Method of production of cellular concrete with closed pores (versions), device for making foam medium and mould for forming article to this end

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, particularly to production of cellular concrete particles. Proposed method comprises separate preparation of mortar and water, making foam of surfactant and water, mixing said mortar with foam, foam making, moulding the mix in the mould and thermal processing of article. Mortar is made by mixing water and cement at the following ratio, in wt %: cement - 25.0-58.0, water - 43.0-29.0. Cement is added into vessel with water at constant mixing to obtain homogeneous mortar. At a time, foam-like medium is made by mixing anionic and/or nonionic surfactant in amount of 0.05-0.2% per 30.0-9.0% of water degassed by thermal treatment at 20-95°C. Mixing is conducted by rubber disc fitted on drive shaft at 1000-3000 rpm. Obtained foam-like medium is added to mortar and mixer by mixer composed by piston engaged with drive to reciprocate vertically to produce homogeneous mass. Said mass is poured into molds and solidified at 1-37°C. Now, semi-finished moulded article is withdrawn to be cured at ambient temperature to solid state.

EFFECT: higher precision of finished articles.

10 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the production of building materials, namely variants of the method of production of thermo insulating cellular concrete with closed pores and to a device for mixing cement mass, to obtain a foamy environment, and to form for forming articles from foam concrete. The invention can be used to obtain products of non-autoclaved aerated concrete, both in the factory and on the construction site.

The prior art method of manufacture of concrete products, including separate preparation of cement-sand mortar of cement, ground sand, lime and water and foam from an aqueous solution of foaming agent and their subsequent mixing (Glukhovsky E, and other fundamentals of technology of finishing, heat and waterproofing materials. - Kiev: high school. 1986. s-188).

The disadvantage of this method is the low strength concrete.

As the closest analogue of the invention taken on the patent RU 2067569, 10.10.79, CL C04B 40/02, which describes a method of production of cellular concrete, providing for separate preparation of mortar cement and water, the preparation of the foam of the surfactant and water, mixing cement and foam, molding the mixture into shape, heat treatment products.

The disadvantage of this method of having aetsa the appearance of a significant sediment mixes after filling in the form, as well as a small speed polsacie, and, as a consequence, the low strength of the products.

The task of the invention is the development of a technology for the production of aerated concrete with closed (closed) pores, providing increased thermal performance by reducing density, increasing the strength of the products obtained, the reduction of the production costs and the simplification of manufacturing technology (thermal conductivity is proportional to the density, i.e. the decrease of the density leads to a decrease in conductivity and increase the heat and noise properties).

To solve the problem and achieve a technical result on the first version of the method of manufacturing cellular concrete with closed (closed) pores is that made of cement mass by mixing water and cement in the amount (wt.%): cement 25,0-58,0%, water - 43,0-29,0%, while in a container of water in portions and/or uniformly injected cement with constant stirring until a homogeneous cement mass, at the same time form a foamy environment by mixing in a clean cement capacity anionic (anonorange) and/or non-ionic (nainokanoka) surfactants in a quantity of 0.05-0.2%taken by 30.0-9.0% of the water prior to the last degassing by heat treatment at T=20-95°C, while p is remesiana carried out mechanically by means of a rubber disk, mounted on the drive shaft with a speed of rotation equal to about 1000-3000/min, the obtained foam medium is introduced into the cement mass and stirred by a mixer, made in the form of a piston associated with the drive with the possibility of making a reciprocating motion in the vertical direction to obtain a homogeneous mass, which is poured into forms, followed by hardening at ambient temperature, equal 1-37°C, then remove the semi-finished molded product and incubated at ambient temperature to a solid state.

There may be other embodiments of the method, according to which it is necessary that:

- at the stage of mixing foam environment and the cement mass is additionally injected least 30% of the alkali solution in the amount of 2.0 to 3.6 per cent of the total number of used substances;

cement would have introduced into the water during the formation of the cement mass by means of a screw conveyor;

as the piston would use a wooden pestle till.

To solve the problem and achieve a technical result according to the second variant of the method of manufacturing cellular concrete with closed (closed) pores is that made of cement mass by mixing water and cement in the amount (wt.%): cement 25,0-58,0%, water - 42,5-27,8%, while in a container of water on the conservation and/or uniformly injected cement with constant stirring until a homogeneous cement mass form a foamy environment by mixing in a clean cement capacity anionic (anonorange) and/or non-ionic (nainokanoka) surfactant in the amount of 0,05-0,20%taken by 30.0-9.0% of the water prior to the last degassing by heat treatment at T=20-95°C, while stirring is carried out mechanically by means of a rubber disc mounted on the drive shaft with the rotational speed equal to 1000-3000 rpm, made of cellulose pulp containing a 0.36-1.70 percent cellulose, give it the cement mass and stirred by a mixer, made in the form of piston associated with the drive with the possibility of making a reciprocating motion in the vertical direction to obtain a homogeneous mass, which is injected previously obtained foamy environment and stirred by the same method, then the resulting homogeneous mass is poured into forms, followed by hardening at a temperature equal 1-37°C, then remove the semi-finished molded product and incubated at ambient temperature to a solid state.

There may be other embodiments of the method, according to which it is necessary that:

- at the stage of mixing foam environment and the cement mass is additionally injected least 30% of the alkali solution in the amount of 2.0 to 3.6 per cent of the total number using the x substances;

cement would have introduced into the water during the formation of the cement mass by means of a screw conveyor.

as the piston would use a wooden pestle till.

The prior art various methods and devices for obtaining a foam environment, according to which the foam is produced by churning liquid mixture of rosin soap and animal glue, and the obtained foamed make blocks and plates, which are subjected to autoclave treatment at 170°C and 8 kg/cm2. For the preparation of concrete to receive foam used aluminium powder /paste/ or other gas-forming substances that are injected into the cement mass. In the interaction of aluminium powder with lime cement produces gas /hydrogen/, intumescent cement mass. Consumption of aluminum powder per 1 m3concrete does not exceed 15-20 kg. Properties of aerated concrete is similar to concrete, see Handbook on civil engineering, Kiev, Budivelnik, 1965, str-165 /1/ and the Directory state farm Builder, in the agricultural literature, M., 1962, SCR-131 /2/. Known light concretes based on expanded clay, perlite, etc, materials with volumetric weighing up to 1800 kg/m3/sm, p.157-162/.

It is also known a device for receiving foamy environment - foaming agent (RU, No. 2400452, C2, 27.09.2010), which contains a resin and a surface active agent. As the resin used rosin, smilenow caustic soda or caustic potash. As surface-active substances are used one or more substances selected from primary alkyl sulfates, alkylalkoxysilane, alkyldimethylammonium, cocamidopropylbetaine, oxide alkyldiphenylamine, alphaolefin-sulfonates, secondary alkyl sulphates. The foaming agent further comprises an organic solvent. The organic solvent is chosen from the group of lower primary alcohols, or the products of their oksietilirovannye or oxypropylation. Minimum total content of rosin soap and surface-active substances in the composition of the foaming agent is 4.0 wt.%. The use of foaming agent allows to obtain a stable in cement paste foam with multiplicity at least 15. Negative is the high cost and complexity.

As the closest analogue of the accepted application EN 2001113568, 27.06.2003, CL B28B 5/38, which describes a device for producing foam-containing media capacity, the stirrer is mounted on the drive shaft and the agitator is made in the form of a rubber disk. Known devices have a high cost, difficulty in manufacturing and operation.

The task of the invention is to develop a device for obtaining penoobraznaya, with low cost, design simplicity and ease of operation.

To solve the problem and achieve a technical result, the device for producing the foam of the environment made in the form of a rubber disk with thickness of 0.5-3.7 mm fixed on the drive shaft and immersed in capacity to a depth of 20-55% of the water level with a speed of rotation equal to 1000-3000 rpm, the area of the rubber disk is 30-70% of the maximum cross-sectional area of the tank with water.

It is advisable to perform a disk of reinforced rubber.

In the prior art it is known that for the production of blocks of cellular concrete needs resulting foam concrete is poured into special molds. Current setup have the filling means is a sleeve or hose through which the porous concrete mass is poured into moulds, which can be made of metal or plastic. When this form are placed in cassettes for a few pieces. Collapsible cassette form is filled simultaneously by 30 blocks (1.15 m3), the forms are stacked on each other, which saves production area. However, metal cassettes with forms for concrete roads and bulky. Plastic molds for the production of blocks of cellular concrete C is acetelyne easier and cheaper however, the life they have small (the site of LLC "Techtron", www.textron.com, 2012).

As the closest analogue adopted patent RU 2065815, 27.08.1996, CL B28B 11/00, which describes a form for forming articles from foam concrete made in the form of removable solid walls located at least from the sides and the bases covered from the inside with plastic wrap.

The task of the invention is to develop a form for shaping the foam concrete products with low cost, design simplicity and ease of operation is preferable for small amounts of construction by simplifying Stripping forms.

To solve the problem and achieve a technical result form for forming articles from foam concrete made in the form of removable solid walls located at least from the sides and bottoms covered with the inner side of a polyethylene film, of a thickness of 40 to 30 μm, while the side walls to adjacent sides and/or corners of the interconnected elements of connection with the formation of the desired product shape.

In addition, it is advisable to perform the connection elements in the form of a rubber ties or strings.

In addition, it is useful as a wall from bottom to use natural is the basis of land or the floor of the building, covered with plastic wrap.

These characteristics are essential and interrelated causal connection with the formation of the essential features sufficient to achieve a technical result, in particular to reduce the density, thermal conductivity, reduce costs and simplify manufacturing techniques, as well as ensuring ease of use by simplifying Stripping forms.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where:

figure 1 is a device for mixing cement mass.

figure 2 - shape to obtain a foamy environment.

figure 3 is a device for shaping.

The invention is illustrated by a specific example of implementation, which, however, is not only possible, but clearly demonstrates the possibility of achieving a given set of essential features specified technical result.

According to the invention in the first embodiment of the method of manufacturing cellular concrete with closed (closed) pores is to perform the following operations:

- izgotovlivajut cement mass by mixing water and cement in the amount (wt.%): cement - 25,0-58,0%, water - 43,0-29,0%, while in a container of water in portions and/or uniformly injected cement with constant stirring until homogeneous, Amantai mass

- at the same time form a foamy environment by mixing in a clean cement capacity of anionic surfactant in the form of alkylen-soulmate sodium in amounts of 0.05-0.2%taken by 30.0-9.0% of the water prior to the last degassing by heat treatment at T=20-95°C, while stirring is carried out mechanically by means of a rubber disc mounted on the drive shaft with the rotational speed equal to 1000-3000 rpm,

- obtained foam medium is introduced into the cement mass and stirred by a mixer, made in the form, the piston associated with the drive with the possibility of making a reciprocating motion in the vertical direction to obtain a homogeneous mass, which

is poured into the forms, followed by hardening at ambient temperature, equal 1-37°C, then

- remove the semi-finished molded product and

is maintained at ambient temperature to a solid state.

To improve the stability of the foam during mixing foamy environment and cement mass additionally impose a 30% solution of alkali, such as sodium silicate, in the amount of 2.0 to 3.6 per cent.

To simplify the process of manufacturing cement mass of cement is injected into the water by means of a screw conveyor, and as the piston using a wooden pestle till.

According to the invention for toromuerto a method of manufacturing cellular concrete with closed (closed) pores is that

- made cement mass by mixing water and cement in the amount (wt.%): cement - 25,0-58,0%, water - 42,5-27,8%, while in a container of water in portions and/or uniformly injected cement with constant stirring until a homogeneous cement mass,

- form a foamy environment by mixing in a clean cement capacity nianogo surfactants, namely ethoxylated alkylphenol, in the amount of 0.5 to 2.0%, taken 30-9,0% water, previously held decontamination by heat treatment at T=20-95°C, while stirring is carried out mechanically by means of a rubber disc mounted on the drive shaft with the rotational speed equal to 1000-3000 rpm,

- made of cellulose pulp containing 0,36-1,7% cellulose;

- give it the cement mass and stirred by a mixer, made in the form of a piston associated with the drive with the possibility of making a reciprocating motion in the vertical direction to obtain a homogeneous mass, which

- enter the previously obtained foamy environment and stirred by the same method, then the resulting homogeneous mass is poured into forms, followed by hardening at a temperature equal 1-37°C, then remove the semi-finished molded product and

is maintained at ambient temperature until the solid SOS is sustainability.

To improve the stability of the foam during mixing foamy environment and cement mass additionally impose a 30% solution of alkali in the form of lime in the amount of 2.0 to 3.6 per cent.

To simplify the process of manufacturing cement mass of cement is injected into the water by means of a screw conveyor, and as the piston using a wooden pestle till.

For mixing cement mass can be applied to the device, made in the form of a flexible container 1 (1) of elastic material such as rubber or polymeric material having sealing means 2, which is placed in the water and cement, clog capacity with subsequent change mechanically, for example by the pressure of the feet or hands, shape, capacity and collateral, thereby mixing the components until a homogeneous cement mass. For example, on the floor is a bag made of a polymeric material filled with water and cement, work goes on it's feet in different directions - along, across, diagonally, back and forth until a homogeneous cement mass.

According to the invention a device for producing foam protection made in the form of a rubber disk 3 (figure 2) thickness 0.5-3.7 mm fixed on the drive shaft 4 and is immersed in the tank 5 to a depth of 20-55% from level 6 of the water with a speed of rotation equal to about 1000-3000/min

When this square is a rubber disk 3 is 30-70% of the maximum. In the manufacturing process of the foam cross-sectional area of the tank with water, the size of the disk is determined empirically by, as well as the thickness of the rubber. To improve reliability, it is advisable to perform disk 3 of reinforced rubber.

In the process of manufacturing products made of foam according to the invention use the form 7 (3) for forming products, made in the form of a solid, for example, from plywood, plastic, metal wall 8 located on the sides and the base 9. With the inner side wall 8 and the base 9 are covered with a polyethylene thin film 10, the thickness 40-30 mm.

The side walls 8 adjacent the sides and/or corners interconnected by connection elements 11 with the formation of the desired product shape, such as rectangular parallelepiped, cube, triangular prism, arch shape, etc. the Use of flexible material for the side walls 8 allows the manufacture of shaped articles by deforming the surface of the walls.

To simplify the design of the form and its cheaper expedient execution of the joint elements in the form of a rubber ties or strings.

To solve the problem, it is useful as a wall base, i.e. from the bottom, use a flat piece of ground, pavement or floor of the room, covered with a thin polyeth Lanovoy film 10.

This embodiment has a constructive simplicity and ease of use by simplifying Stripping.

According to the first variant implementation of the method of manufacturing cellular concrete with closed pores can be represented in the following example.

As starting materials for option No. 1 is used in wt.%:

Composition for option No. 1Mach for "easy" foamMin heavy foam
water - part of No. 14329,230,0
Anionic surfactants - alkylbenzoates sodium0,050,20,1
The water part No. 229,95917,4
cement255850
30% aqueous solution of sodium silicate2,03,62,5

As starting materials, the La option No. 2 is used in wt.%:

Composition for option No. 2Max for lightweight foamMin heavy foam
water - part of No. 142,527,830,0
the nonionic surfactant is ethoxylated alkyl phenol,0,050,20,1
The water part No. 2309of 17.0
cement255849
30% aqueous solution of lime2,03,62,9
cellulose0,361,71,0

After formation of the composition according to the claimed technology perform the following operations for production of foam concrete and products:

first, mix the water in an amount of 43% and the cement in the amount of 25%, while in a container of water p is rtiona injected cement with constant stirring until a homogeneous cement mass;

secondly, in parallel with this process form a foamy environment by mixing in clean of cement capacity, anionic surfactants-alkylbenzenesulfonate sodium, in the amount of 0,05%, drawn 30% water, previously held decontamination by heat treatment at T=90°C, stirring is carried out mechanically by means of a rubber disc mounted on the drive shaft with the rotational speed equal to 3000 rpm;

thirdly, the obtained foam medium is introduced into the cement mass and stirred by a mixer, made in the form, the piston associated with the drive with the possibility of making a reciprocating motion in the vertical direction to obtain a homogeneous mass;

fourth, the resulting mass is poured into forms, followed by hardening at ambient temperature of 20°C and withstand the day;

fifthly, remove the semi-finished molded product and incubated at ambient temperature to a solid state.

The second variant implementation of the method is that simultaneously with the production of foamy environment produce a pulp slurry containing a 0.36-1.7% of cellulose, in which portions injected cement mass with constant stirring mixer, like the formation of the cement mass. Filling cement mass of cellulose the second slurry removes the internal voltage, eliminates cracking and reduces the brittleness of the product due to the application of the principle of reinforcement products throughout and in all directions.

The use of the invention allows a substantial increase in heat and sound insulation properties of the resulting product by varying the amount of cement and quality used for cement and water, while ensuring the working of the compressive strength of the order of 10-80 kg/cm2at a density of 0.2-0.4 g/cm3due to the optimum combination of quantitative ratio cement/foam/water, which in turn significantly affects the unit cost of manufactured products. In particular, the cost per square meter of living space, made from products produced using patented technology is 1-3 thousand rubles/m2, while the structures of the known foam, cost about 6-8 thousand rubles/m2.

In addition, patentable technical solutions allow to simplify the technology of manufacture of products from concrete, to improve the ease of use that will surely find a wide application in the individual building, in a small production with small amounts of manufactured products. Essentially patentable methods are versatile with broad technical capabilities to diversity Builder who's forms of manufactured articles of concrete, with increased strength, sound and heat insulating properties and durability.

1. A method of manufacturing cellular concrete with closed (closed) pores (option 1), providing for separate preparation of mortar cement and water, the preparation of the foam of the surfactant and water, mixing cement and foam, molded foam, molding the mixture into shape, heat treatment products, characterized in that the manufacture of cement mass by mixing water and cement in the amount, wt.%: cement 25,0-58,0, water 43,0-29,0, in a container of water in portions and/or uniformly injected cement with constant stirring until a homogeneous cement mass, at the same time form a foamy environment by mixing in a clean cement capacity anionic (anonorange) and/or non-ionic (nainokanoka) surfactants in a quantity of 0.05-0.2%taken by 30.0-9.0% of the water prior to the last degassing by heat treatment at 20-95°C, while stirring is carried out mechanically by means of a rubber disc mounted on the drive shaft with the speed rotation equal to about 1000-3000/min, the obtained foam medium is introduced into the cement mass and stirred by a mixer, made in the form of a piston associated with the drive with the possibility of making back-postupatel the nogo movement in the vertical direction to obtain a homogeneous mass, which is poured into forms, followed by hardening at ambient temperature, equal 1-37°C, then remove the semi-finished molded product and incubated at ambient temperature to a solid state.

2. A method of manufacturing cellular concrete with closed (closed) pores (option 2), providing for separate preparation of mortar cement and water, the preparation of the foam of the surfactant and water, mixing cement and foam, molding the mixture into shape, heat treatment products, characterized in that the manufacture of cement mass by mixing water and cement in the amount, wt.%: cement 25,0-58,0, water 42,5-27,8, in a container of water in portions and/or uniformly injected cement with constant stirring until a homogeneous cement mass, form a foamy environment by mixing in a clean cement capacity anionic (anonorange) and/or non-ionic (nainokanoka) surfactants in the amount of 0,05-0,20%taken by 30.0-9.0% of the water prior to the last degassing by heat treatment at 20-95°C, while stirring is carried out mechanically by means of a rubber disc mounted on the drive shaft speed, equal 1000-3000 rpm, made of cellulose pulp containing a 0.36-1.70 percent cellulose, give it the cement is accurate mass and stirred by a mixer, made in the form of a piston associated with the drive with the possibility of making a reciprocating motion in the vertical direction to obtain a homogeneous mass, which is injected previously obtained foamy environment and stirred by the same method, then the resulting homogeneous mass is poured into forms, followed by hardening at a temperature equal 1-37°C, then remove the semi-finished molded product and incubated at ambient temperature to a solid state.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that at the stage of mixing foam environment and cement mass additionally impose a 30%solution of alkali in the amount of 2.0 to 3.6 per cent of the total number of used substances.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the cement is injected into the water during the formation of the cement mass by means of a screw conveyor.

5. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that as the piston using a wooden pestle till.

6. Apparatus for producing foam environment for the production of aerated concrete method according to claim 1 or 2, containing tank, an agitator is mounted on the drive shaft and the agitator is made in the form of a rubber disk with thickness of 0.5-3.7 mm fixed on the drive shaft and immersed in capacity to a depth of 20-55% of the water level, with the possibility of rotation with a speed equal the th 1000-3000 rpm, the area of the rubber disk is 30-70% of the maximum cross-sectional area of the tank with water.

7. The device according to claim 6, characterized in that the disc is made of reinforced rubber.

8. Form for forming of products from cellular concrete produced by the method according to claim 1 or 2, made in the form of a solid wall located at least from the sides and the bases covered from the inside with plastic wrap, with side walls to adjacent corners are connected with the possibility of formation of the required form elements, compounds, characterized in that the plastic film is made of a thickness of 40 to 30 μm, and the elements connected in the form of a rubber ties or rope.

9. Form for forming of claim 8, characterized in that the wall of the bottom serves as a natural basis of the land or building floor, covered with plastic wrap.



 

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1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, particularly to a method of producing heat insulating material based on wood processing wastes. The method of producing heat insulating material involves mixing solution-pretreated wood aggregate, portland cement, an additive and water, followed by moulding and hardening. The wood aggregate used is industrial chips. The solution used to treat the aggregate is 30% sodium glass solution in amount of 10% of the weight of the wood aggregate. The portland cement used is based on portland cement clinker with ultimate strength of 40 MPa, which is premixed with the additive which is in form of powdered calcium chloride with weight content of calcium chloride of at least 90% and in amount of 2% of the weight of portland cement. After mixing said components with water, the mixture is further mixed with process foam from an aqueous solution of 1% protein hydrolysate, with the following ratio of components, wt %: industrial chips - 38-40, said sodium glass solution - 3.8-4.0, portland cement - 39-42, calcium chloride - 0.3-0.36, said process foam - 0.8-0.85, water - the balance. The material is moulded in a press mould at pressure of 0.1÷0.35 MPa, followed by hardening at temperature of 50÷60°C and relative air humidity of 70÷80%. After hardening, a cladding is deposited, the cladding consisting of a polyol and a polyisocyanate, with the following ratio of components, wt %: polyol - 55, polyisocyanate - 45.

EFFECT: low density of the material and improved heat insulation properties thereof.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the industry of construction materials and specifically to methods of preparing a concrete mixture. The method of preparing a concrete mixture involves measured feeding into a concrete mixture of cement, aggregate and hardening liquid, followed by agitation of said mixture. The disclosed method is characterised by that before feeding cement into the concrete mixture, the cement particles are charged with a positive or negative electrostatic charge by passing them through a mesh electrode across which a high negative or positive potential is applied, the magnitude of which lies in the (8-10) kV range. The hardening liquid used is activated water, wherein if the cement particles are charged with a negative electrostatic charge, the activated hardening liquid is an anolyte having redox potential (Eh)an in the range of [250≤(Eh)an≤1200] mV, and if the cement particles are charged with a positive electrostatic charge, the activated hardening liquid used is a catholyte having redox potential (Eh)cat in the range of [-820≤(Eh)cat≤300] mV.

EFFECT: more efficient use of cement and high strength of the hardened cement, as well as faster setting of the cement.

2 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for making concrete mixes, mortars and other mixes containing cement. Method of processing puzzolanes including slag and flue ash such as Class F and/or Class C comprises subjecting puzzolanes to high-intensity grinding in appropriate grinders. Note here that low-density hollow particles as larger particles of slag get decomposed to activate surface of said particles to make finished product feature the following distribution of particles by sizes (in wt %): ≤5 micron - 15-25, ≤10 micron - 30-40, ≤30 micron - 90-95. Invention is developed in its subclaims.

EFFECT: higher activity of puzzolanes and strength of construction materials.

7 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and can be used for high-quality processing of uncured reinforced concrete surfaces of articles moulded from concrete mixes for civil and industrial construction. Concrete surface finisher working disc tool consists of body, motor, drive shaft and smoothing disc. Besides, it comprises cathode immersed in concrete mix and rheostat to control electric field gradient and to transmit electricity via current collector to drive shaft and smoothing disc. Note here that is it possible to influence processed concrete surface by electric effects.

EFFECT: higher surface quality and hardness.

1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and can be used for high-quality processing of uncured reinforced concrete surfaces of articles moulded from concrete mixes for civil and industrial construction. Finisher disc tool comprises drive shaft to transmit rotation to smoothing disc made from magnetically conducting material wherein high-power magnets are secured. Said smoothing discs can rotate in opposite directions at different angular velocities. Note here that outer smoothing disc is rigidly secured to planetary train. Inner smoothing disc is rigidly attached to the shaft. Outer and inner smoothing discs have recesses made in adjacent zone of rotation to accommodate alternating poles of high-power magnets.

EFFECT: higher surface quality and strength, decreased roughness and power consumption.

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction machinery and may be used for smoothing as-formed concrete surfaces. Proposed device consists of drive shaft with gear rigidly fitted thereon to actuate vertical cylindrical unbalanced gears. One-way bevel gears are rigidly fitted on primary horizontal drive shaft to engage with four unbalanced bevel gears with vertical axes.

EFFECT: higher quality of smoothing, better compaction.

3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: working element of a smoothing machine comprises a shaft, a frame, two rolls. Smoothening rolls have a barrel-like shape and are capable of rotating in a plane arranged at the angle to the axis of rotation of the working element itself.

EFFECT: production of wavy macrorelief of a processed surface with a specified pitch and a slant angle.

9 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of decorative concrete articles. Proposed method comprises preparing mix of intermediate layer of the mix of crushed glass cullet, liquid glass and water, laying concrete mix and intermediate layer mix, maturing and thermomoist processing, plasma fusion of article face surface at plasmatron power of 9 kW and plasma burner feed rate of 0.1 m/s.

EFFECT: higher quality, accelerated glasing, power savings.

3 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction engineering and may be used construction of industrial and civic structures. Proposed device comprises rotor of radial rotary automatic device for shaping slides arranged to reciprocate to make mould for moulding U-like carcass in mould closed position and withdrawing the latter with shaping slides opened.

EFFECT: lower production costs.

3 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction engineering and may be used for fabrication of tiles from asbestos-cement mixtures. Proposed device comprises stepped-transfer plate-type moulding conveyor with reusable moulds that allow mould walls sliding apart after complete hardening of tiles and shifting right and left dovetail joint shaping elements toward each other.

EFFECT: reduced production costs.

1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction engineering and may be used for finishing jobs using coating tiles with ledges for dovetail joint. Proposed method comprises furnishing forms with appliances to be filled by concrete to harden thereon thus producing grooves for dovetail joints. Proposed device comprises forms to cast large-block panels for external, internal walls and floors provided with appliances intended for making grooves for dovetail joints to receive ledges of said joints. Said panels are coated by weather protection, raised, decorative, heat-insulation, sound-insulation, linoleum, and glased tiles.

EFFECT: reduced production costs.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction, namely, to methods to produce concrete items finished with a decorative filler. The method to produce concrete items finished with a decorative filler includes submerging the decorative filler into the concrete mixture poured into a mould. Prior to pouring of the concrete mixture into a mould, sand is filled onto its bottom, where the decorative filler is submerged, and is sprayed with a water-polymer dispersion with subsequent filling with a layer of fine sand.

EFFECT: invention will make it possible to increase durability, decorativeness and architectural expressiveness of concrete items.

4 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction, namely, to methods to produce concrete items with a relief decorative layer. The method to produce concrete items with a relief decorative layer includes preparation of a model of relief surface and its pouring with a concrete mixture, concrete mixture pouring is carried out in two stages. At first the decorative layer is laid onto the relief surface with moisture of up to 12%, consisting of white or colourful cement and a decorative filler, and is compacted by soft ramming. The main concrete layer is applied onto the decorative layer from a poured mixture.

EFFECT: invention will make it possible to increase durability of concrete items.

1 tbl

FIELD: building materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for decorative finishing of concrete and reinforced concrete articles. Method comes to laying relief forming member in mould, covering it and laying concrete of decorative face layer. Used as relief forming member is porous hydrophilic material with layer of powder gas generator and layer of colouring agent applied in succession to its surface. Moisture permeable cloth is used as covering and structural concrete, as decorative face layer.

EFFECT: simplified process, increased service life of face surface of concrete articles.

1 ex, 3 tbl

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