Compressed biomass pellets and briquettes

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compressed base for use in co-combustion power aggregates and house heating, containing first particles of biomass material selected out of a group including planting stock of soy beans, sage, planting stock of corn and sunflower, and second, carbon particles, where compressed base containing first and second particles and a linking agent (algae or wax) is resistant to fragmentation. Invention relates to a method of obtaining compressed base containing biomass material, carbon particles and algae or wax as linking agent. In addition, invention describes a total of compressed bases in container for use in co-combustion power aggregates and house heating.

EFFECT: compressed base resistant to fragmentation.

23 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

 

This application claims the benefit of provisional patent application U.S. No. 61/181101, filed may 26, 2009, and claims the benefit of provisional patent application U.S. No. 61/245506, filed September 24, 2009. Both of these prior provisional patent applications are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety and for all purposes.

PREREQUISITES

Because the human population is becoming more and puts more demands on the limited resources available, the need for wider use of wastes, especially those from renewable sources, such as grains and other plant or animal material, became irresistible. While the program re-use and techniques of application of products from renewable gaining momentum, many problems remain. These problems are particularly acute in the energy sector of the world economy. They include finding songs, inexpensive to manufacture, easy to transport, easy to store and, of course, environmentally friendly.

BRIEF description of the INVENTION

The present invention provides molded products, usually in the form of briquettes and/or pellets, which include substantial amounts of raw biomass materials.

These products whose composition and manufacture of the creation described in detail in this document, find many applications, mainly in power plants co-firing, bedding for animals, absorbent products, landscaping and planting and heating the house.

Certain aspects of this invention relate to the pressed base, characterized by the following features: (a) first particles containing biomass material, and (b) second particles containing a different material (which may optionally be represented as biomass). Pressed base, containing the first particles and second particles, is resistant to fragmentation. It often includes material acting as a binder. In various embodiments, the implementation of the compacted base is flammable. However, the second particles are not necessarily combustible. When pressed, the base may include additional components, such as third particles having a composition different from that of the first particles and second particles.

Pressed base may have properties that are specialized for certain applications, such as combustion, absorption, attractive appearance, etc. In some cases compacted base has a total moisture content of about 9% by weight or less. For applications with flame heating the compacted base may have a density n is rgii, at least about 7000 BTU (British thermal unit) per pound when burned. In addition, compressed core can be composed to obtain ash at a level of approximately 4% or less during combustion. In some embodiments, the implementation of the second particles are particles of coal.

It may be desirable to have pressed products that consistently retain certain properties (for example, separate levels of supplying energy to birds, price, absorption) independently, are there certain raw materials available. With this purpose, many different types of raw materials are applicable for receiving compressed products described in this document.

Many suitable components of biomass are disclosed in this document, among which planting material of soy beans, sage, wood products, planting seeds of corn and planting material of sunflower. In addition, you can apply various paper and cardboard products, including waxed cardboard. Other materials that can be used with the first and second components pressed basis, include starch, plastic, fish oil, soda, lime, paraffin, vegetable oil, coffee grounds and animal fat. In a specific embodiment, the compressed base contains mainly only to the RTO, agricultural planting material and deodorizing component.

The pressed product can have many different forms, as appropriate for individual applications. In many cases, the product represents the pellets or briquettes. Of course, the size and shape can be changed as appropriate for the final application. In some cases, compacted base has an average size of approximately 0.25 to 4 inches. Often pressed base provides together with many other similar laminated to the basics (for example, pellets or briquettes of such compositions and/or properties) in a container suitable for individual applications. For example, the base may be provided in conjunction with extruded bases present in the container at a power plant running on coal. Another aspect of this invention relates to a method of obtaining a compressed basis as described above (e.g., molded product, comprising the first particles containing biomass and second particles of another material). The method can be characterized by the following actions: (a) processing of raw biomass for conversion of raw material into the mold containing the first particles; and (b) simultaneous pressing of the first particles and second particles to obtain spre the agreed framework. In some cases, the compaction occurs in the briquetting press, and in this case, the pressed Foundation is brittv some other cases, the compaction occurs in the pellet mill, and in this case, the compressed base represents the pellets. Often pressing exercise with a binder, which can help maintain the shelf life of the equipment used for the production of laminated products. In certain embodiments of the implementation of the binder is an algae or wax. These and other features and advantages of this invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawing.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWING

The drawing is a schematic diagram depicting an example process for receiving compressed products of biomass in accordance with certain variants of implementation of the present invention.

DESCRIPTION of the PREFERRED OPTION IMPLEMENTATION

Introduction

This invention relates to pellets, briquettes and other compressed products containing multiple components and having a composition specifically designed to meet the specific requirements for this application. Often, at least one component is a component of biomass. Pressed is oppozitsii of the present invention can be used in different applications depending on their composition and rates. The following discussion will focus on applications in energy generation. One specific variant of the implementation enforces pressed basis or mass as fuel additives are low quality or replacement fuel for coal or other fossil fuels(fuels) in power plants co-firing. Other specific applications of particular interest include pellets for landscaping and bedding for a variety of animals, including poultry, horses and rabbits. Another area of application contains granular absorbent material such as cat litter to absorb the liquid and/or solid waste.

The following non-limiting definitions are provided for the purpose of understanding the invention described in this document.

Compacted mass or base - mechanically stable connection of the particles, it is not easy detachable during processing in the intended field of application. In other words, the compressed base is resistant to fragmentation or splitting in the processing of traditional procurement, transportation and transportation equipment. Pressed Foundation usually form under pressure (for example, compression or extrusion) using, for example, pellet or briquette installation. In some embodiments assests is of the compressed mass or base is heterogeneous composition (e.g., it will contain particles of various components).

Raw materials are the raw materials used in the manufacture of compressed mass or base. The raw material is usually granular or powdered material, although it can also represent, for example, resin, syrup or liquid.

A particle is a small discrete mass used for formation of compacted base. The particle has usually, though not necessarily, homogeneous origin. Together particles may be a powder or granular product. Individual particles can have many different shapes and can be, for example, fibers.

Biomass is material derived from living material, often of plant materials or animal waste. Often biomass is used as one or more components of the compacted mass or framework described in this document.

The composition is pressed basics

For use in power plants co-firing the pressed products in certain embodiments of the implementation to satisfy at least three criteria. They include (1) high energy content on a volume or mass (sometimes called the BTU value), (2) low-ash production and (3) malacarne content. In addition, the products have to satisfy the fourth is the criterion: (4) low education carbon grid. Low-carbon, low-ash and malacarne can all be considered in comparison with carbon or other substituted fossil fuels for power generation. Most of the raw biomass materials used in this invention, will automatically satisfy four criteria. In most cases, they will also satisfy the second and third criteria, although the various component materials can produce different levels of ash and sulfur oxides. Ash is a non-flammable solid component of the fuel. It should also be noted that the price of raw material is an important factor.

Raw materials with high density BTU products include combustible vegetation and waste (such as municipal solid waste). Examples include waste paper and cardboard wastes (e.g., magazines), as well as plastic waste and food waste (e.g., coffee grounds). Vegetable raw materials include agricultural crops grown specifically to provide fuel and vegetation that will not otherwise be removed (for example, vegetation along the roadside and on the prison grounds. Examples of vegetable raw materials include switchgrass, miscanthus, bean stubble, planting soybeans (stems and pods), landing m is a material predetermined and corn on the cob, corn, sunflowers (including entire plants and parts, including top, planting material and/or seeds), seeds of other plants, pods and stems, sage, wood (for example, in the form of wood chips, wood waste (such as pine needles and pine tops), hay, straw (for example, wheat straw and lineolata), sugar cane, sugar beet, sorghum, Sudan grass (including hybrids, such as hybrids Sudan-sorghum), reed Canary bird, grass coldest time of the year, DDG (dried vinasse, a by-product of ethanol production), seaweed, algae and coffee grounds. Other plant sources include grass warm season, leaves and forest waste. Specifically provide that any of the materials defined in this document can be applied separately or in combination with any one or more other raw materials that are defined in this document. In a specific embodiment, the compressed basics of this invention contain particles of the first raw biomass, which can be any material raw materials listed in this document, in combination with the particles of the second raw biomass, which can be any of the other materials the raw materials listed in this document.

Grass Miscanthus has a very high BTU content which can be grown sterile, so it will not give seeds that could inadvertently spread to other fields nearby. The price of planting grass Miscanthus is in the range of $1000 per acre. However, it is not necessary to again plant every year. It has a strong root system that will sprout new herbs each year. Miscanthus burned in industrial scale in Denmark with 78-MW combustion circulating fluidized bed (50% co-firing with coal) and 160-MW combustion of powdered fuel (20% co-firing). See J. M. O. Scurlock, Miscanthus: A Review of the European Experience with a Novel Eergy Crop, Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 4845, ORNL/TM-13732, 1999. European farmers used a sterile hybrid of M. Chinese and M. sugariness (Giant Miscanthus) as fuel crops since 1980-X.

Planting material of soy beans has a particularly high energy density and is used in some important biomass fuels of this invention.

Seed soybeans traditionally leave the field, and they must be chopped during the collection, to make possible the planting for the next season. Suitable rake can regenerate this material for use in this invention.

In certain embodiments of the implementation of sage is used as a raw material. He is no very high energy density, but may be the necessary precautions to prevent delamination or separation of the oils of sage, which can be separated and delaminate during shipment.

Wood, especially in the form of wood chips, is another raw material with high BTU, which can be used in certain embodiments of this invention. However, wood typically contains approximately 49% of the water in the first collection. For the manufacture of suitable raw materials for use in co-firing some of this water should be removed. In some embodiments, the water content of the wood raw material is reduced to approximately 15% by weight or less, and in some embodiments, the implementation is approximately 12% by weight or less. Wood chips, containing 49% of moisture, have only about 4500 BTU per pound, while dry wood chips have approximately 7500 BTU per pound. A variety of techniques known in the art can implement the required reduction in water content.

However, the water content in the wood often represents a significant economic loss. Thus, in certain embodiments of the implementation of the pressed wood products do not have content. Usually the wood used in the pellets for use in heating homes. Aspects of this image is the shadow use pellets or other compressed products which contain little or no contain wood, even when used for applications in the heating/combustion. Other embodiments of using only a small amount of wood (for example, 5% by weight or less, or even about 1% by weight or less) to impart a pleasant fragrance to the product. In some cases navigateuwa additives included in other flammable composition. For example, non-combustible materials, which are typically required in coal-fired power plants, can be included in the compacted base. Some of these additives help to reduce emissions or residues on plants. One such example is lime, which can be used to control toxins in power plants running on coal. Can also be added to other materials that control the burning rate or other characteristics of combustion of raw biomass and/or coal. Examples include carbonate and bicarbonate salts (e.g. sodium bicarbonate or baking soda). Another non-combustible materials are used to bind components or particles pressed foundations. One example of such a material is a material containing boron and oxygen, such as borax.

In some embodiments, the implementation of the combustible components of fossil fuels can be added to compressed the basics of the La applications in power plants. Examples of such components include coal, coke, anthracite, lignite or charcoal, and mixtures thereof. Coal is particularly applicable raw material for mixing with raw biomass materials. Mixing coal and biomass components helps to ensure plant one pre-mixed product, rather than two separate raw stream. In a specific example, the pressed product contains about 85% by weight of coal dust and about 15% by weight of biomass (for example, dry wood, and stubble legumes and/or grasses).

In certain embodiments of the implementation of the other additives include materials that improve mechanical or operational properties of pressed products. An example of such a material includes starch, which facilitates cohesive binding of the individual particles of raw materials or granules for formation of the pressed products. Moisture, for example, in the form of a pair provided in the granulator (or other device for the production of pellets), can also serve as a binder. Many raw biomass materials contain lignin or related material, which by nature is used as a binder when the biomass is treated thermally, which may be in pellet or briquette press. Other examples of binders include Bur is, resin, wax (including paraffin, beeswax and/or Carnauba wax) and algae.

The challenge in the application of fuel additives of low quality biomass for power generation, is to provide sufficient quantities of additives to make a significant contribution to the reduction of fossil fuel. Seasonal and other variations of products available biomass-based agricultural crops can lead to a temporary lack of the necessary fuel for maintenance of power plants. To this end, the inventors have found that it would be desirable to include fuel components not on the basis of crops in certain pressed products for applications in power plants.

Examples of fuel additives is not based on crops other than fossil fuels, which impart one or more desirable properties of the pellets, include the syrup for making beverages, such as Coca-Cola(R). When such syrups are your suitable shelf life, they need to be eliminated, which can be costly. Waste disposal is often the only option.

Syrups, such as syrup of Coca-Cola, provide a moderate energy content and improve linking pressed foundations. Other examples of waste with such applicable spanning its the STV, include starch, plastic, fish oil, soda, lime, paraffin, vegetable oil, coffee grounds and animal fat for better supplying energy to birds. In addition to soda and lime, all of these materials have high energy content. Municipal waste can serve as a huge source of biomass for laminated products of this invention. Such waste may include polymers of high and/or low density, paper, etc. As already mentioned, paper products, including cardboard, can be used in pressed products for use in co-firing. In various embodiments, the implementation of the processed forms of paper, such as waxed paper or waxed cardboard, used in pressed products. In specific embodiments, the implementation of waxed cardboard is present in amounts of about 1-10% by weight of the pressed product, which can be available for applications in combustion and other applications.

As shown above, the pressed products disclosed herein can include one or more "glue"that serve to preserve (or facilitate the preservation of products in their compressed or thickened form. In some cases, this means that such binder or binder will prevent (or help prevent) the division is pressed bases into smaller pieces or particles of its components. Some pressed basis will be resistant to such a separation, when faced with mechanical agitation or pushing that usually occurs during transport such as train, truck, plane, etc), processing or transportation prior to combustion, loading, warehousing, etc. Some compressed basics will be resistant to such a separation, when will be exposed to the external environment, such as occurs in open containers before combustion, which may include rain, wind, solid precipitation and extreme values of temperature and humidity. In various embodiments of the binder present in the pressed basics at a concentration of up to about 10% by weight, or up to about 5% by weight, or up to about 2% by weight. In a particular example, the binder is present in the range of approximately 0.1-1% by weight.

In certain embodiments of the implementation of the binding is provided by the moisture content that is provided before or during the pressing in the press, mill, etc. Pairs can be applied, as explained in this document. For some applications, especially in co-firing or other variants of implementation of combustion, the amount of moisture will be relatively small in order not chrismer is to jeopardize the energy content of the pressed product. In some application areas compacted base will contain no more than about 5% by weight of moisture as a binder, preferably not more than about 2% by weight.

In various embodiments, the implementation of the binding is provided by a material of high energy density, which is tacky or sticky during the formation of compacted base. You should note that the process of education often leads to increased temperature and/or pressure (increased basically beyond the standard temperature and pressure (STP)). Under such conditions, some plant or other materials that modify the chemical and/or physical form, becoming sticky or even viscoelastic and thereby bind together the components of the compacted base. One specific example is a wood that contains lignins, which are becoming quite sticky at the temperature and pressure processing to serve as an effective binder.

Algae and blue-green algae (collectively, the "algae" in this document) are another material biomass, which, as it was discovered, serves as an effective binder. Algae often contain acceptable high energy density and malacarne the content on the I applications in combustion and are inexpensive, easy Assembly and quickly processed to form a low water content, and resistant to water absorption when present as a binder in pressed the basics of this invention. Examples of suitable algae for use herein include green algae, brown algae and red algae, and blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). Various forms of bacteria, such as purple and green ceramictile can similarly be applied. In accordance with certain variants of implementation of the algae is harvested from the culture medium on the basis of water (for example, greenhouse or outdoor water mass) and the optional transported for further processing as suspension, dried and/or compressed solid or driven brown gummy material. It can be optional filtered, pressed, centrifuged, air-dried, etc. before combining with other components for the formation of a compressed basis of the present invention. This treatment can remove water and/or modify the properties of algae to facilitate the transportation, processing to the compressed foundations and/or improve the binding properties. The collection may include fishing nets, stirring with a thrust or other capture device, drying, etc.

Binder preparations for the algal which can be combined with other components and process for obtaining a laminated product according to one or more different ways, described elsewhere in this document. In some embodiments, the implementation of seaweed, used as a binder in the final product will contain some amount of moisture (for example, up to about 10% by weight). Regardless of the moisture content of the algae, it may be present in the final laminated product in quantity, for example, about 0-10% by weight, or even higher in some embodiments, the implementation due to its high energy density. In certain specific embodiments, the implementation of the algae present in a concentration of approximately 0.1-2% by weight of the final product.

In some cases, algae or related product applied as a coating on individual pressed the basics or as a coating or membrane through a stack or other set pressed foundations in order to preserve the structure of the framework and at the same time be resistant to separation into smaller pieces or components of the particles. Such cases need to be distinguished from situations where the algae is thoroughly mixed with the other components of the compressed basics, as with traditional binders.

In many markets, the price of raw materials used to produce laminated products, will greatly fluctuate. Therefore, the composition of the product, provided the s for power plants, can be adjusted accordingly so that the prices were reasonable controlled regardless of changes in the prices of raw materials. However, it may be desirable to maintain high BTU content and low-ash education regardless of the composition of the extruded product. Examples of suitable "guaranteed" criteria for use in co-firing will be given below.

It should be understood that the desired combination of properties of the product will vary from application to application or from consumer to consumer. By mixing raw materials and certain supplements can provide specialized products biomass fuel, which maintain the quality standards required for various applications. In addition, if one raw material becomes unreachable, you can select one or more substitutions of raw materials and process them to a similar product that meets all customer requirements.

In some cases, the composition extruded product of the present invention contain up to and including 100% of the biomass. However, as shown, are often used in more complex compositions. In certain embodiments of the implementation of the composition of the extruded product can, in General, be characterized as below: from CA is approximately 5 to 100% by weight of the biomass, to about 25% by weight of the burnable additives, such as lime, and up to about 95% by weight of fossil fuels such as coal. More typically, the molded product will contain from about 15 to 100% by weight of the biomass to about 5% by weight of the burnable additives and up to about 85% by weight of fossil fuels. In the variants of implementation that do not use fossil fuel, non-fuel component, if present, may be present at a level of approximately 5% by weight or less. In addition, variants in the implementation of the component without fossil fuels, part of the biomass can contain two different types of biomass, sometimes selected to provide a mixed average energy density, ash content and sulfur content to meet the public requirements (for example, a government requirement or criteria of consumers. It should be noted that because paper products are derived from plant material, they are considered "biomass", as this expression is used in this document.

The following examples illustrate the ranges of the components of biomass in the compressed basis, with two or more components.

Waste paper (e.g., cardboard) is about 50-95% by weight, and in more specific embodiments, the implementation will bring the flax 60-85% by weight.

Lime is approximately 0.5 to 10% by weight and in more specific embodiments, the implementation of approximately 2-7% by weight.

Waste of soybeans is about 5-100% by weight and in more specific embodiments, the implementation of approximately 50-80% by weight.

Dried wood (approximately 15% by weight or less of water) is about 5-100% by weight and in more specific embodiments, the implementation of about 25-75% by weight.

Millet is about 5-100% by weight and in more specific embodiments, the implementation of approximately 50-90% by weight.

Miscanthus is about 5-100% by weight and in more specific embodiments, the implementation of approximately 40-90% by weight.

Corn is about 5-100% by weight and in more specific embodiments, the implementation of approximately 40-90% by weight.

DDG is about 5-100% by weight and in more specific embodiments, the implementation of approximately 20-80% by weight.

Municipal waste - approximately 5-100% by weight and in more specific embodiments, the implementation of approximately 30-90% by weight. They can include one or more of the following: paper, cardboard, plastic high-density plastic of low density.

In some specific embodiments, the implementation of the composition includes a suitable combination of municipal waste, natural herbs and raw materials from agriculture, the Department is exploring and changing other products. Raw materials from agriculture may include stems, husks, pods and the like. In a different implementation, the composition includes approximately 30-90% of municipal waste, approximately 40-90% of herbs and approximately 40-80% of agricultural raw materials, all percentages by weight. Municipal waste may include cardboard, especially waxed cardboard.

Illustrative compositions of the extruded product are as follows:

(1) planting material of soybean approximately 25%, cardboard approximately 75%, (2) planting material corn approximately 25%, cardboard approximately 75%, (3) Miscanthus approximately 25%, cardboard approximately 75%, (4) planting material of sunflower approximately 25%, cardboard approximately 75%, (5) whole sunflower, raw materials, top and seeds approximately 20%, cardboard approximately 80%, (6) the grass is a warm season approximately 25%, cardboard approximately 75%, (7) straw approximately 20%of cardboard approximately 75%, and (8) millet approximately 25%, cardboard approximately 75%. Wood chips, pine needles, the tips of pine trees, sage and all the herbs separately or in combination can replace or be added to the cardboard. All percentages are provided on a weight basis. In the above examples and throughout the document, when referred to the cardboard or paper, akatora fraction, or all components can be waxed, which means that the component has a certain amount of wax (such as paraffin or beeswax), deposited on or impregnating paper or cardboard. For use in co-firing the pressed products of this invention may use one or more of the following components of biomass: sage, seed soybean, seed corn, seed sunflower, seed and top, dried wood and grass. For applications in co-combustion industrial scale, for example applications in power plants, these products will be provided in large quantities, often of the order of tons to several tons per day. It is believed that biomass can replace up to approximately 15% of the total energy input to the coal-fired plants with only minor modifications.

In certain embodiments of the implementation, such as some of those used for applications in the remediation of waste disposal sites, pressed products may include fertilizer and/or grass seeds. In addition, in some embodiments, the implementation of the laminated structure (especially pellets) painted for applications in construction and landscaping and reclamation places Zech is Romania waste. For example, natural black, green and/or red pellets can be used for applications in construction and landscaping. In certain specific embodiments, the implementation of pellets for construction and landscaping can be used for flower beds and plantings.

Form pressed basics

As mentioned, embodiments of the present invention belong to the pressed products, such as pellets or briquettes. Other forms of compressed basics include blocks and balls. It is possible to provide a soft raw materials for the plant, but it was found that the transportation of such material presents certain problems. In particular, the vibration that feels raw material in the body during transport, can compress the raw material of such a size that some of its parts become quite heavy and very difficult to remove. Granular or bitterbynde raw biomass avoids this problem. In addition, granular mixture of the combined raw materials (and possibly other materials in combination with such raw materials resistant to separation during transport.

Pressed bases used in this invention can have a wide range of sizes and shapes. In some embodiments, the implementation of the framework represent the pellets is, having a mainly cylindrical or spherical shape. They are usually no more than approximately two inches in length or diameter, and usually not more than approximately one inch. In a specific embodiment, the compressed basics are pellets having a length most approximately 1.5 inches and a diameter of approximately 0.25 to approximately 0,313 inches as defined by the Institute of granular fuels (Pellet Fuels Institute) in order to guarantee a predictable amount of fuel and prevent crushing.

Briquettes are usually square or rectangular profile and may have a curved or angular cuts. In certain embodiments of the exercise they will usually have a size of from approximately 1 to 4 inches along the rectangular sides and a size of approximately 0.5 to 3 inches in the third dimension.

Regardless of the final form (size and shape) pressed foundations, they must be resistant to disintegration or crumbling during processing in accordance with their intended applications. They should produce only a limited amount of dust during decomposition in order to avoid dust as loading and operation. In a specific embodiment, the compressed basis produce fine particles passing through a 1/8-inch filter level no more than the than priblisitelno percent by weight pressed foundations. Usually, though not necessarily, pressed the basics together these foundations have a relatively uniform size and shape. In some cases, the standard deviation in the size of the compressed pellets in aggregate is approximately 0.3 inches or less.

Pressed bases of this invention are typically composed of relatively small particles having sizes of the order of about 0.1 inch or less. Often the particles have an average size from about 0.1 to 5 millimeters.

Properties of compacted Foundation

Pressed products disclosed herein can be determined, at least in part, on the basis of their properties. Often these properties will be applied to individual applications. In addition, properties can be the same regardless of the components used for manufacturing products. Often this is necessary because the properties of raw biomass materials can vary widely, and because some raw materials may become unavailable or prohibitively expensive. As mentioned, the composition of the pressed product can be adjusted to adapt to the changing needs and availability. Often two or more raw materials of biomass used in this compacted product.

In case the e-product for use in co-firing, the following properties can determine the compacted base, provided in accordance with certain variants of implementation.

BTU density is at least about 7000 BTU/lb, and in some cases at least about 8500 BTU/lb, and in additional embodiments, the implementation of at least approximately 9500 BTU/lb.

The sulfur content is less than about 1% by weight, and in some cases less than about 0.5% by weight.

The production of ash is less than approximately 10%, and in some cases less than about 7.5%, and in certain embodiments of the exercise of less than about 5% by weight. In some cases, the ash content of approximately 4% by weight or less. Of course, higher ash content may be present in compositions, such as those used in coal. The ash content can be expressed as the percentage of residue remaining after dry oxidation (e.g., oxidation at 550-600C in oxygen). In some cases, the ash content determined in relation to the solids content of combustible material before burning.

Examples of typical values for these parameters for different materials are presented in the following table (which contains the data, adapted from public available sources).

9422
ProductTU/lbSulfur, %Ash, %Moisture, %
Lucerne69347,94%12,25%
Lucerne77299,06%0%
Aspen77860,02%2,48%6,02%
Aspen85010,02%to 2.67%0%
Corn gluten feed71990,33%of 3.78%12,06%
Corn gluten feed80970,38%4,30%0%
Threshed the Kukura is a 69240,11%1,13%13,43%
Threshed corn81000,11%1,23%0%
Corn on the cob73690,04%2,16%7,12%
Corn on the cob79110,04%2,32%0%
Planting material corn70570,04%for 6.81%9,14%
Corn stalks77680,04%of 7.64%0%
Dried grains with hydrolysates84590,40%4,16%9,27%
Dried grains with hydrolysates0,45%4,13%0%
Dried grains without hydrolysates84730,34%1,96%13,25%
Dried grains without hydrolysates98480,36%2,24%0%
Oats71430,14%3,17%12,49%
Oats82420,16%to 3.58%0%
Soybeans87830,29%5,19%of 10.25%
Soybeans102300,33%6,22%0%
Pods of soybeans66600,07% 4,17%11,38%
Pods of soybeans75700,08%4,22%0%
Pods of soybeans90423%15%
Wheat straw6839%0,07%the 10.40%compared to 8.26%
Wheat straw73750,08%11,33%0%
Oat straw71530,05%of 7.90%6,91%
Oat straw76260,06%8,49%0%
The sugar beet pulp6597%0,14%3,80% 9,70%
The sugar beet pulp73450,16%or 4.31%0%
Pods sunflower84740,14%2,86%8,56%
Pods96540,16%3,13%0%
sunflower
Seeds120008%
sunflower
Bran72280,15%5,18%12,58%
Bran8415 0,17%6%0%
Newspapers79751,50%6%
Brown paper72501%6%
Corrugated paper70405%5%
Paper with a coating of7340 tel : 2,60%5%
plastic
Packages for milk coated113301%3,50%
Citrus peel1700 0,75%75%
Shoe leather724021%7,50%
Composition soles ut1090030%1%
Polyethylene200000%0%

18621
Polyurethane130000%0%
Latex100000%0%
Rubber1000020%0%
waste
Soot140930%0%
Paraffin0%0%
wax
Waxed115003%1%
paper
Resin and170001%0%
asphalt
Wood80003%10%
sawdust
Flaps72002%5%
Animals170000%0%
fats
Cotton80002%10%
seeds
Coffee grounds100002%20%

Other suitable properties of the compacted products may include the density, the maximum concentration of certain elements, the total content of the liquid. In various embodiments, implementation pressed the basics are the basics, which are significantly more dense than their nepressovannaya components (raw materials). As an example, the compressed base can be reduced in volume, at least approximately 5 times compared with the corresponding displacement nepressovannaya raw materials. Usually, but depending, in part, on the moisture content and particle size, compression leads to decline in approximately 10-15 times. As explained above, the binder can facilitate this level of compaction. In typical embodiments, the implementation of the molded product will have a density from about 20 to 40 pounds/cubic foot. In some cases, the density even more, for example, at least about 40 the fur boots/cubic ft.

In another specific embodiment, the chlorides are present at a level of not more than about 300 parts per million, for example, to avoid rusting of the combustion chamber and the inlet or other forms of corrosion. In certain embodiments of the implementation of the moisture content of the pressed product is approximately 15% or less, in some cases less than about 10% or less and in a specific embodiment, approximately 9% or less - all by weight.

In addition, various compositions of matter of supplying energy to birds (e.g., based on the mass energy density), which constitute approximately 15-30% more than the energy density similar to wood pellets. Examples of compositions of this product with such high energy density, are those that use a combination of municipal waste, natural herbs and raw materials from agriculture. In a specific example, the composition of the product includes approximately 30-90% of cardboard, approximately 5-40% natural herbs and approximately 5-60% of agricultural raw materials.

Among the various advantages of pressing are the following: the neutralization product of the heat produced in the process, improved storage stability, a relatively constant size of the product, eliminating stratification of materials, is the quiet give the product form, the dust reduction, improved shelf life, ease of handling and transport.

Methods of obtaining compressed basics

Various techniques can be used to obtain products of compacted biomass in accordance with this invention. Typically, one or more materials provided in the pressing device. Can be carried out some operations prior to extrusion. Additionally or alternatively, can be carried out some operations after pressing. All compositions and properties of all compressed described elsewhere in this document, can be obtained in accordance with the methods of this section.

Depending on the conditions of the raw materials it may be necessary to carry out one or more divisions or other procedures before pressing. For example, a carriage for mixing, which is a car, traditionally used on farms to destroy bricks of hay or other vegetable material to straw, etc. can be used to accommodate piketirovany raw materials in a condition suitable, furthermore, for processing. Thus, in some cases, briquettes grass and/or other raw materials are first put into the carriage mixing, where the bricks are destroyed, the resulting material is mixed and delivered to Odie is or more stages of grinding. Can be used conveyor to move material from the destroyed bricks on these steps.

In some cases, the substrate is a component of municipal waste produced by the screening of the components of these wastes. In one example, the processed waste containing plastics and/or paper with high energy density in addition to glass, metal and/or plastic with a low density, sorted for separation of plastics and/or paper with high density. Various tools are available to facilitate such screening. One such product is sold Komar Industries of Groveport, Ohio. A huge amount of biomass required for some power plants to replace or additives to the coal can be achieved in part by using municipal waste. In addition, the use of such waste for fuel or other applications for combustion reduces the cost and destruction of the environment by waste disposal to landfill.

It may be desirable to use a special conveyors for various raw materials used in the method. Therefore, regardless of whether for fashion paper, cardboard, municipal waste, agricultural products (such as herbs or briquettes waste farm crops) or other raw materials, mechanisms carriage b the DUT, respectively, to work with individual raw materials on the basis of their specific characteristics (size, the density, shape, fragility, and so on).

In some cases, raw materials will be provided with particle size and density, which allows them to be submitted directly to the device pressing. In other cases, however, raw materials provide in a form that requires to do some pre-processing to achieve the desired particle size and full density. That is, the raw materials must be turned into the state suitable for feeding into the pellet mill, briquetting press or other device pressing. For many applications, it is desirable that the raw material fed to the machine pressing, had a low density and sometimes even a soft structure. Thus, in some embodiments, implementation of the treatment device includes one or more of the steps of grinding the raw materials to the stage of compression. Such a device may include hammer mills and other tools.

Some raw materials such as raw agricultural raw materials, may require partial drying to obtain moisture level suitable for this method. Drying can be accomplished by various methods known in the art. In one example, the energy waste from other aspects of the method used for drying son the article. For example, some devices are used for the cyclone for dust removal at various stages of the method. The air from the exhaust cyclone trap can be used for drying raw materials.

In some cases, the separation and/or grinding was carried out separately for each type of raw material, so that all raw materials were processed separately. It should be remembered that many different raw materials can be combined to form pellets of a given composition. In other cases, two or more raw material is processed together in a single processing device (for example, a hammer mill). It should be noted that in embodiments implementing the use of multiple raw materials of the individual raw materials are usually mixed to the device pressing. Mixing of raw materials can be performed continuously or in individual portions. If portions of the work statement may raking or otherwise deliver a separate raw materials into the mixer. Various mixers are suitable for use with this invention. Examples include feed mixers for cattle and the like. In a particular embodiment, the device can mix up to four different raw materials and to regulate near the STI filing of one or more of them, to compensate for the varying density of the source of raw materials. In a specific embodiment, two twin hammer mills are used to completely transform the grass, cardboard or other raw materials in powdered condition, suitable for granulation. The first hammer mill partially transforms raw materials into usable condition for granulation, while the second lower hammer mill completes the change to fully powder. In some cases, three or more separate hammer mill or other grinding stations used for fine grinding or crunching. It was found that this approach works particularly well in the case of paper or cardboard materials. It was also found that hammer mills equipped with knives, especially suitable for the grinding of certain raw materials.

As already mentioned, the powdery raw material preferably has characteristics suitable for use in the granulator or other device pressing. Such characteristics may represent a degree of dryness (for example, approximately 8-14% moisture by weight)pellet size (for example, approximately 0.1-5 mm), density, etc. For making the pellets, containing megachile the nye various raw materials, there can be various separate supply line into the granulator, one for each of the different components. In certain embodiments of the exercise device, manufacturing pellets, will include a mixing chamber located to the pellet mill. The various components of the raw materials used for forming composite pellets, is fed into the mixing chamber through a separate inlet lines. The mixing chamber combines these various raw materials in well-mixed, usually uniformly distributed mixture, which is then fed into the granulator. In other embodiments, the implementation of numerous raw materials are mixed to the device pressing (for example, in the car mix) batch or continuous method.

Various techniques can be used to improve the quality and transportation of raw materials or powdered materials, for example, a hammer mill or other device for fine grinding in the pressing device. In one embodiment, blower machine moves the powdered material is on the line or another channel (for example, an 8-inch line). In one embodiment, the processed raw materials are temporarily stored in the collection or other vessel until then, until you need it for processing into pellets. In particular in the version of the implementation of the transmission line with a screw conveyor is provided at the bottom of the sump or elsewhere for transportation of raw materials through the processing plant. In a specific embodiment, a spiral transmission line moves the processed material on the conveyor within the plant for pellet production. In particular, the conveyor may submit material to the upper part of the granulator. In some embodiments, the implementation of the Boxing grip material is located on top of the granulator. The drawing shows a specific way of implementation, in which the collected grass or other raw materials 101 and 103 is supplied through a pipeline 105 up on top hammer mill 107. Gravity pulls the material to be treated into the upper hammer mill 107, exit, located at the bottom of this hammer mill. Thence partially converted raw material descends to the lower hammer mill 109, where the processing is completed, as mentioned above. Optionally, the processed raw materials can be stored in a storage tank (not shown). In the depicted embodiment, the screw conveyor or the application of compressed air controls the transport of powdery raw materials through the transmission line 111 to Boxing capture 113, where it then passes into the granulator 115. The resulting pellets 117 is cooled, optional packaged and made available for the intended use (e.g., combustion). Many types of granulators are eligible and to obtain pellets in accordance with the present invention. In various examples, the granulator includes a steam injector to facilitate binding of the source material in the pellets. One suitable supplier of pellet mills is a California Pellet mill (CPM) Waterloo Iowa. When the pellets ekstragiruyut and pressed in the matrix, remove much of the residual moisture introduced steam treatment. As already mentioned, some of the pellets produced in accordance with this invention will have the specified size and shape. The matrix used in the pellet mill are developed to obtain pellets of the desired size and shape. In the specific examples used are circular or flat matrix.

Pellets only just received granulator, usually very hot, sometimes in the range of 140-200F. Therefore, the pellets should be cooled before further processing or transportation. In certain embodiments of the exercise device to obtain a pellet cooler uses pellets, which cools the pellets to a suitable temperature (for example, approximately 60-120F). The cooled pellets can be entered into vibration sieve for filtering out small particles. Small particles can be reused for another pass through the pellet mill.

The different steps in the method can produce dust or other debris that may interfere with operations. In one embodiment, planning the transportation equipment of the way on the floor provides the conveyors of certain raw materials in the regulations where briquettes agricultural products can filter out dust or other debris. By capturing dust from the way briquetting of agricultural raw materials, some waste is returned in the way. In one example, the hardware method includes a vacuum system (for example, the blade cyclone trap)to move the dust or other debris from certain provisions on the floor (for example, below the conveyors and/or granules) to the briquettes raw materials, which act as filters.

Often pressed products should have a relatively low moisture content. This is the case, for example, when the products are used for applications in co-firing, where the moisture content reduces BTU density. In certain embodiments of the implementation of the method of forming a molded product, uses a small drying or does not use it. This goal can be implemented by using raw materials that are already mostly dry; examples include materials that are dry in nature, on earth, under the sun. In contrast, pressed wood products made from wood chips, which typically have a moisture content of the order of approximately 30% by weight and must be dried before molding the pellets. Some raw materials used in the present invention, keyturn moisture to about 20% by weight or less, or about 15% by weight or less (or about 10% by weight or less). As described below, some of the tools for pressing can facilitate the removal of moisture from the raw materials such as wood. In addition, as mentioned elsewhere, certain embodiments of this invention use pellets that do not have wood content. Other embodiments of using only a small amount of wood (for example, approximately 5% by weight or less, or even about 1% by weight or less) to impart a pleasant fragrance to the product.

In one embodiment, wood products, or other product with a relatively high water content is treated in a briquetting press to remove excess water. Wood chips or other wood product may be processed separately or in combination with other components (biomass or fossil fuel) for the production of the obtained product with significantly reduced water content. For example, if wood chips contain approximately 49% of water by weight before processing, pressing in briquetting press can reduce the water content to approximately 10-20% by weight. Briquetting press provides an energy efficient method for removal of water content of wood chips and other raw materials with high moisture content. In certain embodiments about what westline briquetting press contains two opposite roller with matrices or notches, located on the perimeter of the rollers. The notches represent the size of bricks that need to be obtained. The rollers can be controlled huge motors, for example, two motors with 200 horsepower engine. Raw material is fed from the drive, which is located above the press. The material falls between the rollers and pressed into briquettes by torque/spressovyvanie action of the rollers.

As already mentioned, the briquettes are usually blunt profile and usually approximately 1-4 inches along the sides. This side and the shape makes them suitable for direct feed to the power plant, coal-fired. No further processing is not necessary; briquettes biomass can be mixed directly with coal as fed to the power plant or combustion chamber. Briquetting press can work on the site of the power plant and to produce briquettes for direct application, without the need of transporting the final product. Briquetting presses are obtained in various sizes. In some embodiments, implementation, suitable for use in obtaining briquettes for use in co-firing, press select so that he could produce, at least about 50 tons of bricks/hour some cases, the press can produce about 150 tons brie is billing purposes/hour.

In certain embodiments of the implementation of fossil fuel and biomass components are combined for forming a laminated product of the present invention. One example of such a product includes biomass together with coal fines or particles of coal. The product can represent, for example, pellets or briquettes. In some cases, biomass and components of coal are mixed separately (in separate mixer) and then move on the conveyor, where they are transported to the hopper, which may be at the top of the briquetting press. Briquetting press then produces briquettes from coal and biomass as part of the fuel products. In certain embodiments implement a binder, such as overdue coconut syrup or plastic, can be added to the briquetting press (together with coal and biomass) to obtain guarantees stable product.

Comparative amounts of fossil fuels and biomass components in the compressed products may reflect the comparative amount required for the intended use in combustion, such as co-combustion in the power plant. In typical applications in co-firing approximately 5-20% by volume (for example, approximately 15% by volume) of fuel provided for combustion in the power plant, the two is to be compacted material biomass residue, which coal or other fossil fuels. The total daily amount of fuel in a typical power plant can amount to several tons, hundreds of tons. In certain embodiments of the implementation of the method of production as described in this document, is used to produce approximately 10-15 tons of compressed fuel additives are low quality for a shift worker. In a typical example, the power plant may require approximately one million tons per year of fuel product, at least some of which contain compressed biomass materials of the type disclosed in this document.

Applications in waste absorbents and podstilok

In many cases, the biomass containing granular material, can serve as cat litter or other suitable absorbent products. Components of such products can give one of the following properties: low rates, reduction of fragrance, masking fragrance, color and, of course, the absorbance. Examples of suitable absorbent materials with a low price include paper, including cardboard, and various agricultural raw materials or other vegetable waste, such as pods, husks, stalks and pulp. Specific examples include products soybeans (stems and pods), products to kurusu (husk, stalks and corn cobs) and products (sunflower stalks). Based on absorbent paper products use at least approximately 40% of paper and/or cardboard, either or both of which may be waxed.

Often, compressed absorbent bases do not include, mainly, cat litter, using clay or similar traditional material. In some embodiments, the implementation of the absorbent material may include other absorbent material such as superabsorbent polymer (SAP). SAP is widely used in diapers and similar products. They often are polymers of acrylate-based, but increasingly derived from renewable vegetable resources.

Various destroying odor components such as cyclodextrin, corn starch, bicarbonate and/or lime may be present in small or even trace quantities (for example, less than about 2% by weight or even less than about 1% by weight). When using a cyclodextrin or a similar product, it can be present at about 0.05 to 0.1 weight percent. Specific masking the odor component, such as coffee grounds, may also be present in small quantities (e.g. less than about 5% by weight). Other additives that can is to be secured in the products of cat litter, include a small or even trace amounts of soap and/or oil, usually less than about 0.1% by weight (for example, from about 0.01 to about 0.02 percent by weight).

Typically, the absorbent material contains at least about 50% by weight of biomass products. In various embodiments, the implementation of the absorbent material includes from about 5 to 50% by weight of waste agricultural crops and from about 30 to 95% by weight of waste paper, such as cardboard, together with a small amount of material, removing or masking the smell. In more specific embodiments, the implementation of material includes from about 10 to 30% by weight of waste agricultural crops and from about 65 to 90% by weight of waste paper. In one specific embodiment, the absorbent composition comprises pellets of approximately 80% by weight cardboard (or more generally, pulp and paper material), approximately 20% by weight of waste soybeans, corn and/or sunflower seeds and a small amount of odor absorbent material (e.g., cyclodextrin, corn starch, lime or baking soda). Another specific composition contains from about 50 to 90% by weight of the paper product, about 10-40% by weight of the product of the corn, and unichtozhayuschego smell component, as specified above.

In some cases, filler or other absorbent material consists of a heterogeneous mixture (mixed size) of the particles and mixed cellulose fibers with similar densities. In certain examples, the density of the final product ranges from about 0.4 to 0.8 g/cm3or more specifically, approximately 0.5-0.7 g/cm3(30-42 pounds per cubic foot). The average size of the pellets of the filler may range from about 1/8 to And inch in diameter (for example, approximately 3/16 inch and from about a to 11 inches in length. Pellets usually ekstragiruyut through the matrix and most of them are broken off so that the end of pellets can be concave, flat or rounded. Typically, this party has a range of lengths.

The absorbent materials described in this document can be obtained by granulating process, such as those described above. Typically, the method uses a relatively small amount of moisture, for example, less than about 10% by weight. A method of manufacturing absorbent material includes testing of raw materials (cardboard and agricultural products) on the moisture content. If the moisture content is less than 9% by weight, the moisture can be added through steam or weak spraying during granulation. In one example, the slave is the extent to which the range is from approximately 9 to 14% moisture by weight. You can usually choose raw materials with the proper moisture content so that it is not necessary to add steam or water.

In certain embodiments of the implementation of the composition of bedding for animals are compositions based on paper and consist mainly of paper and crop residues in combination. Usually pressed the basics of bedding for animals have a composition that is not edible for animals that will use it. For example, horses can eat compacted products containing more than approximately 30% of edible biomass. Therefore, the composition for coating application for horses usually contain no more than about 30% by weight of edible biomass. In some cases, the products of bedding for animals include paper or cardboard, lime, bicarbonate salt, or other inedible components in the total number of about 70% by weight or more. Composition of bedding for the animals may have a small amount of moisture, as defined above (for example, approximately 4-6% moisture by weight). A small amount destroys odor component, soap and/or vegetable oils can be included in the product-cat litter (for example, no more than approximately 1% of the composition by weight).

In specific embodiments, the implementation of the composition of bedding for animals includes the approximately 70-80% by weight of cardboard or paper and approximately 20-30% of edible biomass, such as waste corn. Optionally, the product may also include lime in the amount of approximately 0.02 to 0.05% by weight.

In some embodiments, the implementation of the bedding for the animal is produced by processing raw materials into the shredder and then in hammer mills to reduce the size so that it will flow through the matrix pellets. Small particles are removed in a way to eliminate any dust and small particles that can cause respiratory problems in animals.

Through sealing material compacted bedding for animals provides a tremendous savings in transportation and storage. If you keep the straw or wood chips in their natural state, they will take a huge amount. In some embodiments, the implementation of the raw material compacted to 17 times to ensure compacted bedding for animals. Of course, a variety of raw materials compacted to varying degrees. In General, the product is extruded bedding for animals can be used in smaller quantities and it will be enough longer than traditional materials of bedding for animals. And, of course, the product is biodegradable and from it you can make compost.

Of course, cooked pressed product can be obtained for a coating application by spreading in the stall and then a slight hydration is of material. For example, 40 pounds of material can be wetted with about 1 quads water. Shortly thereafter, usually within about one hour, the pellets expand (sometimes swell to several times their original size), thus resulting in a deeper and soft ground. Added moisture has an additional advantage in reducing dust.

The resulting coverage is a good absorbent, has a wonderful destroying odor characteristics and forms clumps, when the animal excretes urine so that the used part is easily removed from the stall. Solid animal waste does not pollute much product and also removed with ease.

Conclusion

Although this invention has been described in the expression of certain specific embodiments, it is not limited. For example, pellets, described herein, can be used in a wide range of applications other than industrial energy production, bedding for animals and absorbent material to waste. Among other applications are recultivation of landfills and heated homes.

1. Pressed the basis for the application in power plants co-firing and heating the house, containing:
the first particles containing biomass material, you the early group, including planting material of soy beans, sage, planting corn and planting material of sunflower, and second particles, which are particles of coal, where the compressed base, containing the first particles and second particles, and a binder, which is an algae or wax is resistant to fragmentation.

2. Pressed base according to claim 1, where the compressed base is flammable.

3. Pressed base according to claim 2, where the second particles are non-combustible.

4. Pressed base according to claim 1, additionally containing a third particle compositions that are different from those of the first particles and second particles.

5. Pressed base according to claim 1, where the compressed base has a total moisture content of about 9% by weight or less.

6. Pressed base according to claim 2, where the compressed base has an energy density of at least about 7000 BTU per pound when burned.

7. Pressed base according to claim 2, where the compressed core is formed to receive ashes at the level of approximately 4% or less during combustion.

8. Pressed base according to claim 1, where the second particles contain biomass.

9. Pressed base according to claim 1, additionally containing material selected from the group comprising starch, plastic, fish oil, soda, lime, paraffin, vegetable oil, coffee GU is from animal fat.

10. Pressed base according to claim 1, where the compressed base has an average size of approximately 0.25 to 4 inches.

11. Pressed base according to claim 1, where the compressed base represents the pellets or briquettes.

12. Pressed base according to claim 1, containing, essentially, cardboard, agricultural raw materials and deodorizing component.

13. Pressed base according to claim 1, where the pressed base provides as bedding for animals.

14. The compacted aggregate basis for the use in power plants co-firing and heating the house in the container, where each compacted base has a composition as defined in claim 1.

15. The combination of compressed basics 14, where the aggregate is present in the container at a power plant, a coal-fired.

16. A method of obtaining a compressed basis for use in power plants co-firing and heating the house, containing the first particles containing biomass material selected from the group comprising planting material of soy beans, sage, planting corn and planting material of sunflower, and second particles, which are particles of coal, where the compressed base, containing the first particles and second particles, and a binder, which is an algae or wax is resistant to fragmentati is, where the method includes the steps are:
process raw biomass to process raw material into a form containing the first particles; and
at the same time pressed the first particles and the second particles to obtain a compacted base.

17. The method according to clause 16, where the specified compaction occurs in the briquetting press.

18. The method according to clause 16, where the specified compaction occurs in the granulator.

19. The method according to clause 16, where the compressed base is flammable.

20. The method according to claim 19, where the second particles are non-combustible.

21. The method according to claim 19, where the compressed base has an energy density of at least about 7000 BTU per pound when burned.

22. The method according to p, where the second particles contain biomass.

23. The method according to clause 16, where the compressed base represents the pellets or briquettes.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel from compacted biomass whereat moist biomass is dried prior to compaction. Before drying, biomass is mechanically dewatered for decrease in moisture content and ground before mechanical dewatering. Note that biomass is ground to puree state, rubbed to obtain fiber and subjected to fine grinding to destruct cellular structures to biomass consistency varying from paste to fluid. Invention relates also to appliance for producing fuel from compacted biomass. Fine grinding allows better removal of water either mechanically or at preliminary dewatering.

EFFECT: decreased amount of contaminants released in combustion and boiler corrosion, higher combustion heat and ash fusion point.

11 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of fuel pellets including mixing of filler that contains wood processing waste, combustible component in the form of oil waste and binding agent where fat and oil waste from food industry are also used as combustible component and such combustible component serves simultaneously as binding agent; powdered thickener from combustible material is added to the mixture, at that at first mixing of thickener and binding agent is made in ratio of 0.2-1.0:1 during 1.5-2 minutes in order to thicken the latter, thereafter filler is introduced step-by-step into the thickened mixture and filler takes ratio of 0.5-1.0:1 to the binding agent, then mixture is stirred during 35-40 minutes till pellets of stable shape appear; then thickener is added again in quality of 10-20% of its initial weight in order to prevent sticking of pellets and the mixture is stirred for another 2-4 minutes till finished product of round pellets is received. Received fuel pellets are used for household and municipal boilers for firing up purpose.

EFFECT: claimed method is simpler, more cost effective and ecologically safe.

15 cl

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to usage of an extrusion-type briquette (BREX) produced by the method of stiff vacuum extrusion, including coal dressing wastes and, if required, coal siftings, a mineral binder and a concrete stone, as fuel for industrial furnaces and domestic ovens. BREX briquettes are characterised by the fact that size of materials included into a mixture for production of briquettes does not exceed 5 mm.

EFFECT: application of stiff vacuum extrusion makes it possible to produce BREX briquettes with sufficient strength and optimal dimensions for solid fuel, with minimum consumption of a binder.

3 cl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to procedure and method for production of solid hydrocarbon fuel. For this purpose the procedure of solid hydrocarbon fuel production involves the following: saturation of hydrocarbon raw material with water; dispersion of the raw material saturated with water up to ultrafine condition in result of volumetric cavitation under ultrasound; dispersed raw material is extruded through magnetoacoustic coagulator made as a thin-wall metal tube; formation of ring eddy currents in metal of the magnetoacoustic coagulator which are directed around it longitudinal axis and have frequency approximately equal to the frequency of free radial mechanical oscillation of the magnetoacoustic coagulator; output from the magnetoacoustic coagulator of solid hydrocarbon fuel obtained in result of ultrafine mixture coagulation under influence of magnetoacoustic resonance processes in magnetoacoustic resonator.

EFFECT: use of the device allows simplification of more efficient solid hydrocarbon fuel from any organic raw material.

12 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: material cells are mechanically disintegrated; lipids are extracted using a Folch method, involving extraction of lipids with a mixture of chloroform and methanol (2:1 by volume), followed by washing the extract with KCl solution (0.88%) and, after demixing and removing the top phase, with a mixture of 0.88% KCl solution and methanol (1:1 by volume); the KCl solution and the mixture are added in an amount of 1/4 part of the obtained and remaining volume of extract, respectively; the ready lipid extract is dried by passing through a layer of anhydrous Na2SO4; the dry extract is then re-esterified with a mixture of methanol and acid catalyst, where the methanol is mixed with the catalyst in ratio of 50:1 by volume; biodiesel is extracted from the reaction mixture with hexane; the biodiesel extract is dried by passing through a layer of anhydrous Na2SO4.

EFFECT: obtaining biodiesel using a cheap and simple method by processing mud or sludge from treatment facilities.

1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to production of solid fuel, in which there described is solid-fuel granulated composition based on carbon-containing component, where as carbon-containing component, there added is disperse activated product of low-temperature pyrolysis of wastes of technical rubber products and polymer wastes (pyrocarbon with specific surface S=5000-8000 cm2/g), and wood dust is added as plant waste. At that, as the component that initiates combustion, there added are nitrogen-containing components, and binding agent is added in the form of water solution of polymer plasticising additive with total initial humidity Winitial =1035 wt %. Peculiar feature of granulated solid-fuel composition and method for its obtainment is increase in thermal power due to considerable acceleration of fuel combustion at reduced quantity of hazardous gaseous emission to atmosphere. Proposed ratios of components and added quantity of NH4NO3 as an oxidiser instead of hydrogen at combustion provides formation of NO3, N2 and H2O. Excess oxygen is supplied to oxidation of fuel components.

EFFECT: obtaining fuel briquettes with high reactivity ability, increased thermal power and high strength of briquettes.

2 cl, 4 cl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fuel agglomeration machines and production of moulded solid fuel to be used in utilities and power engineering. Proposed device comprises housing with screw, solid fuel feed trough, and female die with moulding holes and ducts. Device housing accommodates conditioning system while screw is furnished with processing blades and heating elements arranged inside screw hollow tube and connected to external power source by means of terminals.

EFFECT: higher quality of fuel pellets.

3 cl, 2 dwg

Fuel briquette // 2268914

FIELD: production of coal-containing fuel; preparation of briquettes (granules) for furnace units of minor and medium heat power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: fuel (briquette, granule) contains 47.5-52.5% of culm, 28.5-31.5% of coal screenings and 19-21% of sawdust. Fuel thus produced is cheaper than similar fuels due to utilization of coal output wastes and wood-working process wastes without binding materials; fuel possesses high heat of combustion of coal; slag forming is excluded; finely-dispersed ash may be used as mineral fertilizer.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

FIELD: solid fuel technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for application in production of solid fuel in metallurgy and for domestic necessities. Method of restoring sieve composition of coke comprises mixing off-grad coke with binder, such as various cement brands and Portland cement, moistening, briquetting of mix followed by heat treatment, and cooling. Off-grad coke utilized is coke fines fraction 0-10 mm and/or coke nut fraction 10-25 mm belonging to a certain types, which are mixed with binder at ratio (60-95):(5-40), respectively. Moistening is provided by adding water to 35% based on the weight of mix. Heat treatment is effected with steam. Cooling proceeds at ambient temperature to residual moisture content 5%. Mix is completed with filler in the form of organic or inorganic naturally occurring or man-made substances. Briquetting is effected on either vibration or press equipment. Coke briquette contains 60 to 95% of above-defined off-grade coke and 5 to 40 % of binder. Size of thus manufactured briquettes corresponds to required sieve composition of coke.

EFFECT: enabled full restoration of all fractions of needless process coke residues to useful sieve composition appropriate for fabrication of environmentally safe briquettes with improved consumer's properties without considerable investments.

8 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: production of smokeless solid combustibles used for outdoors preparation and heating of food in camping.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to combustibles, which are steadily burning at an air pressure in the open air in the heating devices used for cooking and warming up of food while in camping. The combustible composition includes 90-97 % of urotropine and paraffin - the rest. At this combustible burning it ensures a synergistic effect, in particular, removal of a skeleton-type carbon film on the surface of the condensed phase and a transparency of the flame with formation of nontoxic gaseous products of burning. In such of conditions the composition ensures necessary efficiency.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of a synergistic effect at smokeless solid combustibles burning, transparency of flame, nontoxic gaseous products of burning.

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to application of BREC produced by stiff vacuum extrusion.Said process comprises coke fines, mineral binder and, if required, brown-coal char to be used as reducer in metallurgical furnace. Mineral binder in production of BREC is normally a cement and, if required, bentonite. Particle size of materials of the mix for BREC production does not exceed 5 mm, BREC weight not exceeding 0.3 kg.

EFFECT: optimum size, higher cold and hot strength.

3 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of fuel pellets including mixing of filler that contains wood processing waste, combustible component in the form of oil waste and binding agent where fat and oil waste from food industry are also used as combustible component and such combustible component serves simultaneously as binding agent; powdered thickener from combustible material is added to the mixture, at that at first mixing of thickener and binding agent is made in ratio of 0.2-1.0:1 during 1.5-2 minutes in order to thicken the latter, thereafter filler is introduced step-by-step into the thickened mixture and filler takes ratio of 0.5-1.0:1 to the binding agent, then mixture is stirred during 35-40 minutes till pellets of stable shape appear; then thickener is added again in quality of 10-20% of its initial weight in order to prevent sticking of pellets and the mixture is stirred for another 2-4 minutes till finished product of round pellets is received. Received fuel pellets are used for household and municipal boilers for firing up purpose.

EFFECT: claimed method is simpler, more cost effective and ecologically safe.

15 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of making fuel briquettes, which involves mixing carbon filler with ground coal, adding a binding substance and briquetting the mixture under pressure. The carbon filler, which is in form of aluminium wastes, anode paste and electrodes in amount of 25.1-85.00 wt %, is dry-mixed with ground brown coal until a 100% dry mass is obtained, followed by addition of the binding substance to the dry mass. The binding substance used is bitumen or polyvinyl alcohol in amount of 2-10 wt %, in excess of 100% of the dry mass. If polyvinyl alcohol is used as the binder, hydrophobic additives are added to the obtained mixture in amount of 1-5 wt %, in excess of 100% of the obtained mixture.

EFFECT: improved properties.

3 cl, 3 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method for production of coal briquettes from coal slurry and coal fines with a binder - an aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte - a flocculant on the basis of a polyacrylamide (PAA). As an intensifying additive to increase adhesion as a charge is compressed in process of pressing, the initial solution of PAA is complemented with water-soluble surfactants from the class of polyethers based on propylene glycol. Coal briquettes are used for communal-domestic and technological purposes.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of application.

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: in order to increase calorific capacity and mechanical strength of fuel briquettes obtained from small coal fractions and coal slurries, there used are resinous rejects - resin after captax manufacture. Consumption of the binding agent is 7-8 wt % of the coal material weight.

EFFECT: coal briquettes with the above binding agent are used under domestic conditions for public living needs and in order to obtain the products of technological purpose when performing semi-coking processes.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to fuel briquette that contains coke and anthracite fines, molasses as binding agent and additional binding agent - industrial vegetable oil. At that, briquettes have cylindrical shape with the following dimensions: diameter x height - 100x100 or 110x110 or 120x120 mm. The invention also refers to the method for obtaining fuel briquettes, which involves dosing, mixing of coke and anthracite fines and binding agent - molasses, briquetting of mixture under pressure of 35-50 MPa and drying of briquettes, and which differs by the fact that industrial vegetable oil is added to molasses prior to dosing at the following ratio of molasses : oil, wt %: 9-12 : 0.5-2; briquettes are arranged on trolleys and drying is performed at continuous discrete trolley movement (every 10 minutes) through the distance equal to the length of one trolley; at that, temperature vs. time drying mode is characterised with three stages: first stage - 100-300C during 40 minutes, the second stage - 380-200C during 100 minutes, the third stage - 200-100C; besides, drying of briquettes at the first stage is performed with opposite flow in relation to trolley movement, and with cocurrent flow of drying agent at the second and the third stages.

EFFECT: improvement of the method.

5 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to organic binder for coal fuel briquettes, containing a mixture of resin wastes, consisting of different amounts of resin from captax production and still residues from fractionation production of diaphene "FP".

EFFECT: coal briquettes obtained from fine coal fractions, coal sludge and sludge cake using the binder have high calorific value and mechanical strength.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to binder for coal fuel briquettes, which contains resin wastes - still residues from production of diaphene "FP", which are universal surfactants.

EFFECT: obtained coal fuel briquttes have high calorific value and mechanical strength.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the coal-tar industry, production of an optimum composition and method of moulding briquettes from fine particles of coal and coke, which can be used in commodity form as combustible material. The fuel briquette consists of fine carbon-containing particles with polymer binder. The binder used is aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol and the briquette additionally contains mineral oil, with the following ratio of components, wt %: polyvinyl alcohol - 5-10; coke or coal particles - 30-70; mineral oil - 3-7; water - the balance. The method of moulding a solid fuel briquette involves saturating fine coke or coal particles with spent oil products. Said products are added to the aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol and stirred. The mixture is frozen at -20C for 20 hours and then thawed at room temperature and dried to constant weight.

EFFECT: efficient recycling of wastes from a coke-chemical plant and spent oil products.

2 cl, 8 ex, 1 tbl

Fuel cell // 2423412

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel cell made from carbonaceous material and binder. The binder consists of water and octadecylamine; or water, octadecylamine and carbonaceous material, wherein the binder is at least once passed through a disperser with differential pressure on the disperser ranging from 0.1105 Pa to 25105 Pa. The amount of octadecylamine in the binder ranges from 0.1 to 10%.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a fuel cell with high moisture resistance.

4 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel from compacted biomass whereat moist biomass is dried prior to compaction. Before drying, biomass is mechanically dewatered for decrease in moisture content and ground before mechanical dewatering. Note that biomass is ground to puree state, rubbed to obtain fiber and subjected to fine grinding to destruct cellular structures to biomass consistency varying from paste to fluid. Invention relates also to appliance for producing fuel from compacted biomass. Fine grinding allows better removal of water either mechanically or at preliminary dewatering.

EFFECT: decreased amount of contaminants released in combustion and boiler corrosion, higher combustion heat and ash fusion point.

11 cl, 1 dwg

Up!