Thermoelectric cooling unit

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: thermoelectric cooling unit is applied in refrigerating engineering. A thermoelectric cooling unit includes two or more thermoelectric modules (2) arranged in sealed chamber (4) pre-vacuumised and filled with dry gas. Hot junctions of thermomodules are connected to liquid radiator (6) of the sealed chamber, and cold junctions are connected to condensers (7). Into each condenser there built are three independent thermosyphons (8) with internal steam lines (10); besides, evaporation zone (9) of thermosyphons is in the housing of air radiator (3) separated with heat-insulating insert (5) from the liquid radiator of the sealed chamber, which provides unidirectional heat transfer in case of power interruption of thermoelectric modules. Heat-insulated housing (1) forms internal and external thermal circuits. Fan (11) and electric heater (12) are installed on the air radiator housing.

EFFECT: use of the invention provides electric energy cost reduction.

1 dwg

 

The present technical solution relates to refrigeration, and particularly to thermoelectric cooling devices.

Analysis of design features thermoelectric cooling devices shows that to achieve the minimum temperature in the cooling chamber and to obtain the maximum efficiency must meet the following requirements:

thermoelectric modules (TEM) should be installed in a sealed (vacuum) chamber filled with dry gases and prevent the penetration of moisture;

each TEM must be separated from the cooling chamber thermal shutter, preventing the passage of heat when power is off, the TEM;

Temps should be in good thermal contact (preferably soldered) with devices for supplying and discharging the heat;

device for supplying and discharging the heat must provide a high density heat capacity (up to 10 W/cm2).

Known thermoelectric refrigeration unit [1], which contains two or more TEM, on the cold and hot junctions of which are mounted radiators. The space between the radiator and the space between the hot and cold junctions filled with moisture-proof insulating material. In this unit, radiators attached to the cold and hot junctions of thermoelectric modules directly without thermal shutter, so disabling ele is Tropicana through TEM from the radiator hot junction in the cooling chamber will be a large heat flux, that will significantly reduce the efficiency of a thermoelectric unit. A small area of contact of hot and cold junctions with air radiators will lead to large temperature changes, which would also cause a decrease in cooling capacity. Filling the cavity between the hot and cold junctions insulating waterproof material does not guarantee the sealing TEM and, in addition, the insulation has a thermal conductivity that provides a parasitic flow of warmth.

Known thermoelectric cooling unit [2], containing a cooled chamber and an intermediate circulating coolant circuit including a pump, an external heat exchanger with fan and placed in a refrigerated chamber of thermoelectric cooling unit. However, this setting has no heat of the shutter, as liquid cooling loop is always filled with fluid and a power outage TEM (or failure) will be a flow of heat from the hot junctions to the cold. From the description it is not clear whether provided sealing TEM, as it significantly affects the cooling capacity. In General, thermoelectric cooling unit has a complex and cumbersome device, and a cooling unit occupies a significant portion of the volume of the cooled camera.

Known thermoelectrochemical [3], which contains a series of thermopile with heat pipes for hot and cold junctions and device alternately activate thermopile. In this design the heat pipes perform the role of thermal shutter only in case of simultaneous shutdown of all thermocouples. As homogeneous junctions of all of thermocouples are located on the surface of one of the pipes, in the event of an outage of one or more thermocouples in the wall of the heat pipe will be a flow of heat that will significantly deteriorate the characteristics of the fridge. In addition, the elements in this design are not sealed, which is a disadvantage.

Closest to the proposed solution is a thermoelectric unit [4], which is selected as a prototype. Thermoelectric block contains thermopile by the first and second options for hot and cold, and on the third and on the cold or hot junctions that have heat pipes, made in the form of aluminum multi-channel flat tubes, partially filled with coolant. On the opposite junctions of thermopile on the third option is installed flowing liquid heat exchangers. However, in this thermoelectric unit no sealing TEM, so on cold junctions will be condensation and frost, significantly hudayi the cooling capacity of the unit. When turning off the power supply unit, the heat will be intense to penetrate into the volume of the refrigerating chamber through the heat pipes, which are made of material with high thermal conductivity and have high direct and inverse heat transfer capability. In addition, the cold junctions of thermoelectric modules are not isolated from each other and have thermal contact through the body of heat pipes. In a partial shutdown of TEM or the output part of them down the heat from the hot junctions to the cold will flow through the idle temps, which will reduce the efficiency of the refrigerator. The temps on the edges of the heat pipe will also be condensation or numerate frost, which inevitably reduces the efficiency of heat exchange of the heat sink and the entire unit as a whole.

The technical result achieved by using the proposed invention is to increase the cooling capacity of thermoelectric cooling unit, reducing the minimum temperature in the refrigerating chamber, enhancing the efficiency and reliability of the refrigerator.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that temps are installed in a sealed chamber which vacuumized to a pressure of ≈10-5mm RT. Art. to remove residual moisture and then filled with inert gas. Most preferred is xenon, the conductivity of which 4.6 R is for less than thermal conductivity of air.

This technical result is reinforced by the fact that the hot junctions TEM napivayutsa on the surface of the water-cooled heat sink, which ensures minimum temperature difference in thermal contact.

This technical result is reinforced by the fact that the liquid radiator has two opposing channel for flow of the coolant. This ensures a uniform temperature distribution over the surface of the radiator. The need for this is due to the fact that thermoelectric elements forming thermal junctions connected in TEM consistently. Structurally the same junctions, such as hot can be located on different parts of the hot plate and may have different temperature with non-uniform heat sink temperature. The temperature difference of a few degrees significantly affects the efficiency of the entire series circuit.

This technical result is reinforced by the fact that the cold junctions of each thermoelectric modules are independent from each other capacitors provide the supply of heat to the TEC from the air radiator cooling chamber. Each capacitor is connected with an air heat sink with heat pipes (thermosyphons)role of thermal shutters. Disabling TEM (or failure) of the condenser casing is heated to a temperature of ecolego radiator however, the penetration of heat into the cooling chamber is prevented due to the extremely low thermal conductivity of thermosyphons.

Strengthening the technical result is driven by the fact that each capacitor is connected with an air radiator through several independent thermosyphons (in particular construction 3). The use of multiple parallel coupled thermosyphons can: reduce the temperature drop at thermosyphon through the direct transfer of heat from the air of the radiator to the condenser; to increase the uniformity of heat transfer across the contact area of the capacitor, to increase the reliability of the design, since the TEM keeps working even when one working thermosyphon.

Strengthening the technical effect is achieved also due to the fact that the coolant in thermosyphons applied harmless freon R-134A, and thermosyphon is made with internal steam tube to reduce the temperature difference between the air cooler and condenser.

Strengthening the technical effect contributes to the fact that thermoelectric unit is not useful volume of the refrigerating chamber, it is placed outside, the air from the camera is fed to the air cooler through the inlet by means of the fan, here it is cooled and returned to the chamber through Yagodnoe hole. thermal control system disables the power supply when the desired air temperature in the refrigeration chamber. Air cooler is equipped with a heater for periodic removal from the edges of the frost, which prevents efficient heat transfer.

The essence of the invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows a General view of a thermoelectric refrigerator.

Thermoelectric cooling unit includes a heat insulating housing (1), inside of which there are two or more TEC Peltier (2) and air cooler (3). Temps are in a sealed chamber (4), previously evacuated and filled with gas. The air housing, the heat sink is separated from the liquid radiator sealed chamber with thermal paste (5). Hot junctions of thermoelectric modules soldered to the liquid radiator (6), and cold junctions connected through thermal grease to the capacitor (7). In each capacitor built three independent thermosyphon (8)and evaporators (9) thermosyphons are in the air housing, a radiator, and inside thermosyphon includes a steam tube (10). The fan (11) ensures the supply of air from the chamber of the refrigerator, an electric heater (12) is installed on the housing of the air radiator.

The device operates as follows.

When you enable TEM cold junctions are cooled condensers heat the new pipes. The warmth coming from the volume of the refrigerating chamber with air, is passed first air to the radiator, then through the heat pipe is supplied to the cold junctions of thermoelectric modules. The power of TEM is performed when the value of the current strength corresponding to the maximum refrigeration efficiency (according to the passport manufacturer TEM). When reaching into the refrigerating chamber set temperature, thermostat turns off the power supply temps and fan that saves energy. The value of the reverse heat flow through thermoelectric unit remains minimal, it contributes to the preservation of the cooled state of the refrigerating chamber. The electric heater is switched off when the power supply temps and fan periodically heats the air to the radiator to eliminate on his ribs condensate and frost preventing efficient heat transfer.

The location of the TEM in a sealed volume filled with an inert gas (such as xenon), significantly reduces heat loss, since thermal conductivity of xenon 4.6 times less than thermal conductivity of air, vacuum the same volume eliminates convective and conductive heat loss. Disabling TEM in thermosyphons reverse transfer of heat by movement of the coolant is impossible, but the heat in his body. The number is the amount of heat is calculated by the formula:

Q=λSlΔT

where λ is thermal conductivity of the material, S is the cross section of the casing pipe, l is the length of the pipe section, ΔT is the temperature difference.

Estimates show that when the temperature difference λ=40°With one aluminum pipe length of 100 mm, an inner diameter ⌀10 mm and a wall thickness of 1 mm is the heat flux capacity

Q=2003,141110-310-310-140=2,8Int

the stainless steel pipe with a wall thickness of 0.5 mm, while due to the heat vapors of freon inside of this tube heat flow is only Q=0.3 mW.

Q=10-20,253,1410010-610-140=0,3mInt

All signs etc is stavlennika thermoelectric cooling unit increase its cooling capacity and efficiency, the reduction of energy consumption during operation and increased reliability. In thermoelectric converters temperature difference between the hot and cold junctions and the cooling capacity are inversely proportional dependence in accordance with the load characteristics of TEM, therefore reducing the overall temperature difference through the use of heat pipes provides increased cooling capacity and decrease the temperature in the refrigerating chamber. For power supply TEM is used, the optimal value of current at which the refrigeration efficiency maximum TEM. Heat pipe type "thermosyphon" are thermal shutters, which gives the possibility to implement a system of control which periodically turns off the power to thermoelectric unit upon reaching a predetermined temperature in the refrigerating chamber to increase efficiency. Is the vacuum volume of the TEM or filling it with an inert gas, because you know that the most high performance TEM corresponds to the vacuum conditions in the gas environment, even with a small water content, performance TEM significantly deteriorate due to condensation and frost on the cold junctions. Installation of an electric heater is necessary due to the fact that the formation of frost or condensation on the price of the Ah air radiator significantly reduces the heat transfer coefficient and performance thermoelectric unit as a whole.

The present design, in comparison with the previously known, provides increased efficiency of the refrigerator, reduced energy consumption, reduced cooling time of the refrigerating chamber and allows you to get a lower (-18°C) temperature in the refrigerating chamber.

Known to the patent applicant and information materials not found thermoelectric refrigeration units with aggregate characteristics similar to the set of distinctive features of the proposed object.

Literature

1. RF patent №2092753, F25D 11/00, F25B 21/02, publ. 10.10.1997,

2. RF patent №2267720, F25B 21/02, publ. 10.01.2006,

3. RF patent №2008581, F25B 21/02, publ. 28.02.1994,

4. RF patent №2112908, F25B 21/02, F28D 15/02, publ. 10.06.1998,

Thermoelectric cooling unit containing two or more thermoelectric module associated hot junctions with liquid radiator and cold junctions with the condensers of the heat pipes, wherein thermoelectric modules are placed in a sealed chamber filled with an inert gas, in a liquid radiator uses a counter flow of the coolant, the cold junctions of each module installed on a stand-alone condenser that is connected with an air radiator three independent heat pipe thermosyphon type, made of titanium or stainless steel, and paricelli heat pipes integrated in the housing of the air radiator, on the surface of which has an electric heater and fan.



 

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