Downhole motor spindle

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to drilling equipment, and namely to downhole motors for well drilling. A spindle includes a housing, a throttle and a shaft with a through axial channel, which is installed in the housing with possibility of axial movement within the limits of a guaranteed play. Between three sealed radial supports there installed are two sections of a multistage bearing plate to take an axial load in downward and upward directions. Each stage of the bearing plate consists of discs with supply hydraulic channels and flow centre plates, the rubber elements of which have annular chambers forming together with discs the thrust hydrostatic bearings. A throttle is replaceable and installed in an axial channel of the shaft. Diameter of the throttle pass for creation of pressure drop is chosen in compliance with an expected hydraulic load on the axial support in start-up operating mode of the motor. On outer surface of the shaft there are blind longitudinal slots hydraulically connecting in a separate manner a cavity above upper radial support to annular chambers of the upper section of the bearing plate and a cavity above the middle radial support to annular chambers of the lower section of the bearing plate. The cavity above lower radial support is hydraulically interconnected with the shaft axial channel below the throttle.

EFFECT: improvement of a motor structure.

1 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to the drilling technique, namely downhole motors for drilling wells.

Known spindle hole of the engine, including upper and lower radial bearing and located between them multistage rubber heel (Balenko J.F. ñ, Balenko FD, Gnoevykh A.N. Single-rotor hydraulic machines: 2 T. - M.: OOO "IDC Gazprom" - 2007. - Vol.2. Screw downhole motors. S-80).

The disadvantage of this device is the high point of friction in rubber-metal pairs of heels, especially at the moment of starting of the engine (torque to unseat the shaft). When high-speed drilling in the hydrodynamic effect of the friction torque is significantly reduced. Currently, the bulk of drilling work is done at medium and low frequencies of rotation of the motor shaft, a hydrodynamic effect which is significantly lower than at high speeds.

Known spindle hole of the engine, including multi-axial rolling bearing, the friction torque which fold lower than in the rubber heel. However, in the process of wear of the friction torque in the support monotonically increasing and tends largest to the moment of friction rubber heel, running in hydrodynamic friction regime (Balenko J.F. ñ, Balenko FD, Gnoevykh A.N. Single-rotor hydraulic machines: 2 x so - M: the NGO "IDC Gazprom" - 2007. - Vol.2. Screw downhole motors. S-84 and 292-297).

The disadvantages of multi axial bearings are the instability of its work, low durability and high rigidity (inability to damp the oscillations of the load).

The closest technical solution to the claimed invention is a downhole motor spindle having an axial hydrostatic bearing (heel), the hydrostatic effect is created due to the pressure drop across the bit. The spindle downhole motor includes a shaft with a through axial channel, mounted in the housing for axial movement within a guaranteed backlash on radial bearings and located between the multi-heel, consisting of disks with the inlet of the hydraulic channels and flowing pads, rubber elements which are of annular form with drives hydrostatic thrust bearings (Ed. mon. The USSR №415348, MCL E21B 3/12. The spindle downhole motor / Antipov, Aijac, Geacintov, Benchresting, Nmillion, Evistanero, Mccutheon. Declared 17.05.1972,, application No. 1785223/22-03. The prototype). In the starting mode of operation of downhole digitale on the heel acting hydraulic load from the top down, and at steady state axial load on the rock-breaking tool can previs shall be hydraulic, and the resulting load on the heel will operate from the bottom up. Thus switching the direction of the hydrostatic effect is due to the balls placed in the cavities of the inlet channels disks. Hydrostatic axial bearings have a high load carrying capacity and wear resistance and combine advantages of both rubber bearings operating mode fluid friction and bearings.

The disadvantages of the prototype are the dependence of the hydrostatic effect of differential pressure on the bit and the inability to adjust the excess pressure in a hydrostatic bearing in accordance with the expected hydraulic load on the heel. The presence of sand in the washing liquid makes unreliable switching the direction of the hydrostatic effect with balls. In addition, to create a substantial hydrostatic effect a very high flow of washing fluid through the bearings of the spindle, which is not involved in flushing the borehole bottom. This negatively affects the performance bits. The last conclusion was made based on bench tests hydrostatic bearing, the results of which will be discussed in the description of the proposed work spindle.

The invention solves the technical problem of providing hydrostatics the wow effect in the axial bearing of the spindle in accordance with the expected hydraulic load on it regardless of the pressure drop on the rock cutting tool, improve starting characteristics of the downhole motor and increase its durability and efficiency by reducing friction losses in the heel.

This task is solved in that the spindle downhole motor including a shaft with a through axial channel, mounted in the housing for axial movement within a guaranteed backlash on radial bearings and located between the multi-heel, consisting of disks with the inlet of the hydraulic channels and flowing pads, rubber elements which are of annular form with drives hydrostatic thrust bearings according to the invention the shaft is mounted on three sealed radial bearings and axial heel divided by the average radial support to the lower and upper sections to axial loads on the shaft downwards and upwards, respectively, on the outer surface of the shaft is made deaf longitudinal grooves, hydraulically reporting separately the cavity above the upper radial support from the inlet channels drives the upper section of the heel and the cavity above the average radial bearings with inlet channels drives the lower section of the heel, in the axial channel of the shaft has a removable orifice to create a pressure differential between the cavity above the upper radial bearing and a cavity above the lower R is dialno support in accordance with the expected hydraulic load on the heel in the starting mode, downhole motor, when this cavity above the lower radial support is hydraulically communicated with the axial channel of the shaft below the throttle.

Comparative analysis of the prototype shows that the inventive spindle differs from it in that the shaft is mounted on three sealed radial bearings and axial heel divided by the average radial support to the lower and upper sections to axial loads on the shaft downwards and upwards, respectively, on the outer surface of the shaft is made deaf longitudinal grooves, hydraulically reporting separately the cavity above the upper radial support from the inlet channels drives the upper section of the heel and the cavity above the average radial bearings with inlet channels drives the lower section of the heel, in the axial channel of the shaft has a removable orifice to create a pressure differential between the cavity above the upper radial bearing and a cavity above the lower radial support in accordance with the expected hydraulic load on the heel in the starting mode, downhole motor, the cavity above the lower radial support is hydraulically communicated with the axial channel of the shaft below the throttle.

We offer the spindle hole of the engine shown in figures 1, 2, and 3.

Figure 1 is a spindle shown in the state in the absence of reaction of the bottom hole, and when the axial load on the bit less hydraulic naked is narrow on the shaft, and the shaft is in the lowest position.

Figure 2 spindle shown in the condition when the load on the bit more hydraulic load on the shaft 2, and it is in the highest position.

Figure 3 shows a simplified device of the spindle for the case when it is intended for use only when the load on bit smaller than the hydraulic load on the shaft, for example, when operating with drill bits include diamond-carbide armament.

The spindle includes a housing 1, a shaft 2 with a through axial channel and a removable orifice 3. The diameter d of the flow channel of the throttle 3 is aligned with the expected hydraulic loading on the axial bearing spindle idling (engine start). The axial bearing of the shaft is divided into two sections. The bottom section is for the perceptual load top to bottom and located between the bottom 4 and secondary 5 sealed radial bearings of the shaft 2, and the upper section is placed between the average 5 and upper 6 sealed radial bearings of the shaft 2 and is intended for the perception of the load from the bottom up. Each section represents a multi-stage hydrostatic heel. The lower section consists of a fixed on the drive shaft 7, which is made of the inlet channels 8, the output of which is directed downwards, and fixed in the case of thrust bearings 9. The upper side of each padpa the nick equipped with rubber elements with hydrostatic annular chambers 10. The flow of thrust bearings is ensured through-hole 11.

The upper section also consists of a heel attached to the drive shaft 12, which is made of the inlet channels 13, the output of which is directed upward, and fixed in the case of thrust bearings 14. The lower side of each heel has a rubber elements with hydrostatic annular chambers 15. In the body of all pads except the top, is a through hole 16.

The disks are separated from each other by sleeves 17, and the tightness of the joints is ensured by tightening the threaded connection of the shaft 2 with the coupling 18. In the upper bushings each section is made of window 19 and 20 to enter the liquid in the longitudinal deaf grooves 21 and 22. The groove 21 provides fluid to the inlet channels 8 drives the lower section of the heel, and the groove 22 to the inlet channels 13 drives the upper section of the heel. The cavity above the lower radial support 4 Windows reported 23 with the axial channel of the shaft 2 below the throttle.

The spindle is made with the initial backlash h. When the shaft 2 is in the lowest position (see figure 1), the gaps h between the discs 12 and the thrust bearings 14 and openings 16 in the thrust bearings provide fluid to the cavity above the average radial bearings with minimal hydrocortisone.

When the load on the bit more hydraulic load on the shaft 2, it is at the top of the third position (see 2). In this case, the gaps h between the disks 7 and the thrust bearings 9 and openings 11 provide hydraulic communication from the cavity above the average radial bearings with axial channel of the shaft 2 through the Windows 23 below the throttle 3.

Simplified spindle contains only the lower section of the heel (figure 3). In this case, the spindle includes a housing 1, a shaft 2 and reactor 3 with reduced diameter d. Axial bearing shaft (heel) is placed between the sealed radial bearings 4 and 5 of the shaft 2. Each step of the heel consists of a fixed on the drive shaft 7, which is made of the inlet channels 8, the output of which is directed downwards, and fixed in the case of thrust bearings 9. The upper side of each heel has a rubber elements with hydrostatic annular chambers 10, and the lower side of the thrust bearings - rubber elements of conventional rubber-metal bearings. In the body of the thrust bearings are made through holes 11. The spindle is made with the initial backlash h. Step heel split bushings 17. At the top of the sleeve is a window 19 for supplying a fluid through the longitudinal grooves 21 to the inlet channels 8. The cavity above the lower radial support 4 Windows reported 23 with the axial channel of the shaft 2 below the throttle 3.

Features of work hydrostatic bearing part of the spindle hole of the engine and the selection of the diameter d of the flow channel reactor is studied e is Sperimentale on the stand at the base of the machine GCP-1200. The test bearing was included disc 7 and the thrust bearing 9 (see figure 1), the size of the corresponding spindle diameter 195 mm

Experiments on the stand was carried out in the following sequence. System loading machine GCP-1200 was created specified axial load F on the bearing, then turn on the pump and created the specified gauge pressure p at the inlet in the inlet channels 8 of the disk 7, then joined the rotation of the shaft 2 with the rotational speed of 67 rpm Measured torque (oscillography) and flow rate (Q) of water through the bearing. All tests were carried out with clean water. Oscillography allowed to measure the torque at the beginning of the movement of the disk (the time of moving), and during its rotation. When processing of the measurement results was calculated specific moments of the moving (Mads) and movement (Mbeats) as the ratio of the measured time to the value specified axial load (F). In addition, it was calculated the ratio (Mabout) after moving to the date of movement. The results of the experiments are shown in table 1.

Table 1
The results of the tests hydrostatic bearing
p, MPaF kNQ, is/s MwithN·mM, N·mMaboutMadsN·m/kNMbeatsN·m/kN
0207336,50
140,233201,658,255,00
150,168451,5113,609,00
16098761,2916,3312,67
170127106 18,1415,14
1,541,83,521,750,880,50
1,550,818101,803,602,00
1,560,344351,267,33of 5.83
1,57079671,1811,29to 9.57
243,52,221,100,550,50
25 2,33,631,200,720,60
261,1the 9.761,621,621,00
270,628241,174,003,43
2,546,420,50
2,554,130,60
2,562,43 0,50
2,571,6101,43

From table 1 it is evident that the presence of hydrostatic pressure in the chamber equal to 1 MPa, fold reduces the specific moment of moving, even in the absence of water flow. With increasing pressure p and reduce the load F increases the water flow through the bearing and there is further decrease in specific moments. This is because there is an opening gap between the contacting surfaces of the discs and pads and a gradual increase of its width and the corresponding increase in water consumption, resulting in a mode of boundary friction (Q=0) is gradually replaced by liquid (Q>0). The pressure p required to provide a given flow rate Q of water, depends on the load on the heel F. the Corresponding regression equation has the form

where Q is the water flow rate, l/C. the Coefficient of determination R2=0,97.

Torque to unseat more momentum 1.2...1.8 times, so when choosing the parameters of the hydrostatic bearing used only the characteristics obtained with the moving disk (shaft). Of water is IKI know, that only sufficient fluid flow provides a complete transition to the liquid friction. Therefore, the results of measurement points and water consumption were discharged from table 1 separately and ranked relative to the water flow. The results are shown in table 2.

Table 2
Values of M for dierent values of Q
Q, l/s0,10,20,30,60,81,11,61,82,32,43,54,16,4
McN·m6833442818the 9.73,53,62,2
M, N·m 4520352410610233232

From table 2 it follows that the steady mode liquid friction was observed only at the expense of the liquid more than 1.8 l/C. the average friction torque decreased on average to 2.5 N·m and corresponded to the minimal possible value, independent of the load on the heel.

The spindle with the rubber-metal bearings contains up to 20 steps. Then the required water flow to provide fluid friction will be 1.8×20=36 l/C. that is, the flow of the entire working fluid through the downhole motor. Therefore, the spindle must be equipped with sealed radial bearings and developed in support of a fluid to return into the internal cavity of the spindle below the throttle. To provide a fluid friction on all modes of the spindle is not real. Through the heel should pass only part of the washing liquid, providing the necessary reduction of the friction torque in the heel.

For the case of calculating the flow rate Q of water through one degree at a selected density value of the point e is to unseat the regression equation has the form

where Madsspecific moment, N·m/kN. The coefficient of determination R2=0,99.

For example, you want to ensure that Madsthe same as for a rolling bearing, which according to Mthurman is about 6.7 N·m/kN on one stage. Substituting this value in formula (2), we obtain that the necessary flow of water through the level is 0.31 l/s When the axial force F=10 kN at one stage the pressure p calculated by the formula (1), equal to 2.9 MPa. Therefore, the task is achievable.

Hydrostatic effect is directly proportional to the pressure p and the working area of the hydrostatic bearing, which can be taken directly proportional to the square of the diameter of the spindle, i.e. for different diameter D of the spindle

where p195d195D195- parameters spindle diameter 195 mm

The spindle works as follows. When preparing to descend into the well is determined prior to the expected hydraulic loading Fnone step lower section of the axial bearing in the idle mode by the values of the pressure drops on the downhole motor and bit, decides on the value of Madsin which easily start the engine. By the formula (2) are calculated corresponding to the flow rate Q che the ez one degree heel. By the formula (1) is calculated provisional value of the differential pressure pnproviding a given flow rate Q of the fluid. Specifies the value of the load F from the found differential pressure. When specified calculation load F this pressure drop is added to the expected pressure drop across the bit. By the formula (1) is calculated adjusted value of the differential pressure py. By the formula (3) is determined by the final value of the differential p, consistent with the diameter of the spindle. By the values of the differential pressure p and flow rate Qdthrough the inductor is equal to

where Qn- the total flow of washing fluid; n is the number of stages of the lower section of the axial bearing of the spindle, the selected diameter d of the flow channel of the throttle. The selected inductor is installed in the axial channel of the spindle.

After the descent of the tool into the borehole is included mud pump. The shaft 2 will occupy the lower extreme position. Between the disk 12 and the pads 14 of the upper section, a gap equal to the axial clearance h. The discs of the lower section adjacent to the pads and make the spindle is almost stagnant. When a further supply of washing fluid orifice creates a pressure difference p between the cavities on the upper and lower radial bearings of the spindle. Fluid pressure before the by through the window 20, the longitudinal grooves 22, the inlet channels 13 and the gap h of the upper section of the heel to the input window 19, the longitudinal grooves 21 and through the inlet channels 8 - to hydrostatic chambers 10 of the lower section of the heel. Under the action of this pressure is the hydrostatic axial bearing of the lower section of the heel spindle and downhole motor starts easily enough.

As you increase the load on the bit is reduced axial load axial bearing spindle, resulting in increased fluid flow through the bearings of the lower section of the axial bearing of the spindle, the fluid flow through the orifice is reduced accordingly. This decreases the pressure drop across the orifice, that is, the regulation of the magnitude of the hydrostatic effect and pressure drop across the choke. If the working axial load on the bit exceeds the hydraulic load on the spindle, the spindle shaft will occupy the upper end position by moving upwards in the axial gap h (see figure 2).

Axial load will perceive the bearings of the upper section of the heel of the spindle and between the disks 7 and the thrust bearings 9 of the lower section, a gap equal to the axial gap h, which will provide free discharge of drilling fluid from the cavity of the lower section of the heel of the spindle through the window 23 in the axial channel of the shaft below the inductor 3. Fit drives 12 to rubber elementinformation 14 makes the upper section of the heel spindle virtually stagnant. Thus the pressure drop across the orifice 3 through the window 19, the longitudinal grooves 22 and the connecting channels 13 is passed into the hydrostatic chamber 15. Under the effect of this differential pressure is hydrostatic axial bearings of the upper section of the heel spindle and downhole motor continues to operate at low friction losses in the axial bearing. Thus, the greater the load on the bit, and therefore axial bearing, the lower the flow rate of fluid through the axial bearings and the greater the pressure drop, creating a hydrostatic effect. Rubber elements thrust bearings and their hydrostatic camera effectively absorb vibrations axial load on the spindle and respectively on the bit, thereby increasing their durability.

Running the spindle downhole motors in accordance with the proposed technical solution will significantly improve the damping capacity of the heel, to reduce friction losses and thereby improve the durability of the spindle.

The spindle downhole motor including a shaft with a through axial channel, mounted in the housing for axial movement within a guaranteed backlash on radial bearings and located between the multi-heel, consisting of disks with the inlet of the hydraulic channels and flowing the thrust bearings, rubber elements which are of annular form with hard drives hydrostatic bearing, wherein the shaft is mounted on three sealed radial bearings and axial heel divided by the average radial support to the lower and upper sections to axial loads on the shaft downwards and upwards, respectively, on the outer surface of the shaft is made deaf longitudinal grooves, hydraulically reporting separately the cavity above the upper radial support from the inlet channels drives the upper section of the heel and the cavity above the average radial bearings with inlet channels drives the lower section of the heel, in the axial channel of the shaft has a removable orifice to create a pressure differential between the cavity above the upper radial bearing and a cavity above the lower radial support in accordance with the expected hydraulic load on the heel in the starting mode, downhole motor, the cavity above the lower radial support is hydraulically communicated with the axial channel of the shaft below the throttle.



 

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EFFECT: increased efficiency due to increase in turbodrill rotor speed up to optimal value, reduced number of turbodrill steps and hydraulic resistance thereof, increased flushing liquid flow velocity, reduced reactive moment on turbodrill stator and pipe string.

1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas well drilling equipment, particularly hydraulic downhole motors.

SUBSTANCE: device has screw bottomhole motor comprising sub and body for arranging operating tool sections. Tool sections are mating rotor and stator surfaces made in the form of multistart screw pair. Tangential current-speed and inlet drilling mud direction transducer is installed above screw pair. The transducer comprises body, retaining ring and sealing collar. Blades of the transducer are right-handed (in opposition to helical teeth of the rotor and the stator).

EFFECT: increased mechanical penetration rate due to increased load applied to drilling bit without reduction in power and shaft torque indexes.

3 dwg

FIELD: drilling equipment, particularly for directional drilling, namely control devices adapted to control angle and reactive moment.

SUBSTANCE: control device has hollow central member and three hollow tubular noncoaxial members connected to hollow central member. Inner member is disposed in center between the first and the second members. The first and the second members are connected with inner members by threaded connection. The first member is connected to spindle by threaded coupling, the second member is attached to engine body by threaded coupling and central member is connected to inner member by spline. Each of central member and the first member are provided with sectional contact seats located from spindle connection side, wherein a pair of sectional contact seats arranged from either sides of meridional spindle plane in drilling string curvature plane are defined between central and the first members. Sectional contact seats defined between central and the first members are spaced a distance L from the nearest edges of sectional contact seats of central and the first members along central axis of the first member. The distance L is more or equal to spindle diameter D. Angular deviation of the sectional contact seat formed in the first member from meridian spindle plane in drilling string curvature plane is oppositely directed relative reactive drilling bit moment.

EFFECT: increased stability and angle of gerotor engine deflection and increased accuracy of non-uniform well bottom zone penetration.

2 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: well drilling equipment, particularly bearings adapted to work in abrasive medium.

SUBSTANCE: radial bearing has body and shaft, as well as thrust collars secured in the body and spring-loaded holders arranged between the shaft and the body. Inserts with conical outer surfaces are located between the holders and the shaft so that inserts cooperate with the shaft and with inner surfaces of the holders. Radial bearing is made as two oppositely arranged blocks and as compression spring inserted in-between. Each block has stop member secured in the body and made as slotted bush. Inserts are arranged in the bush and may perform displacement in radial direction. Thrust collars have conical surfaces cooperating with outer surfaces of the inserts. Angles α at apexes of the cones defined by interacted conical surfaces of bearing support inserts, thrust collars and holders are correlated with friction coefficient μ of interacted surfaces as tg(α/2)≈μ. Insert surfaces cooperating with shaft surface may have coating of elastomeric or hard-alloy material. In accordance with the second embodiment surfaces of inserts, thrust collars and holders interacting one with another may have flat contact zones, which are inclined at (α/2) angle to longitudinal shaft axis.

EFFECT: increased operational reliability of radial bearing.

6 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas well drilling equipment with the use of hydraulic downhole motors.

SUBSTANCE: support-and-centering member is made as metal hub with blades connected to spindle connector. Spindle connector has support cone formed on outer surface thereof and adapted to provide rigid connection with metal hub from inner surface thereof. Support cone of the connector is formed from side of conical thread connecting spindle body with connector. Spindle connector has splines to connect thereof with metal hub. Metal hub is pressed with pressing cone, retaining washer and nut from another side thereof. Metal hub may be installed concentrically or eccentrically to spindle connector axis or outer surface thereof may be differently shaped and arranged eccentrically, concentrically or obliquely with respect to spindle connector axis.

EFFECT: reduced costs of spindle usage.

5 dwg

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