Method to determine moisture content in gases and device for its realisation

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of measurement of gas moisture content. The method consists in the fact that gas is exposed to compression in a closed measurement chamber, in which an equal-arm yoke is installed, equipped with a measuring float and a counterweight, until pressure, at which gas density becomes equal to density of the measurement float, which is determined by float surfacing and horizontal position of the yoke, the values of temperature and pressure are recorded in the closed measurement chamber at the moment of float surfacing, and using the measured values, they determine the value of moisture content of the investigated gas according to the following ratios: d(g/kg dry air)=[msteam (g)]÷[mdry×10-3 (kg)]=(A×E)÷{[mfloat÷(Plab+ΔPexc)]-(A×E)×10-3} (l), where A=(ρsteam×103)÷(ρdrysteam)=1638.8 - constant (2) ρsteam - water steam density, ρsteam=0.803 g/litre ρdry - dry air density, ρdry=1.293 g/litre E={[ρdry×Vfloat×T0]÷[P0×(T0+tlab)]-mfloat÷(Plab+ΔPexc)} (3), where Vfloat - volume of the float (in litres), mfloat - weight of the float with account of counterweight (in g), T0=273°C, tlab - temperature of the investigated air, °C, P0 - normal atmospheric pressure, P0=760 mm of mercury column, Plab - pressure in the laboratory, mm of mercury column, ΔPexc - value of excessive pressure ΔPexc=(Pchamber-Plab), mm of mercury column. Pchamber - pressure in the measurement chamber at the moment of float surfacing, mm of mercury column.

EFFECT: reduced operating costs and higher safety of measurements.

 

The invention relates to the field of measuring the moisture content of gases. The moisture content of the gas, i.e. the mass of water vapor in the gas, expressed in (g/kg dry. air) and is important in many areas of science and technology. Knowing the value of the moisture content of the gas, we can calculate any hygrometric parameters of gas, including absolute and relative humidity at any temperature.

There are various methods of measurement and reproduction of values of humidity of gases presented in RMG 75-2004 (Recommendations on interstate standardization. The CIO. Humidity measurement substances. Terms and definitions). Typically, the moisture content, depending on the gas temperature, pressure and relative humidity, determine the dew point temperature, which is achieved either by cooling the gas, either by changing its pressure. The most important and expensive operation is the change in the gas temperature, as it requires either the consumption of expensive nitrogen, or complex and expensive equipment (thermostats, insulated chamber pressure and the like).

The well-known "Method and apparatus for measuring the dew point", patent No. 2186375, 2000, the patentee of the Federal state unitary enterprise "Design Bureau of General machine building them. Vporn", which measures the dew point by measuring the amounts of the precipitated condensate and temperature on moisture-sensitive element of one of the measuring means. This method is costly and time-consuming determination of moisture content of gases, and its implementation uses a bulky device. In addition, when measuring this way, you need to make the dismantling of the hygrometer with the object of exploitation and deliver it to the calibration laboratory.

Closest to the claimed, taken as a prototype, is "a Method of determining the moisture content of gases and a device for its implementation" in patent No. 2450262, application No. 2010150710 priority 07.12.2010, the patentee "closed joint stock company "MEASURE". In the known method, the following operation of the test gas with unknown humidity measured values of actual temperature and pressure selected sample in the measuring chamber, the gas sample in the chamber of known volume is compressed to a pressure condition of water vapor), which falls the dew (condensation), measured pressure and temperature, in which fell the condensate and empirical dependences describing the nomogram in the coordinate system [kg water/kg gas pressure for different temperatures}, for the measured values of pressure and temperature, in which fell the condensate, determine the value of the mass relations moisture gas d [kg/kg].

A known device for determining the moisture content of gases includes measuring the second closed chamber, which is equipped with temperature sensors and pressure and the indicator of the condensation, the conclusions of which is connected to the processing device and control, it also contains the gas compression device and external temperature sensors and pressure, the outputs are also connected to the processing device and the control.

This method is reliable and accurate, but requires a large diaphragm compressor, because it's very hard to compress the air, sometimes up to tens of atmospheres, while not falling dew. This is potentially dangerous as any other high pressures. Use a large diaphragm compressor does not allow such an installation in a mobile system calibration of hygrometers designed for calibration of hygrometers that are at their jobs, without the possibility of dismantling the procedure of verification.

Objective of the claimed solution is to reduce the complexity and operating costs and improve safety measurements.

This goal is achieved due to the fact that in the known method of determining the moisture content of gases, including compressed gas in a closed measurement chamber with built-in temperature sensors and pressure, the gas is subjected to compression to the pressure at which the gas density becomes equal to the density measuring poplak is, equipped with a counterweight that is determined by the ascent of the float and the horizontal position of the beam, fixed values of temperature and pressure in a closed measuring chamber at the time of ascent of the float, using the measured values, determine the value of the moisture content of the test gas in the following proportions:

where

ρpair- the density of water vapor, ρpair=0,803 g/litre

ρdryis the density of dry air, ρdry=1,293 g/litre

where VPople- volume float (in liters),

mPople- the weight of the float with regard to the counter weight (in grams)

T0=273°C,

tlabthe temperature of the investigated air, °C,

P0- normal atmospheric pressure P0=760 mm Hg,

Plab- pressure in the laboratory, mm Hg,

ΔPhouses- pressure, ΔPhouses=(PLuggage-Plab), mm Hg

PLuggage- pressure in the measuring chamber at the time of ascent of the float, mm Hg

This goal is achieved due to the fact that the known device for determining the moisture content of gases containing a closed measuring cell with integrated temperature sensors and pressure, additional is installed but is provided in the measuring chamber ravnoplechimi the rocker, at one side of the rocker arm is measuring hollow sealed float-known weight and volume, and the other arm of the rocker is opposed to, additionally, the measuring chamber provided with a valve for releasing the sample gas and a valve for discharge into the measuring chamber sample of the test gas. And also due to the fact that ravnoplechimi the rocker scales arrow. In addition, the device may contain a microprocessor, which is designed for digital processing of results of measurements and calculations of the moisture content in the sample gas, and an electronic scale connected to the microprocessor.

The technical result of the claimed method and device is to reduce the complexity and operational costs and improving the safety of measurements, due to the fact that in the proposed method there is no need to obtain a high pressure at which the condensate falls. The float used in the claimed solution is made hollow, as light as possible, adapted to the analyzed gas environment with low density. The gas is subjected to compression only to the ascent of the float, i.e. to the pressure at which the gas density becomes equal to the density measurement of the float. Using known (experimentally derived) parameters float and values of the temperatures and pressure, recorded in the camera at the time of ascent of the float allows the determination of moisture content by the proposed algorithm

The advantages of the proposed method and devices:

a) to implement the method does not require high pressure and the use of expensive equipment that improves safety during work. Powerful compressor can be replaced by the microcompressor;

b) all operations of the proposed method takes only a few minutes.

C) the possibility of automation of the process of obtaining values of the moisture content of the gas, if instead of visual fixation equality of the weight of the float and counterweight to use electronic scales, placed in the measuring chamber and connected to the microprocessor.

g) the proposed solution allows you to create a device for the periodic calibration of instruments measuring the humidity of gases, without Dismounting from the site of operation, operating conditions;

d) the accuracy of the proposed method (method) depends only on the errors of the used measuring instruments (pressure and temperature), and can be extremely small values.

The claimed solution is illustrated by the drawing, which shows a device that implements the proposed method.

A device for determining the moisture content of gases consists of a measuring chamber 4,which is equipped with instantaneous temperature sensors 1, pressure 2 and Ravnopravie rocker 3 in the center of which is the scale 9, on one side of the rocker arm 3 is measuring hollow sealed float 7, and the other arm of the rocker arm 3 is placed in a lead counterweight 8. The valve 6 is used to release the sample gas. The valve 5 serves to discharge into the measuring chamber 4 samples of the test gas. The structure of the device may also include a microprocessor that is designed for digital processing of results of measurements and calculations of the moisture content in the sample gas. Measuring the float 7 is airtight and hollow inside, as light as possible, adapted to the analyzed gas environment. The weight and volume of the float 7 is determined experimentally, and the weight of the counterweight 8 is chosen to be close to the weight of the float.

The principle of the proposed device consists in the following. The gas to be determined by its moisture content, is blown diaphragm compressor of a small capacity in tightly closed measuring chamber 4 with built-in instantaneous analog-to-digital temperature sensors 1 and pressure 2. By increasing the pressure of the test gas increases its density and equality of the weight of the float 7 and the counterweight 8 float "POPs". The fact of the equality of the weight of the measuring float 7 and the counterweight 8 fixare is camping on the horizontal position of the rocker arm 3 (arrow weights 9 is at the "0"mark), the rocker takes a horizontal position. At this point, are fixed values of temperature and pressure, which are used to calculate the moisture content and other parameters of the gas, or data in digital form to the microprocessor, for processing the results of measurements and computations. And when using electronic scales, you receive the possibility of automating the entire process of measurement.

In the proposed method performs the following operations:

1) the analyzed gas (e.g. air laboratories) with unknown moisture content at a known (measured) values of temperature and pressure selected in the measuring chamber, with fixed temperature tlaband pressure Plabin the laboratory,

2) the gas sample in the measuring chamber is compressed until the ascent of the float, i.e. to the pressure at which the gas density becomes equal to the density of the measuring float provided with a counterweight;

3) measured pressure PLuggageand the temperature at which it is achieved equality (at the time of ascent of the float) and determine the amount of excess pressure ΔPhouses=PLuggage-Plab;

4). the measured values of tlabPlabΔPhousespassed to the microprocessor data and on the known ratios determine the LVEF is giving moisture content of the investigated air d [g/kg shouha]:

d(g/kg shouha)=[mpair(g)]-[mdry·10-3(kg)]=

=(A·E)÷{[mPople-(Plab+ΔPhouses)]-(A·E)·10-3},

where A=(ρpair·103)-(ρdrypair)=1638,8 - constant

ρpair- the density of water vapor, ρpair=0,803 g/litre

ρdryis the density of dry air, ρdry=1,293 g/litre

E={[ρdry·VPople·T0]÷[P0·(T0+tlab)]-mPople÷(Plab+ΔPhouses)}

- the functionality that defines the influence of parameters used

float on the sensitivity of the proposed method,

where VPople- volume float (in liters), is determined experimentally,

mPople- the weight of the float (in grams), is determined experimentally,

T0=273°C, the transition temperature from Celsius scale is the absolute temperature in Kelvin,

tlabthe temperature of the investigated air, °C,

P0- normal atmospheric pressure P0=760 mm Hg,

Plab- pressure in the laboratory, mm Hg,

ΔPhouses- pressure, ΔPhouses=(PLuggage-Plab), mm Hg

PLuggage- pressure in the measuring chamber at the time of ascent of the float, mm Hg

The verification of correctness is given in algorithm ratios can be done using the "i-d") the guide of state of moist air

To explain the principle of the proposed device will look at practical examples.

Example 1. Pressure in the laboratory is 752 mm Hg, the temperature in the laboratory 23°C. In this exemplary thermometer-hygrometer shows the value of the relative humidity φ in the laboratory is 48%. For further calculations we use the common "i-d" status chart moist air (gas)that displays a graphical view of the process of humidification, heating, dehumidification, cooling gas [1]. From this diagram it follows that for these values of pressure, temperature and humidity the amount of moisture content d is 5.8 (g/kg dry air).

Diaphragm compressor this air is forced into the measuring chamber 4, which has Ravnopravie scales 3 float 7 and the counterweight 8. It was established experimentally that the volume of float VPople=0,1675 liter=167,5 ml.

The weight of the float, including counterbalance, mPople=0,220,

When reaching into the chamber 4 overpressure ΔPwt.=88 mm Hg has been observed that the float 7 "surfaced". Weight air volume equal to the volume of the float 7, adopted respectively is 0,220,

From the known equation of state of gas

you can calculate the molecular weight of the air

The weight of this air is the sum of the weights of dry air and the weight of water vapor, based on their volumes:

The volume of air, reduced to standard conditions:

Using equation (4), we calculate the volume pair:

Then we get:

The moisture content of the air is defined as:

Thus obtained value of the moisture content correlated with "i-d" chart moist air and received when the air temperature is 23°C relative humidity φ=48%, this value corresponds to the initial conditions of the problem, which was to be proved.

Example 2. Pressure in the laboratory is 750 mm Hg, the temperature in the laboratory at 25°C. In this exemplary thermometer-hygrometer shows the value of the relative humidity φ in the laboratory is 80%. From "i-d" the chart shows that at these values of pressure, temperature and humidity the amount of moisture content d is 16.5 (g/kg dry. air).

The amount of float VPople=0,1675 liter=167,5 ml.

The weight of the float, including counterbalance, mPople=0,220,

When reaching the ka of the ore 4 overpressure ΔP houses=101,1 mm Hg has been observed that the float 7 "surfaced". Weight air volume equal to the volume of the float 7, adopted respectively is 0,220, From the known equation of state of gas (1) a calculated molecular weight of this compressed air

The mass of the air in the laboratory (without excess pressure) is:

The volume of air, reduced to standard conditions:

The weight of this air is the sum of the weights of dry air and the weight of water vapor, based on their volumes:

whence it follows that:

Then we get:

The moisture content of the air is defined as:

Thus obtained value of the moisture content correlated with "i-d" chart moist air and obtained at the temperature of 25°C relative humidity φ=80%, this value corresponds to the initial conditions of the problem, which was to be proved.

Example 3. Pressure in the laboratory is 750 mm Hg, the temperature in the laboratory at 25°C. In this exemplary thermometer-hygrometer shows the t value of the relative humidity φ in the laboratory is 20%. From "i-d" the chart shows that at these values of pressure, temperature and humidity the amount of moisture content d is 4.0 (g/kg dry. air).

The amount of float VPople=0,1675 liter=167,5 ml.

The weight of the float, including counterbalance, mPople=0,220,

When reaching into the chamber 4 overpressure ΔPwt.=94,8 mm Hg has been observed that the float 7 "surfaced". Weight air volume equal to the volume of the float 7, adopted respectively is 0,220,

From the known equation of state of gas (1) a calculated molecular weight of this compressed air

The mass of the air in the laboratory (without excess pressure) is:

The volume of air, reduced to standard conditions:

The weight of this air is the sum of the weights of dry air and the weight of water vapor, based on their volumes:

Whence it follows that:

Then we get:

The moisture content of the air is defined as:

Thus obtained value of the moisture content correlated with "i-d" state diagram planologische and obtained at the temperature of 25°C relative humidity φ=20%, this value corresponds to the initial conditions of the problem, which was to be proved.

Thus, experimental and theoretical validation for the three different States of the investigated air showed the full applicability of the proposed method and device.

1. The method of determining the moisture content of gases, including compressed gas in a closed measurement chamber with built-in temperature sensors and pressure, wherein the gas is subjected to compression to the pressure at which the gas density becomes equal to the density of the measuring float provided with a counterweight that is determined by the ascent of the float and the horizontal position of the beam, fixed values of temperature and pressure in a closed measuring chamber at the time of ascent of the float and using the measured values determine the value of the moisture content of the test gas in the following ratios:

where

ρpair- the density of water vapor, ρpair=0,803 g/litre
ρdryis the density of dry air, ρdry=1,293 g/litre

where VPople- volume float (in liters),
mPople- the weight of the float with regard to the counter weight (in grams),
T0=273°C,
tlabthe temperature of the investigated air, °C,
P0- n is malnoe atmospheric pressure, P0=760 mm Hg,
Plab- pressure in the laboratory, mm Hg,
ΔPhouses- pressure, ΔPhouses=(PLuggage-Plab) mmHg
PLuggage- pressure in the measuring chamber at the time of ascent of the float, mm Hg

2. A device for determining the moisture content of gases containing a closed measuring cell with integrated temperature sensors and pressure, characterized in that the measuring cell is placed Ravnopravie rocker, one side of which is a measurement of hollow sealed float-known weight and volume, and the other arm of the rocker is opposed to, additionally, the measuring chamber provided with a valve for discharge into the measuring chamber sample test gas and a valve for releasing the sample gas.

3. A device for determining the moisture content of gases according to claim 2, characterized in that ravnoplechimi the rocker scales arrow.

4. A device for determining the moisture content of gases according to claim 2, characterized in that it contains a microprocessor that is designed for digital processing of results of measurements and calculations of the moisture content in the sample gas.

5. A device for determining the moisture content of gases according to claim 2, characterized in that it comprises an electronic scale connected to the micro is recession.



 

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5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: device for measurement of air humidity comprises capacitance sensor of humidity (2), resistive temperature sensor (14), reference stable capacitor (20), high-resistance precision resistor (11), relay (13), the first and second normally closed contacts of relay (6, 22), the first and second normally open contacts of relay (7, 23), low-resistance precision resistor (12), reference high-precision resistor (21), AC voltage generator (1), line of AC voltage supply (8), metres of level of output signal from AC voltage amplifiers in capacitance sensor of humidity and resistive sensor of temperature (3, 4), source of relay supply (5), line of relay control (9), registrator (10), signal lines (15, 16), amplifiers of AC voltage of capacitance humidity sensor and resistive temperature sensor (17, 18), functional unit (19).

EFFECT: higher accuracy of air humidity measurement.

2 cl, 1 dwg

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