Underground liquefied natural gas storage
SUBSTANCE: proposed storage comprises reinforced concrete tank mounted on the bed of compacted soil and heat-isolation layer and having vertical sidewalls, said being surrounded by pliable layer at outer side surface and heat- and water-insulated from liquefied natural gas. Storage shaft is equipped with pipelines to fill said storage with said gas and its vapors and to discharge the latter therefrom. Said shaft extending from reinforced concrete tank to surface is equipped with tight hatches and staircase. Tank top is buried in the heat-insulation material layer. Note here that tank top features cross-section decreasing towards earth surface and is shaped to truncated cone and connected with said shaft by sealed flange joint. Aid tank top with flange joint are arranged at decreased spacing from frozen soil bottom surface.
EFFECT: simplified design.
The invention relates to underground storage system and backup LNG, namely economical, fire - proof vaults located below ground level, and can be used for accumulation and delivery of LNG to consumers in areas where there is no pipeline natural gas.
Known adopted as a prototype underground storage of liquefied natural gas containing located at the base of compacted soil and the insulating layer reinforced concrete tank with overlaying it on top of a flat roof, on the outer side surface of vertical walls surrounded by a pliable layer, insulated from the inside and gidroizolirovat from liquefied natural gas, is supplied located in the technological mine pipelines for filling the issuance of liquefied natural gas and its vapors coming out of reinforced concrete reservoir on the surface of the earth technological mine fitted with airtight doors and stairs, and the top concrete tank covered with a layer of lightweight insulation material, roof concrete tank made with guys, strained from the roof the supporting reinforced concrete ring located in a concrete wall above the roof and below the earth's surface, the shrouds covered with corrosion-resistant coating and backfilled to surface the earth with a layer of lightweight insulating material (RF patent No. 2431770, IPC F17C 1/00, B65G 5/00, E04B 7/14, publ. 20.10. 2011, bull. No. 29).
The disadvantages of the known underground storage are the following:
1) the complexity of the structure overlying the reservoir on top of a flat roof, exposed to significant vertical loads due to the size of the roof corresponding to the cross-sectional area of concrete tank.
2). The complexity of the sealing of the tank due to the considerable length of the contact contour of the roof with the top edge of the tank.
3) a lot of pressure on guys to maintain the roof in a given state, which may be susceptible to the damaging effects due to oxidative processes and seasonal temperatures, which can lead to increased loads on the roof and its destruction.
4) the Limited capacity of the tank due to the necessity of placing the top slab at a considerable depth from the earth's surface.
These drawbacks reduce the reliability of the store, causing a significant increase in capital costs and operating costs in the construction and maintenance of underground storage of liquefied natural gas.
The technical result of the invention is to simplify the construction of the underground gas storage facilities to reduce capital costs and operating costs with increased reliable the STI system sealing concrete tank and increase its capacity.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that underground storage of liquefied natural gas containing located at the base of compacted soil and the insulating layer reinforced concrete tank with vertically oriented side walls, surrounded by the outer side surface of the pliable layer, insulated from the inside and gidroizolirovat from liquefied natural gas, is supplied located in the technological mine pipelines for filling the issuance of liquefied natural gas and its vapors coming out of reinforced concrete reservoir on the surface of the earth technological mine fitted with airtight doors and stairs, and the top concrete tank covered with a layer of insulating material, while the upper part of the tank is made with decreasing cross-sectional area in the direction of the earth's surface by performing it in the form of a truncated cone and is connected with the mine sealed flange joint, while the upper part of the tank with flange connection with a mine placed with a reduced distance from the bottom surface promiseme soil.
Underground storage is presented in figure 1 is a vertical section along its Central axis, figure 2 - section a-a of figure 1 with a rectangular cross-section of the lower and upper parts of the re is ervoir, figure 3 - the same, with a circular cross-section of the lower and upper parts of the tank.
Underground storage of liquefied natural gas is located below ground level 1 at the level of preventing the freezing of the earth, and is fenced around the perimeter concrete wall 2 contains located at the base of compacted soil 3 and insulating layer 4 concrete tank 5, which is surrounded by the outer side surface of the pliable layer 6. Inside the tank 5 is covered with the insulation layers 7 and collar 8. Thus the lateral surface of the tank 5 is made with vertically oriented walls 9, placed at the base, and the upper part 10 is made with a reduced cross-sectional area in the direction of the earth's surface 1 due to the performance profile of the upper part 10 of the tank by means of inclined forming surface. Coming out of the concrete tank 5 to the surface of the earth 1 technological shaft 11 with 12 pipelines for filling the issuance of LNG and its vapors are equipped with hermetic doors 13 and ladder 14. Top 10 concrete tank 5 is made with a reduced cross-sectional area in the direction of the earth's surface 1 by executing it in the form of a truncated cone and is connected with the technological shaft 11 is sealed flange connection 15 and covered up SL is eating insulating material 16. The upper part 10 of the tank 5 with flange connection 15 with the shaft 11 is placed with a reduced distance from the bottom surface 17 promiseme soil. Is it possible due to the fact that the upper part 10 of the tank 5 adjacent to the shaft 11. The cross-section of the bottom 9 and the top 10 pieces of concrete tank 5 may be made of a rectangular (figure 2) or round (figure 3) forms.
Features of the invention provide, in comparison with the prototype, increasing the capacity of the tank at the same depth, a considerable simplification of the construction of the underground gas storage facilities to reduce capital costs and operating costs with increased system reliability sealing concrete tank by eliminating flat roof with a significant load on her and supporting her guy a few times, reducing the length of and substantially simplify the design of a sealed loop of the upper part of the tank, insulation material with any bulk mass, as the upper part of the tank with inclined forming can withstand much greater loads than flat roof of the known underground storage, which extends the underground storage in different areas and with different the insulating materials.
Underground storage of liquefied natural gas containing located at the base of compacted soil and the insulating layer reinforced concrete tank with vertically oriented side walls, surrounded by the outer side surface of the pliable layer, insulated from the inside and gidroizolirovat from liquefied natural gas, is supplied located in the technological mine pipelines for filling the issuance of liquefied natural gas and its vapors coming out of reinforced concrete reservoir on the surface of the earth technological mine fitted with airtight doors and stairs, and the top concrete tank covered with a layer of insulating material, characterized in that the upper part of the tank is made with decreasing cross-sectional area in the direction of the earth's surface for by running it in the form of a truncated cone and is connected with the mine sealed flange joint, while the upper part of the tank with flange connection with a mine placed with a reduced distance from the bottom surface promiseme soil.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: at least one external bottom and/or housing is equipped with a hole. A coupling is welded to the hole. At least an inner side of a compressed air receiver is equipped with inner coating. Contact surfaces between the housing and external bottoms are made so that they adjoin each other butt-to-butt, back-to-back respectively, and welded to each other without any welding material using laser welding. The coupling is welded to the hole by means of laser or condenser-discharge welding. Inner coating of the compressed air receiver is applied by means of a powder method. At that, the coupling has a recess, a chamfer or a groove located so that burr or ring-shaped projection formed with the coupling remains between itself and the receiver.
EFFECT: easy manufacture and lower cost of a receiver.
27 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: vessel includes the first subcylinder (4), the second subcylinder (6), pre-stress device (8) and fastening element (16). The first and the second subcylinders (4, 6) are axially connected with possibility of forming cylindrical casing (2) to contain high-pressure medium. The first subcylinder (4) on the external wall is equipped with the first seat (22) to place the first part (24) of fastening element (16), and the second subcylinder (6) on the external wall is equipped with the second seat (26) to place the second part (28) of fastening element (16). The latter is inserted into the first and the second seats (22, 26). Fastening element (16) and the first, and the second seats (22, 26) are arranged so that fastening element (16) and the first, and the second seats (22, 26) can interact with possibility of preventing disconnecting axial movement between the first and the second subcylinders (4, 6). Pre-stress device (8) is arranged around an enveloping surface of cylindrical casing (2) so that cylindrical casing (2) is radially pre-stressed and so that fastening element (16) is fixed in the first and the second seats (22, 26).
EFFECT: simpler manufacture of the vessel.
17 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: manufacturing method of bottles operating under pressure of 100 to 200 kgf/cm2 involves obtainment of ingots from seamless hot deformed pipe from carbon steel and moulding of bottoms by applying the rolling method of warmed-up ends of pipe ingots. As pipe ingot material, steel 20 or steel 35 is used. Pipe ingots are made of pipe with nominal outer diameter of 159 mm with nominal wall thickness of 4.5 to 6.5 mm, rolling of warmed-up ends of pipe ingots is performed at the length of 80-130 mm for bottom part and 100-160 mm for the bottom with a neck respectively, and after rolling is completed, bottles with volume of 8 to 25 litres are produced, the length ratio of which to the diameter is 3.2 to 11.5.
EFFECT: reduction of metal consumption, specific weight of bottles, manufacturing labour intensity, improving manufacturability of a family of high-pressure bottles from seamless hot deformed pipes at provision of their strength properties.
3 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: high pressure vessel includes at least the first sub-cylinder and the second sub-cylinder, which are coaxially connected so that formation of a cylindrical housing for high pressure medium is possible, and a sealing structure arranged on inner wall of the cylindrical housing for sealing of the connection between the first and the second sub-cylinders against high pressure medium leakage. The sealing structure includes a ring-shaped sealing strip, the first projecting flange that is arranged on inner wall of the first sub-cylinder and that is coaxially continued from the connection and to the side from the second sub-cylinder, and the second peripherally projecting flange. The flange is arranged on inner wall of the second sub-cylinder and that is axially continued from the connection and then from the first sub-cylinder. The sealing strip when in the installed position is arranged concentrically within the limits of the first and the second projecting flanges so that it tightly adjoins the first and the second projecting flanges by means of radial pre-stress and covers the connection between the first and the second sub-cylinders so that tightness is ensured. Besides, the sealing structure includes the first peripheral installation space that is arranged on inner wall of the first sub-cylinder and that is axially continued from the first projecting flange and then from the second sub-cylinder to provide the replacement of components of the sealing structure. Method applied for replacement of worn-out sealing strip of high pressure vessel is described.
EFFECT: higher reliability of the device.
17 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to underground storage and reservation system of LNG for its accumulation and distribution to the consumer. LNG US is located below the ground level 1 at the elevation preventing the freezing of ground surface at the most long-term estimated storage of LNG. It is blocked off and protected along the perimeter from ground mass with a concrete wall of "wall in ground" type 2. It includes reinforced-concrete tank 5 located at the bottom from compacted ground 3 and heat-insulating intermediate layer 4, which is enveloped on external side surface with soft intermediate layer 6, and on the inner side it is covered with layers of heat insulation 7 and waterproof insulation 8 from LNG. LNG US is equipped with process shaft 9 with pipelines 10, which comes out of reinforced-concrete reservoir to ground surface 1, tight hatches 11 and stairs 12. Top of concrete reservoir is filled with a layer of light heat-insulating material 13. Vertical wall of reinforced-concrete reservoir 5 is made of single-type elements of constant curvature in the form of solid reinforced-concrete units 14 of constant section with surfaces 15 adjacent to each other. Along the perimetre of end surfaces 15 of reinforced-concrete blocks 14 and their centre there made are grooves of rectangular section with tightening horizontal and vertical 18 reinforcement installed in them (vertical 17 and horizontal 18 tightening reinforcement rods).
EFFECT: use of the invention ensures reliability of horizontal tightening of reinforced-concrete blocks; simplifying the construction procedure of side walls of reservoir; improving construction quality and operating reliability of LNG US.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: pressure vessel includes cylindrical shell and head that is made in the form of a rotational shell connected to cylindrical shell by means of middle surfaces; at that, rotational shell consists of central spherical part and transient part, the geometrical shape of middle surface of which is determined by the following expression:
where is nondimensional height coordinate of the head; h - head bottom, mm; Rc - radius of cylindrical shell, mm; - nondimensional coordinate of transient part of the head; r - radial dimension along cylindrical shell, mm; θ0 - approach angle of the head to cylindrical shell; k - nondimensional parameter of circumferential stresses; - coordinate of interface of two sections, which is determined on the basis of interface of central spherical part to transient part, which provides tangent connection of the parts: where - ratio of radii of central spherical part and cylindrical shell; Rspher - radius of central spherical part, mm.
EFFECT: design of pressure vessel of the proposed shape will allow providing its minimum mass characteristics.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: multiple-cavity high-pressure cylinder includes housing consisting of cylindrical part and two semi-spherical bottoms with h thickness. Inside the housing there arranged are i=0, 1, 2, n spherical closed covers forming spherical cavities and two semi-spheres of the same thickness, which together with semi-spherical bottoms form extreme spherical cavities one of which is connected to filling device. All spherical cavities are connected to each other by means of tubular channels and form the first isolated number of interconnected spherical cavities. Centres of spheres are located on housing axis. Cavities formed with cylindrical part of housing and external surfaces of spherical covers form other non-spherical system of cavities. Each non-spherical cavity is partitioned with a belt (1/4)h thick with the centre located along cylinder axis in the middle between spherical covers, thus forming in the cylinder the second and the third isolated system of cavities; at that, the second one is formed with a number of cavities each of which is restricted with belt wall and walls of segments of neighbouring spherical covers (1/2)h thick, which are restricted with belts. The third number is formed with pairs of identical cavities formed with cylindrical part of housing (1/2)h thick, wall of belt and part of spherical cover (3/4)h thick, which is located between neighbouring belts. All elements of cylinder are made of coaxial covers of single average radius R. The second and the third isolated systems of interconnected cavities are connected to filling device.
EFFECT: possibility of wide variation of overall dimensions is provided so that numerical value of that ratio is maintained, and values of resistance to cyclic loads are increased.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: double-cavity pressure vessel with varying volume of cavities is intended for being used mainly as a container during transportation and storage of gases and fluids; and as pressure accumulator in hydraulic systems. Vessel consists of strong non-tight housing including shell 1 and bottoms 2 and 3, and tight bags 4 and 5 placed in it. Bags are equipped with nozzles 6, 7 and 8 tightly inserted into them and protruding outwards from the housing. Cover of each bag can fill in the whole inner cavity of housing without being stretched. Covers can be equipped with ribs 11 made from elastic material in the form of sleeve 12 with one or two bonded ends 13. Bag outlet through nozzle can be equipped with hollow stiff element 15 with perforated walls, and external surface of bags can be covered with cover made from antifriction material 16.
EFFECT: use of invention will allow excluding the tightness requirement of stiff strong housing and eliminating the contact of one cover with both media filling in the vessel.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to marine natural gas production, gas loading and unloading. Liquefied-gas carrier (LNC) with loading and unloading system is available in three versions. In compliance with first version, liquefied-gas carrier is designed to load and unload LNC and comprises system of submerged revolving loading, plant to liquefy natural gas fed via submerged revolving loading to cryogenic liquefied natural gas, at least, one self-supported storage tank mounted on carrier and arranged to allow LNC to be loaded and unloaded via said self-supported storage tank, and, at least, one membrane-type storage tank arranged nearby the first one. Besides, there is, regasifying plant for natural gas stored in self-supported storage tank. In compliance with second version, liquefied-gas carrier is intended for loading LNC and comprises first pipeline to feed LNC to self-supported storage tank and second pipeline to feed LNC from the latter into membrane-type storage tank. In compliance with third version, liquefied-gas carrier is intended for LNC unloading and comprises first pipeline arranged between regasifying plant and self-supported storage tank to unload LNC, and second pipeline to feed, in unloading, LNC from membrane-type storage tank to self-supported storage tank being unloaded.
EFFECT: reduced vibration of fluid on tank surface in loading and unloading.
13 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: high-pressure cylinder made from composite materials comprises multilayer structural carcass made up of intercrossing unidirectional elements and binder, inner gastight envelopment, gas feed and release means. Note here that said multilayer carcass is made up of capillaries wound on aforesaid envelopment. Said cylinder is furnished with gas feed and release means arranged on one or both ends of the cylinder. Structural element may be arranged inside said envelopment that represents a tube, or perforated tube, or rod.
EFFECT: high weight and volume gas content, reliability, fast filling and release.
8 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: storage is arranged below earth level (1), is enclosed along the perimetre from the soil massif with a concrete wall of "wall in soil" type (2) and comprises a reinforced concrete reservoir (5) arranged on the base from compacted soil (3) and a heat insulation layer (4), and this reservoir at its external side surface is surrounded with a pliable layer (6) and is coated from inside with layers of heat insulation (7) and hydraulic insulation (8). The storage is equipped with a process well that exits the reinforced concrete reservoir to earth surface. On the concrete wall of the "wall in soil" type there is a support reinforced concrete ring (14), where guy ropes (15) coated with anticorrosion material are attached to support the roof of the reinforced concrete reservoir. At the external side of the concrete wall of "wall in soil" type from the level of the reinforced concrete reservoir roof to earth surface there is a conical or stepped mine filled with a layer of light heat insulation material (13) together with the roof of the reinforced concrete reservoir, guy ropes, support reinforced concrete ring.
EFFECT: possibility of increased capacity storages construction.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: storage is arranged below earth level (1) at the elevation that prevents freezing of the earth surface during the longest possible storage of gas. The storage is enclosed along the perimetre from the soil massif with a concrete wall of "wall in soil" type (2) and comprises a reinforced concrete reservoir (5) arranged on the base from compacted soil (3) and a heat insulation layer (4), and this reservoir at its external side surface is surrounded with a pliable layer (6) and is coated from inside with layers of heat insulation (7) and hydraulic insulation (8). The storage is equipped with a process well that exits the reinforced concrete reservoir to earth surface. On the concrete wall of the "wall in soil" type above the roof of the reinforced concrete reservoir below earth surface there is a support reinforced concrete ring (14), where guy ropes (15) coated with anticorrosion material are attached to support the roof of the reinforced concrete reservoir. The upper of the reinforced concrete reservoir roof, guy ropes and the support reinforced concrete ring to soil surface are filled with a layer of light heat insulation material.
EFFECT: possibility of increased capacity storages construction.
SUBSTANCE: hung ceiling includes lower sagging belt of ceiling and upper belt of ceiling, every of which represents a layer of concrete poured on bearing rods stretched between supports and on connecting reinforcement, besides between bearing rods of upper and lower belts there are braces installed. Upper belt of ceiling and its bearing rods are arranged with upward bend, at the same time bearing rods of both belts are fixed to supports at one height and are arranged along diagonals of ceiling. Each of ceiling belts represents solid board. Thickness of concrete in one or both belts reduces to the centre of ceiling. In each belt of ceiling there might be technological holes and/or openings provided. In plan ceiling has rectangular or polyhedral shape.
EFFECT: reduced material intensity of ceiling.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to building area, in particular to a wide-span building. The wide-span building contains the columns rigidly jammed in the base, bearing preliminary intense and non-load-bearing roof structures. Loading is transferred from a coating to columns. Columns are sloped in the form of two branches crossing in an upper part. The angle of slope of each branch to horizon is defined from a condition of coincidence of directions equally effective from external loading, efforts of prepressure and self-pressure in elements of load-carrying structures of a coating with reaction in a column branch. The skew of an internal branch of a column is defined from minimum possible external load coming from a coating. The skew of an external branch of a column is defined from the greatest possible external load coming from a coating.
EFFECT: decrease in material content of columns.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: construction, particularly extensive span structures.
SUBSTANCE: structure comprises cable system including carrier cable having ends secured to hinged immovable supports and stiffening girder connected to the cable. The stiffening girder is bar-type diagonal truss having polygonal belts. The diagonal truss includes posts spaced equal distances one from another and extending upwards or downwards from the supports towards truss center. Carrier cable is pre-stressed and located along lower truss belt. Carrier cable is hinged to all span joints of the truss and is connected in hinged immovable manner to bearing joints thereof.
EFFECT: reduced structural height and decreased material consumption.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: building, particularly coverings for civil buildings, namely sports or similar structures.
SUBSTANCE: suspended covering comprises load-bearing extended members made as paired metal angle elements having curvilinear profiles and prestressed reinforcement bars arranged in the load-bearing members. Ends of each load-bearing member are connected with each other by spacing member formed of paired metal angle elements. Thin-walled covering panels are laid on load-bearing extended elements.
EFFECT: simplified design.
FIELD: building, particularly coverings for different-purpose multi-span buildings.
SUBSTANCE: membrane coating includes panels connected one to another and supported at corners thereof. Each panel includes support contour and pre-stressed membrane connected to the contour along perimeter thereof. The support contour comprises side flexible members and end transversal beams fastened to them. Each panel is additionally provided with central longitudinal rigid rod having contour defined by broken line and with central transversal beams. The rigid rod and transversal beams are connected one to another, to side flexible members and to three-dimensional truss member. The truss member is connected to edges of end transversal beams and side flexible members at panel corners and to central transversal beam and longitudinal rigid rod in panel center. Membrane is prestressed after side flexible members prestressing. Membrane is arranged above longitudinal rigid rod and spaced a distance equal to 1/30-1/50 of panel span from the rod in panel center.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability due to reduced stress concentration in membrane.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building structures, particularly suspended roofs.
SUBSTANCE: suspension structure roof is formed of intersecting tightened ropes and rigid rods, which form multicellular net. All corners of all cells of the net are defined by two fastening loops with free loop passing into fastening ones. Free end of free loop or free end thereof newly formed of grouped cells is secured in fixation point at an angle close to 90° to roof surface to be secured. As a result above free end acts as guy.
EFFECT: possibility to maintain air-tightness, stability and rigidity of roof coating.
FIELD: building, particularly roof structures.
SUBSTANCE: coating section includes column installed on base and having winch with cable passing through pulley mechanism. Free cable end is connected with upper tore by means of flexible ties. Lower tore is suspended to lower one by pyramidal rope system. Covering panels are arranged in space between ropes. Each covering panels is composed of trapezoidal members connected in air-tight manner by transversal ends thereof. Longitudinal ends of trapezoidal members of one covering panel are air-tightly connected to that of another covering panel. Protective cover supported by column is installed on upper tore so that cover fully encloses the tore. Cover has slot-like nozzles for supplying steam and cleaning liquid on panel surfaces. Nozzles are arranged in lower cover part along longitudinal axes thereof.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs for coating assembling.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: operating method of underground gas storages involves intermittent injection of gas by compressors, which is supplied from a main gas line through production and injection wells of an underground gas storage to a reservoir bed under pressure exceeding formation pressure; further extraction of gas from the underground storage for further gas supply to the main gas line. The above extraction from the underground storage and its supply to the main gas line is performed in a compressor mode that is performed till pressure in the reservoir bed reaches the value excluding allowable well water flooding. With that, a suction gas line of compressor is connected to a gas extraction pipeline from the underground gas storage, and a discharge gas line of compressors is connected to the main gas line.
EFFECT: improving operating efficiency of an underground gas storage.