Briquette based on pressed lignocellulose body saturated with liquid fuel

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: briquette consists of a pressed lignocellulose body, containing: (a) 60-90 wt % cuttings of grass stalks and (b) 10-40 wt % scutched lignocellulose binder with degree of scutching of 38-75°RS (Shopper-Rigler degrees), preferably 45 70°RS, (said percentages being expressed in dry weight relative the dry weight of the sum of (a) and (b)) and from fuel which is liquid at room temperature, having a flash point of 30-150°C, which saturates the pressed lignocellulose body, wherein said briquette has a substantially cylindrical shape and has a central smoke conduit with a star-shaped cross-section. The method of making the briquettes comprises the following steps: (1) mixing an aqueous suspension of lignocellulose binder (b) with cuttings of grass stalks (a) in such proportions that the ratio (per dry weight) of the lignocellulose binder (b) to the cuttings of the grass stalks (a) ranges from 10/90 to 40/60; (2) moulding the mixture obtained in a suitable unit of the mould (encircling part)-anti-mould (encircled part) type at temperature of 40-120°C at pressure of 3-12 bar, applied for 5-120 s; (3) removing the obtained pressed body from the press mould; and (4) saturating the pressed body removed from the press mould with fuel which is liquid at room temperature, having flash point of 30-150°C.

EFFECT: obtaining a solid fuel briquette with low weight and a shape which provides multiple points of ignition, concealed inside the central smoke conduit.

15 cl, 3 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a briquette-based pressed lignocellulosic material is impregnated with liquid fuels of vegetable or animal origin, and method of manufacturing such a briquette and the use of such briquettes as fuel in portable or nonportable burners.

The fuel for the burners, it is most preferable for portable burners, comfortable socks for children or persons in the midst of crowds of people, must meet a large number of requirements which may be mentioned the following:

- high compactness and low weight,

- smooth combustion with constant intensity flame for burning,

- ease of ignition,

- low smoke,

low education of fly ash,

- high safety in operation, it is most preferable due to the absence of compressed gaseous fuels.

Of course, as in many other areas, it would be desirable to be able to have fuel that would not only meet all the above criteria, but came from renewable sources, i.e. not from fossil sources.

To the applicant after long research was able to develop a fuel briquette, which when low weight is hard and thanks to a new combination of solid lignocellulosic fuel is liquid fuel, and thanks geometry that provides multiple points of ignition, hidden inside the Central smoke removal, combines all of the above advantages.

This cake consists mainly of compacted bodies of plant origin, impregnated with liquid fuel plant or animal origin. The pressed body has a structure which is rigid and light and dense enough to ensure mechanical strength of the briquettes during its combustion with the formation of a very limited amount of ash and allowing the existence of sufficient space, whereby the spread of combustion occurs gradually and evenly.

With that said one of the purposes of the present invention is briquette consisting mostly

from pressed lignocellulosic body containing:

(a) from 60 to 90 weight. % scraps of grass stems and

(b) from 10 to 40 weight. % breaking lignocellulosic binder with a degree of scutching from 38 to 75°RS (degrees Shopper-Regler), preferably from 45 to 70°RS,

where the above percentages are expressed on a dry weight relative to the dry weight of the sum of (a) and (b), and

from liquid at room temperature, the fuel having a flash point of 30 to 150°C., impregnating pressed lignocellulosic body,

priceaccutane briquette has an essentially cylindrical shape and has a Central exhaust hood with star-shaped cross-section.

Thus, the briquettes according to the invention consists of two main components: a compact body of plant origin and liquid fuels.

The pressed body, in turn, contains at least two components:

- the main component (a)formed by large scraps of grass stems and

minor component (b), formed by highly lignocellulosic materials binder.

Component (a) can be obtained by dry grinding or crushing grass stems, hereinafter also referred to as "straw"in a suitable mill or crusher. Preferably use a hammer mill. Fragments, or particles, forming said first component (a) are relatively large with uneven size. Most of them have a length of several millimeters or even in a few inches.

Most preferably, trimming grass stems are preferably more than 60 wt. %, preferably more than 75 weight. % and most preferably more than 90 weight. % of the fragments, the size of which is such that their larger size ranges from 3 to 20 mm, preferably from 5 to 15 mm. of course, This does not exclude the presence of more small, even very small particles, as well as the presence of much larger fragments or fibers.

In the pressed body this is the first invention, these large fragments of straw are interconnected using lignocellulosic fibers "glue", or "lignocellulosic binder".

Lignocellulose is a mixture of three types of natural water-insoluble polymers, most preferably cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, present in different proportions depending on the origin lignocellulose. Lignocellulose has a fibrous structure.

Used in the present invention lignocellulosic binder is produced by breaking lignocellulosic materials. Breaking represents the mechanical processing of lignocellulosic material in the presence of water to hydration, atrial or cutting forming this material fibers. Breaking is always used in the production of paper pulp.

The method commonly used to estimate the amount of scutching or degree scutching lignocellulosic material, is a test Shopper-Rigler (ISO 5267/1). It allows you to measure the draining ability of the material subjected to the operation scutching. The more Restrepo material, the more the constituent fibers are individualized, gidratirovana and shortened, and the more the material will retain water. Much breaking material, respectively, has a low drainage capacity and a high degree of scutching the Shopper Reglero.

Used in the present invention l is giallorosso binder should have a number of Shopper-Rigler at least 38°SR, preferably 42°SR and, in the ideal case, 45°SR.

Used in the present invention lignocellulosic binder can be obtained in principle from any stiff plant material suitable for use lignocellulosic materials, including, of course (but not only), grass stems, used for the component (a). Along with these herbal stems can be used, for example, wood shavings, hemp and paper waste paper.

The process of scutching, which allows you to get lignocellulosic binder (b), described in detail in the patent EP 0877646. At the end of this process lignocellulosic materials binder (b) takes the form of a slurry with a water content of from about 40 to 70%, or, in other words, with a solids content of 30 to 60 weight. %, preferably from 35 to 55 weight. %.

Scraps of grass straw forming component (a)can be in principle trim any grass with stiff stems. As examples of such herbs can be mentioned sugar cane, cereals, such as maize, rice, wheat, barley, oats, rye and millet, bamboo and miscanthus.

Particularly preferred for the present invention the plant is Miscanthus giganteus is a hybrid type, obtained by crossing Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus. More specifically, this plant is characterized by its productivity, vysokonadezhnye lignocellulose and low environmental impact thanks, most preferably, the low demand of this plant in water and the absence of depletion of the soil on which it grows, which, as a rule, makes unnecessary the use of fertilizers.

Miscanthus giganteus can be used as a source of scraps of grass stems component (a) or as a source of lignocellulosic binder (b), or as both simultaneously.

In one particularly preferred embodiments component (a) and lignocellulosic binder (b) receive partially, and preferably completely, from the stems of Miscanthus giganteus.

Before mixing the components (a) and (b) or at least one of them is transferred first in suspension in the water. The amount of added water is preferably from 40 to 90% and preferably from 50 to 80% of total dry weight (a) and (b).

In one of the preferred embodiments to the component (a) before mixing with the component (b) add 40 to 80 weight. % water.

In one of the preferred embodiments of the pressed body along with the components (a) and (b) of plant origin contain mineral component (C)containing the alkaline metal, the main role of which is to increase the strength of binding of the component (b). They may, for example, be calcium oxide (Cao), also called quicklime, sodium hydroxide, the hydroxide to the lia or sodium carbonate. Particularly preferred calcium oxide.

In case of use of the specified component (C) is contained preferably in a proportion from 2 to 15 weight. %, most preferably in a ratio of from 3 to 8 weight. % of total dry weight of components (a) and (b). Calcium oxide can be added to either one or both components (a) and (b) before mixing, or aqueous mixtures of components (a) and (b) before the molding operation. Preferably it is added to the component (b).

After this aqueous suspension components (a) and (b) and possibly (C) is formed at high temperature under pressure according to the method, described in detail below.

The obtained laminated body that has lost most of its water content, then impregnate liquid at room temperature and fuel. Soaking the laminated body does not require full pre-drying. During impregnation is pressed body may contain water in an amount from 5 to 20 weight. %.

Fuel should not be too volatile, as in the case of liquids with a flash point above 30°C.

The flash point of the liquid fuel is preferably from 40 to 120°C., most preferably from 50 to 70°C.

Liquid fuel may be a vegetable oil such as oil, microalgae oil Pongamia pinnata (or oil Carangi), flax oil, I had ropy, palm oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, almond oil, peanut oil, coconut oil, maize oil, olive oil or castor oil, animal oils such as whale oil, spermaceti fat, fat, cod liver, beef tallow or beef tallow, lard or pork fat, complex alkilany ether such vegetable or animal oils, or mixtures of these substances.

In one of the preferred embodiments of the liquid fuel is a complex alkilany ether, preferably methyl ester of any vegetable oil, most preferably an ester of coconut oil.

Pressed lignocellulosic body obtained by extrusion, has a density of preferably from 0.20 to 0.85 g/cm3most preferably from 0.30 to 0.70 g/cm3.

This pressed body can be impregnated with a liquid fuel using various known methods such as coating, dipping, coating by immersion in a vacuum or sputtering. Depending on the method of impregnation may be necessary operation penetration of fuel and/or drainage to remove excess water and ensure uniform distribution of the liquid fuel in the compressed volume of the body.

The number entered in compacted who ate fuel can be adjusted, changing, for example, the immersion time is compressed body in the tub with the fuel or the temperature of the immersion bath and the penetration of the fuel in the core of the pressed body is even easier if its viscosity is low. You can also force the fuel to penetrate the compacted body under pressure.

The applicant found that the pressed body is capable of, as a rule, to consume the fuel in an amount up to its own weight. However, in some cases, it may be best not to saturate the compacted body of liquid fuel and to remain significantly below saturation. The applicant obtained good results in terms of efficiency of combustion at a weight ratio of liquid fuel to compressed lignocellulosic body from 3/10 to 10/10, preferably from 5/10 to 9/10 and, most preferably, from 6/10 to 9/10.

Another objective of the present invention is a method of manufacturing briquettes described in the present description. This method includes the following successive stages:

(1) mixing aqueous slurry of lignocellulosic binder (b) with scraps of grass stalk (a) in such proportions that the ratio (dry weight) of lignocellulosic binder (b) to obrazcam grass stalk (a) is from 10/90 to 40/60;

(2) molding the mixture obtained in the appropriate unit type form (khatiwala part) - protivotoka (covered in part) at a temperature of from 40 to 120°C under pressure of from 3 to 12 bar, enclosed in a period of time from 5 to 120 s;

(3) removing from the mold the obtained laminated body; and

(4) soaking extracted from the mold pressed body of liquid at room temperature fuel having a flash point of 30 to 150°C.

Stage (1) mixing of the two components (a) and (b) is preferably carried out in the mixer with Sigma-shaped blades to obtain a homogeneous suspension, in which fragments of straw covered with the binder. Obtain homogeneous compositions typically takes 5 to 30 minutes.

This composition may of course also contain mineral component containing alkali metal (optional component (C)), is added before or after mixing the components (a) and (b).

Ready for the molding composition is fibrous and soft. It requires manual or automated filling of the mold through the funnel or through the system vacuum fill.

Mold consists of a covered part and the covering part. Placed on the bottom covering part is a hollow cylinder, the center of which is placed a solid section having a star-shaped cross-section. Covered part has a shape complementary to covering frequent the or, in other words, it is a solid cylinder with a hollow in its center, corresponding star-shaped sections covering template. Figure 2 is a picture showing the complementarity between the covered part (left) and cover part (right).

Designed for the molding composition is introduced into the covering portion into the space bounded by the inner cylinder wall and the partition. After filling covering part covering the template using thermo-press fades covered by the template.

The temperature of the mold as a whole (covered and covering parts) is brought to the temperature of the molding by using a thermal press. This temperature is preferably in the range from 60 to 100°C., most preferably from 65 to 95°C and pressure allows the binding force of the component (b) in the composition. At the end of operation hot pressing using pigs raised covered by the template, thus freeing the dual process of moving the formed briquette. Briquette leave on time from 1 to 30 minutes in the open air for the purpose of spontaneous evaporation of a large part of water.

After this stage of drying the pressed body may be directly impregnated with liquid fuel.

The geometry of the solid cylinder covering cha is ti, as it is easy to understand, directly determines the geometry of the Central smoke removal. According to one preferred embodiments, the latter has the shape of a star with at least three beams, preferably from 4 to 20 rays and, most preferably, from 5 to 10 rays. The expression "star" also covers variants in which the ends and/or cavity of the rays of the stars are rounded. Rounded shape of the tips of the stars proved to be particularly advantageous due to the ease of extraction from the mold when restricting detachment of the fibers during the lifting of the bale along the covering part.

The space between the rays of the stars are preferably rounded. Indeed, these voids form after removal from the mold, the tips of the elements that protrude from the wall towards the centre of the flue gases connection briquette. These tips form a set of points ignition and easy to understand that the ignition of the briquettes is made even easier when the tips of the protruding elements are narrow and pointed.

The advantage of the star shape of the Central smoke removal is threefold. First, as noted above, the tips of the elements that protrude into the Central flue gases connection briquette and provide very easy ignition. The second advantage, which directly follows from the first, status is it is the surface located inside the combustion of the briquette and is thus sheltered position, protected by the briquette. Finally, the shape of a star creates a surface combustion, which remains largely constant in the combustion process as a gradual decrease in the burning surface due to the flow of the protruding elements is compensated by a gradual increase of the internal diameter of the flue gases connection as the flow of combustion. This change is illustrated in figure 1, which gives a schematic representation of a cross-section of the briquette according to the invention. Different lines 1, 2, 3 and 4 show the surface combustion on the successive stages of combustion.

The size of the briquettes can be freely chosen depending on the anticipated applications. The height of the bricks may be, for example, from 5 to 50 cm, and its outer diameter from 3 to 20 cm In the case of use as a solid fuel for portable burners height briquettes is usually from 8 to 20 cm and an external diameter of from 4 to 10 cm

The ratio of the height of the cylindrical briquette to its external diameter is preferably from 0.5 to 5, preferably from 1 to 4 and, most preferably, from 1.5 to 3.

In Fig. 3(a) shows the molded body before impregnation, and Fig. 3(b) - party impregnated briquettes according to the present invention, in which regard the giving height to the external diameter of approximately 2.

Soaking the laminated body of liquid fuel preferably is at full immersion pressed body in a liquid fuel for 2 to 60, preferably from 10 to 40 C. After this dive, as a rule, should stage drainage. Time drainage from 15 s to 5 min is usually sufficient to remove all excess liquid fuel.

In the case of the use as fuel for burners briquettes are placed in a hard case, resistant to high temperatures. This case facilitates the handling of bricks and transporting them, protecting them from mechanical shock, which could harm them. The case also prevents during the combustion approximation of the burning surface to the outer cylindrical wall of brick.

To prevent evaporation of the liquid fuel or transfer it on surfaces that are in contact with the impregnated briquette, briquettes preferably Packed in leakproof bags or containers.

Finally, another aim of the invention is the use of briquettes as fuel in burners used for heating or to generate heat, it is preferable for cooking or heating food.

1. Briquette consisting of pressed lignocellulosic body, comprising: (a) from 60 to 90 wt.% scraps of grass stems and (b) from 10 to 40 wt.% breaking lignosellus the EIT binder with a degree of scutching from 38 to 75°RS (degrees Shopper-Regler), preferably from 45 to 70°RS, (the above percentages are expressed on a dry weight relative to the dry weight of the sum of (a) and (b)) and from a liquid at room temperature, the fuel having a flash point of 30 to 150°C., impregnating pressed lignocellulosic body, and the specified briquette has an essentially cylindrical shape and has a Central exhaust hood with star-shaped cross-section.

2. The briquette of claim 1, wherein trimming the grass stems are more than 60 wt.%, preferably more than 75 wt.% and, most preferably more than 90 wt.% of the fragments, the size of which is such that their larger size ranges from 3 to 20 mm, preferably from 5 to 15 mm.

3. The briquette according to claim 1, in which herbal stems are stems of Miscanthus giganteus.

4. The briquette of claim 1, wherein the pressed body additionally contains from 2 to 15 wt.%, preferably from 3 to 8 wt.% per dry weight (a) and (b) mineral component containing alkali metal (component (C)), preferably calcium oxide.

5. The briquette according to claim 1, in which the Central exhaust hood has a star-shaped cross-section, where the star has at least 3 beam, preferably from 4 to 20 rays and, most preferably, from 5 to 10 rays.

6. The briquette of claim 1, wherein the liquid fuel has a flash point of 40 to 120°C., most preferably from 50 to 70°C.

. The briquette according to claim 1, in which the liquid fuel is an oil of vegetable or animal origin, complex alkilany ether oils of vegetable or animal origin or their mixture.

8. The briquette according to claim 1, in which the liquid fuel is a complex alkilany ester of coconut oil.

9. The briquette according to claim 1, in which scraps (a) grass stems are trimming the stems of crops or miscanthus, preferably trimming the stems of Miscanthus giganteus.

10. The briquette according to claim 1, in which the density of one of the pressed body is from 0.20 to 0.85 g/cm3.

11. The briquette according to claim 1, in which the weight ratio of liquid fuel to the compressed body lies from 3/10 to 10/10, preferably from 5/10 to 9/10 and, most preferably, from 6/10 to 9/10.

12. The briquette according to claim 1, in which the ratio of the height of the cylindrical briquette and its diameter ranges from 0.5 to 5, preferably from 1 to 4 and, most preferably, from 1.5 to 3.

13. A method of manufacturing briquettes according to claim 1, comprising the following successive stages: (1) mixing aqueous slurry of lignocellulosic binder (b) with scraps of grass stalk (a) in such proportions that the ratio (dry weight) of lignocellulosic binder (b) to obrazcam grass stalk (a) is from 10/90 to 40/60; (2) molding the mixture obtained in the appropriate unit type form (covering part) - protivotoka (include the " part) at a temperature of from 40 to 120°C under pressure of from 3 to 12 bar, supplied in a period of time from 5 to 120 s; (3) removing from the mold the obtained laminated body; and (4) soaking extracted from the mold pressed body of liquid at room temperature fuel having a flash point of 30 to 150°C.

14. The method according to item 13, in which the impregnation compacted body of liquid fuel is carried out by full immersion pressed body in a liquid fuel for 2 to 60 s, followed by a stage of drainage.

15. The use of briquettes according to any one of claims 1 to 12 as fuel in burners used for heating or to generate heat, it is preferable for cooking or heating food.



 

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