Multibeam microwave device of o-type

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: multibeam microwave device of O-type comprises an electron gun, an energy input and output, a collector and an electrodynamic system, comprising input, output and intermediate active resonators, the first output passive resonator, electromagnetically connected to the output active resonator. The input, output and intermediate active resonators are made in the form of sections of wave guides with a working type of oscillations H301, in each input, output and intermediate active resonator for passage of electronic beams there are three groups of individual drift tubes. Drift tubes of each group have axial-symmetrical placement in the form of at least one circular row, and the diameter of the circumference D, which limits the external circular row of drift tubes of each group is selected on the basis of the condition D=(0.32÷0.42)λ, where λ - wave length corresponding to the central frequency of the working band of the device.

EFFECT: higher pulse and average output capacity in wide band of frequencies with sufficient electric strength, higher efficiency factor.

8 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to electronic microwave technique, namely the powerful multi-beam microwave devices O-type, such as the multibeam klystrons (MLK), intended for use primarily in the shortwave part of the centimeter wavelength range.

The most important requirements when creating modern designs amplifying klystrons are: the increase in the average pulse power output, the expansion of the band of operating frequencies, as well as increase the efficiency of the klystron. At the same shall be high performance devices such as low voltage and small weight and size characteristics.

Also one of the main requirements to the klystron with the administration of special electrode electron gun (control grid), is the need to ensure its high electric strength (minimum number of breakdowns in the gun). It should be noted that with the increase of the operating frequency MLK, and consequently, decreasing wavelength, the balance within the complex of the above parameters is complicated significantly by reducing the physical dimensions of the resonators electrodynamic system.

Known for powerful multi-beam klystrons with electrodynamic system containing resonators on core oscillations [1]. In tacikistan electron beams pass through a separate passage channels in the total span of the pipe, housed in a toroidal resonator. Nicobariensis low current of the electron beams easier to focus grouped and efficiently transmit the energy to the high-frequency field. Power output is formed by summing the capacities given field many low-rays. The result can significantly reduce the operating voltage and in some cases to reduce the dimensions and weight of the klystron and its power sources. In addition, with the increase in total perveance can be significantly increased bandwidth gain such a klystron.

However, when creating klystrons with average power exceeding 10 kW in the shortwave part of the centimeter wavelength range, using multibeam design with resonators on core oscillations encounters difficulties associated with the need to resolve conflicting objectives. To ensure broad band amplification it is necessary to reduce the diameter of the passage pipe, and to provide a large power level, good calarasanu, low current density from the cathode and high electrodiagnostic device, it is necessary to increase the number of rays, and, therefore, increases and the diameter of the passage pipe.

When using traditional cavity toroidal type maximum diameter of passage TRU the s make up about half of the working wavelength. When this partial beams are located on one or more circles. Using the passage of large diameter pipes leads to a change in the amplitude of the electric field along the radius. This leads to reduced efficiency of the interaction between an electron beam and to the heterogeneity of the modulation of the electron beams in the outer and inner rows span channels, and, consequently, a decrease in efficiency.

When the reduction of the working wavelength of the klystron allowable diameter of passage pipe is reduced accordingly. Accordingly decreases achievable pulse and average power while maintaining the desired electrodiagnostic.

The strength is determined by several factors: the magnitude of the electric field in the interelectrode gaps electron gun, as the electrode surface, the vacuum level in the device and so the Magnitude of the electric field strength depends on perveance one beam and the magnitude of the accelerating voltage, which is at a known number of points completely determine the output power of the klystron.

Known for the design of the klystron average power with a total vacuum shell two partial MLK [2]. The input and output resonators partial MLK pairs linked together to form the input and output active cavities of the klystron (twin reason the Torah), and intermediate resonators (one-pipe resonators) partial MLK is not associated with the neighboring resonators. All resonators are dvuhkosournymi coaxial (antiphase). This design allows you to have a wider bandwidth compared to odnosezonnye resonators. However, the diameter of passage tubes in this type of resonators can be no more than a quarter of the wavelength, which limits the power output level of each partial MLK. Ensuring a high level of output power as impossible because of the difficulty of heat removal from the secondary jumper duhsasana resonators.

This design has an output pulse power of about 15 kW to 500 MHz bandwidth and efficiency of the device is ~15%.

Used in this design twin-tube klystron input and output resonators have an increased sensitivity distribution of the electric field to the discontinuities that occur when the load input and output resonators, which reduces the efficiency of the klystron.

Known for the design of the klystron high pulse and average power containing electronic gun, the input and output power, collector and electrodynamic system, including input and output active resonators, each of which are placed on two-beam passage pipe, intermediate activerecordstore and the first output of the passive resonator, electromagnetic associated with the output of the active resonator, the input, output and intermediate active resonators, each of which are placed on two-beam passage pipe, made in the form of segments of waveguides with a working form of oscillations of H201and the diameter D of each beam passage pipe is selected from the condition D=(0,4÷0,45)λ, where λ is the wavelength corresponding to the center frequency of the operating band of the device.

This design ensures a high level of output power (pulse and average) in a fairly wide band of frequencies in the middle part of the centimeter range.

However, the transition in the short-wave part of the measuring range diameter of passage of the pipe, depending on the wavelength, physically reduced. In such a resonator in the shortwave part of the centimeter range, it becomes impossible to accommodate a large number of rays, which reduces the output power, the deterioration of electrodiagnostic and reduce the service life of the klystron. Used in this design twin-tube klystron input and output resonators have an increased sensitivity distribution of the electric field to the discontinuities that occur when the load input and output resonators, which reduces the efficiency of the klystron.

The objective of the invention is the creation of Mnogotochie the pulse mnogomasshtabnogo microwave device O-type (for example, the klystron) operating in the shortwave part of the centimeter wavelength range, having a high level pulse and an average output power in a wide frequency band at a sufficient electrodiagnostic and high efficiency.

In the present invention increase the output power of the device is achieved by selecting the form of oscillations of active resonators and a given diameter multibeam electron beam due to the specific placement of individual drift tubes for transmission electron beams in the active resonators. In this case, the proposed design provides high efficiency in a given frequency band.

Features multi-beam microwave device O-type containing electronic gun, the input and output power, collector and electrodynamic system, including input, output and intermediate active resonators, the first output of the passive resonator, the electromagnetic associated with the output of the active resonator, the input, output and intermediate active resonators made in the form of segments of waveguides with a working form of oscillations of H301each input, output and intermediate active resonator for transmission electron beams placed in three groups individual span of the tubes, in the span of the tubes of each group have AK the constraints symmetric placement in the form, at least one annular row, and the diameter D, the limiting outer annular row span of the tubes of each group selected from the condition

D=(0.32÷0.42)λ,

where λ is the wavelength corresponding to the center frequency of the operating band of the device.

In the present invention the input of the active resonator may be a solenoid connected to the input waveguide through the gap of communication performed in their common wall located perpendicular to the plane passing through the axis of the three groups of the drift tubes of the input of the active resonator.

In the present invention, the input active electromagnetic resonator is connected to the input of the passive resonator through the gap of communication performed in their common wall located perpendicular to the plane passing through the axis of the three groups of the drift tubes of the input of the active resonator.

In the present invention the input of the active resonator may be related to the input electromagnetic passive resonator through the gap of communication performed in their common wall located perpendicular to the plane passing through the axis of the three groups of the drift tubes of the input of the active resonator.

In the present invention the input of the active resonator may be a solenoid connected with the input of the passive resonator, made in the form of a segment of a rectangular waveguide is working as fluctuations in N 301through three slits communications, which are made opposite the centers of the groups of the drift tubes of the output of the active resonator, in their common wall, placed parallel to the plane passing through the axis of the three groups of the drift tubes of the input of the active resonator.

In the latter two cases, the input passive electromagnetic resonator is connected to the input waveguide through the gap of communication in their common wall.

In the present invention, the first output of the passive resonator can be made in the form of a segment of a rectangular waveguide with a working form of oscillations N301the first output passive electromagnetic resonator is connected to the output of the active resonator through three slits communications, which are made opposite the centers of the groups of the drift tubes of the output of the active resonator, in their common wall that is parallel to the plane passing through the axis of the three groups of the drift tubes of the output of the active resonator, and the output waveguide electromagnetic connected with the first output of the passive resonator through the gap of communication in their common wall.

In the present invention, the first output of the passive resonator can be made in the form of a segment of a rectangular waveguide with a working form of oscillations N201while the first output passive electromagnetic resonator is connected with the output of the active resonator cher the C two slits communication made opposite the centers of two adjacent groups of the drift tubes of the output of the active resonator, in their common wall that is parallel to the plane passing through the axis of the three groups of the drift tubes of the output of the active resonator, and the output waveguide electromagnetic connected with the first output of the passive resonator through the gap of communication in their common wall, and the communication gap offset from the axis of the first output of the passive resonator.

In the present invention, the first output of the passive resonator may be electromagnetic associated with the second output of the passive cavity through at least one slit communication performed in the common wall of these resonators, while the second output passive electromagnetic resonator is connected with the output waveguide through the gap of communication in their common wall.

The use in the present invention resonators with a working form of oscillations of H301allows the use of three-beam electron beam that pass through three groups individual span of the tubes in each resonator, which makes it possible to increase the total number of rays, and therefore, the output power of the device while maintaining the required electrodiagnostic. Accommodation in active resonators in three groups individual span of the tubes also reduces dinitrocresol D, limiting external annular row span of the tubes of each group (and which is essentially analogous to the diameter of passage pipe), and thus reduce the non-uniformity of electric field distribution in each group of the drift tubes, which in turn allows you to increase the efficiency and gain of the klystron. When this is used instead of the total span of the pipe groups individual span of the tubes allows to increase the characteristic impedance of the active resonators by approximately 10%, which also gives increase efficiency, gain and bandwidth operating frequency of the klystron.

The calculated and experimental data showed that the proposed design of the unit circle diameter D, the limiting outer annular row of each group, individual drift tubes must be within 0,32÷0,42 wavelength corresponding to the center frequency of the operating band of the device.

This is an increase of a diameter of more than 0,42 specified wavelength leads to the reduction of the characteristic impedance of the resonator, as well as to the non-uniformity of electric field distribution in the groups of the drift tubes and, consequently, a decrease in efficiency and gain of the klystron, which reduces power output.

The reduction of diameter less 0,32 specified wavelength being what it is impossible to place a sufficient number of rays in the group, that is not possible to ensure high strength and durability of the device at high levels of output power. The specific value of the diameter of the circle bounding the outer annular row of each group, individual drift tubes of the device is selected from a specified range of values taking into account the most dense packing of the drift tubes, which in turn is selected based on the required diameters and number of channels, as well as from a specified range of operating frequencies.

Input active electromagnetic resonator is connected to the input waveguide directly, or to increase the gain, through the passive input resonator. The input waveguide is connected to the input energy.

To ensure the bandwidth of the device output active electromagnetic resonator is connected with the output waveguide through one or two (for greater operating band of the device) series-connected passive resonator. An output waveguide connected to the output energy.

The invention is illustrated by drawings.

1 schematically shows the proposed multibeam mnohorozmerny the klystron.

Figure 2 schematically shows the constructive execution of the active resonator.

On figa and 3b schematically depict embodiments of the input of the active resonator (figa input the th active resonator with an input waveguide, figb - input active resonator with input passive resonator and the input waveguide.

Figure 4 schematically shows an embodiment of the output of the active resonator with the first output of the passive resonator, made in the form of a segment of a rectangular waveguide with a working form of oscillations of H301and the output waveguide.

Figure 5 schematically shows an embodiment of the output of the active resonator with the first output of the passive resonator, made in the form of a segment of a rectangular waveguide with a working form of oscillations N201and the output waveguide.

Figure 6 schematically shows an embodiment of the output of the active resonator with two output passive resonators and the output waveguide.

Multibeam mnohorozmerny the klystron, schematically depicted in figure 1, contains an electronic gun 1, header 2, the energy input 3, output power 4 and electrodynamic system 5 that includes the input of the active resonator 6, the intermediate active resonators 7 and the output of the active resonator 8, each of which contains three groups of individual drift tubes 9.

Figure 2 shows the active resonator 7, contains three groups of individual drift tubes 9.

On figa depicts the input of the active resonator 6, the electromagnetic connected directly to the input waveguide 10 is via the slit 11 in their common wall 12, located perpendicular to the plane passing through the axis of the three groups individual span of the tubes 9.

On figb depicts the input of the active resonator 6, the electromagnetic associated with the input of the passive cavity 13 through the slot connection 14 in their common wall 15, which is located perpendicular to the plane passing through the axis of the three groups individual span of the tubes 9, and the input waveguide 10 is connected with the input of the passive cavity 13 through the slot connection 16 in their common wall 17.

Figure 4 shows the input of the active resonator 6, the electromagnetic associated with passive input resonator 11, made in the form of a segment of a rectangular waveguide with a working form of oscillations of H301through three slits connection 18 in their common wall 19 that is parallel to the plane passing through the axis of the three groups individual span of the tubes 9, and the communication gap is located opposite the centers of groups of individual drift tubes 9. Input passive resonator 11 electromagnetic associated with the input waveguide 10 through the slot connection 16 in their common wall 17.

Figure 5 shows the output of the active resonator 8, electromagnetic associated with the first output of the passive resonator 20, made in the form of a segment of a rectangular waveguide with a working form of oscillations N201through two slits connection 21 in their common wall 22 located parallel is entrusted plane, passing through the axis of the three groups individual span of the tubes 9, and the communication gap is located opposite the centers of two adjacent groups of individual drift tubes 9. The first output of the passive resonator 20 electromagnetic associated with the output waveguide 23 through the slot 24 in their common wall 25, and the communication gap offset from the axis of the first output of the passive resonator 20.

Figure 6 shows the output of the active resonator 8, electromagnetic associated with the first output of the passive resonator 20 having a working view of the fluctuations in H101through the slot connection 26 in their common wall 22 that is parallel to the plane passing through the axis of the three groups individual span of the tubes 9, and the communication gap is located opposite the center of the group the individual span of the tubes 9. The first output of the passive resonator electromagnetic associated with the second output of the passive cavity 27 through the slot connection 28 made in their common wall 29. The second output of the passive resonator 27 electromagnetic associated with the output waveguide 23 through the slot 30 in their common wall 31.

The klystron, schematically depicted in Fig. 1, operates as follows. The input microwave power is supplied to the input energy of 3 and excites in the input active resonator 6 SHF oscillations. While microwave energy is supplied from the input power 3 to the resonator 6 is for directly through the input waveguide 10 (figa), either connected in series through the input waveguide 10 and the input of the passive resonator 13 (figb). E-rays passing through the input of the active resonator 6 is modulated by the speed of microwave energy. A floating tubes 9 accelerated electrons overtake the slower. In the intermediate active resonators 7 e-rays induce the microwave field, which in turn additionally modulates the electron beams. The result is a grouping of electron beams in bunches. The extraction of energy from the electron beam occurs in the output of the active cavity 8 by inhibition of electron bunches in a high frequency field of the resonator. Enhanced microwave power from the output of the active resonator 8 is output from the klystron through the output energy 4. While microwave energy is delivered from the resonator 8 to the output power 4 or via the first output of the passive resonator 20 and the output waveguide 23, or through two series-connected output passive resonator 20 and 27 and the output waveguide 23 (6).

The proposed design is tested in a powerful wide-band klystrons, containing eight active resonators, with a working form of oscillations of H301each posted three groups of five individual drift tubes, with accommodation in the form of an annular rows with the diameter of the circle, by referring the soup of the ring series from 0.34 to 0.41 wavelength, appropriate, the center frequency of the operating band of the device, and two passive output resonator (located under Fig.6).

The following results are obtained: when operating in the shortwave part of the centimeter wavelength range is provided an output pulse power of more than 120 kW in the band of 200 MHz at high electric strength. In the pre-existing structures was not possible to achieve such a range of parameters in the specified frequency range.

The proposed design can be widely used to create powerful broadband devices O-type in the shortwave part of the centimeter wavelength range (for example, klystrons) for use in electronic equipment.

Sources of information:

1. VI Pagnin Evaluation of the ultimate capacity of the multibeam klystrons with resonators on core oscillations for modern radar. "Radio engineering", 2000, No. 2, p.43-50.

2. A.A. TUV. Three powerful broadband low-voltage multi-beam klystron amplifier twin design. Radio engineering, 2000, No. 2, p.51-53.

3. A.A. Pagnin, A.N. Yunakov, TN. Burdina Patent RF №2244980 priority from 18.08.2003, Multibeam instrument of O-type.

1. Multi-beam microwave device O-type containing electronic gun, the input and output power, collector and electrodynamic system, including the surrounding input, output and intermediate active resonators, the first output of the passive resonator, the electromagnetic associated with the output of the active resonator, characterized in that the input, output and intermediate active resonators made in the form of segments of waveguides with a working form of oscillations of H301each input, output and intermediate active resonator for transmission electron beams are linearly placed in three groups individual span of the tubes, in the span of the tubes of each group are axially symmetric placement in the form of at least one annular row, and the diameter D, the limiting outer annular row span of the tubes of each group selected from conditions
D=(0,32÷0,42)λ,
where λ is the wavelength corresponding to the center frequency of the operating band of the device.

2. Multi-beam microwave device O-type according to claim 1, characterized in that the input active electromagnetic resonator is connected to the input waveguide through the gap of communication performed in their common wall located perpendicular to the plane passing through the axis of the three groups of the drift tubes of the input of the active resonator.

3. Multi-beam microwave device O-type according to claim 1, characterized in that the input active electromagnetic resonator is connected to the input of the passive resonator through the gap of communication performed in their common wall, u is defined perpendicular to the plane, passing through the axis of the three groups of the drift tubes of the input of the active resonator.

4. Multibeam instrument O-type according to claim 1, characterized in that the input active electromagnetic resonator is connected to the input of the passive resonator, made in the form of a segment of a rectangular waveguide with a working form of oscillations of H301through three slits communications, which are made opposite the centers of the groups of the drift tubes of the input of the active resonator, in their common wall that is parallel to the plane passing through the axis of the three groups of the drift tubes of the input of the active resonator.

5. Multibeam instrument of O-type according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the input passive electromagnetic resonator is connected to the input waveguide through the gap of communication in their common wall.

6. Multi-beam microwave device O-type according to claim 1, characterized in that the first output of the passive resonator is made in the form of a segment of a rectangular waveguide with a working form of oscillations of H301while the first output passive electromagnetic resonator is connected to the output of the active resonator through three slits communications, which are made opposite the centers of the groups of the drift tubes of the output of the active resonator, in their common wall that is parallel to the plane passing through the axis of the three groups of the drift tubes of the output of the active resonator, and the output waveguide electric is magnitno connected with the first output of the passive resonator through the gap of communication in their common wall.

7. Multi-beam microwave device O-type according to claim 1, characterized in that the first output of the passive resonator is made in the form of a segment of a rectangular waveguide with a working form of oscillations of H201while the first output passive electromagnetic resonator is connected to the output of the active resonator through two slits communication made opposite the centers of two adjacent groups of the drift tubes of the output of the active resonator, in their common wall that is parallel to the plane passing through the axis of the three groups of the drift tubes of the output of the active resonator, and the output waveguide electromagnetic connected with the first output of the passive resonator through the gap of communication in their common wall, and the communication gap offset from the axis of the first output of the passive resonator.

8. Multibeam instrument O-type according to claim 1, characterized in that the first output of the passive resonator electromagnetic associated with the second output of the passive cavity through at least one slit communication performed in the common wall of these resonators, while the second output passive electromagnetic resonator is connected with the output waveguide through the gap of communication in their common wall.



 

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4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: multibeam microwave device of O-type comprises an electron gun, an energy input and output, a collector and an electrodynamic system, comprising input, output and intermediate active resonators, the first output passive resonator, electromagnetically connected to the output active resonator. The input, output and intermediate active resonators are made in the form of sections of wave guides with a working type of oscillations H301, in each input, output and intermediate active resonator for passage of electronic beams there are three groups of individual drift tubes. Drift tubes of each group have axial-symmetrical placement in the form of at least one circular row, and the diameter of the circumference D, which limits the external circular row of drift tubes of each group is selected on the basis of the condition D=(0.32÷0.42)λ, where λ - wave length corresponding to the central frequency of the working band of the device.

EFFECT: higher pulse and average output capacity in wide band of frequencies with sufficient electric strength, higher efficiency factor.

8 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: electronic equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of electronic engineering. Cathode preheating unit for powerful klystron cathode contains several separate modules of a given size, each of which consists of a cathode block elementary cathode heater, holder, screen and are coaxially arranged drift tube klystron. Part of the cathode of each module to a height of (0.2-2.0) mm from the end opposite the working - emitting - a surface formed with a diameter greater than the diameter of the cathode module (0.2-10.0) mm. Warming cathode assembly is further provided with two cylinders - external and internal, with a given diameter, height - external, equal to the height of the cathode a separate module, or no more than two of its height, the inner - equal to the height of the cathode module, or - at least 0.5 of its height Each wall thickness (0.3-0.8) mm, the cylinders are arranged coaxially one inside the other in the working plane - emitting - cathode surface modules. Each individual cathode unit is additionally provided with a separate cylinder placed therein with a gap and secured by said holder part, with a separate barrel is diameter, which mate of cathode modules, height, at the height of the cathode module (1.0-5.0) mm, with a wall thickness equal to (0.2-0.6) mm, at the outer end face of each cylinder in the plane of the working - emitting - a surface formed monolithically fastening elements, each in the form of a circular segment with the length of its curve (4.0-8.0) the wall thickness of the individual cylinders in multiples of four and the individual cylinders with individual cathode modules are disposed between the inner and outer cylinders.

EFFECT: technical result - increase durability, power output and efficiency.

5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

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