there through. Note here that glass fibre intact lengths, longer than said part, are used to be arranged to cross paths of probable defect development in part sections not subjected to processing. Occurrence of defect is detected by light beam passage or decreased in emergent light flux brightness.

EFFECT: efficient detection of defects.

6 cl, 1 dwg

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