Multi-layer structural element

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to multi-layer power structural elements in the form of columns, towers, beams, grooves, etc., used in construction. A multi-layer power structural element comprises inner and outer layers, made by winding of reinforcing threads or rovings onto a mandrel, impregnated with a polymer binder with specified protective properties to form a solid layer, and a structural layer placed between them and stiffly connected to them, made of previously prepared volume elements, providing for adhesion of inner and outer layers. The previously prepared volume elements are made in the form of meshed longitudinal power elements with transverse links formed from reinforcing threads or rovings impregnated by a polymer binder, and the formed cavity between the external and internal layers connected by the structural layer serves to introduce a filler. Also a version of a multi-layer element is described.

EFFECT: increased reliability of an item due to provision of higher adhesion of layers with simultaneous provision of non-combustibility of protective layers, higher strength and heat resistance, increased speed of manufacturing of a finished item.

19 cl, 1 tbl, 6 dwg

 

Multilayer power structural element refers to the pillars, columns, beams, piles, frames bored piles, slabs, foundations, used in construction.

The prior art design of a composite material obtained by the method of "wet" winding on a mandrel or forming source element (Besobrasova technology) reinforcing yarns, ribbons, fabrics, rovings impregnated organic or not organic binder and the inner and outer protective layers.

Known layered tube containing made of helically wound tape of fibrous material impregnated with a polymeric binder, the inner and outer layers and located between the inner and outer layer middle layer connected with them and made from stacked one next to the other formed elements of the fibrous material, impregnated with a polymeric binder. The inner and outer layers are made of unidirectional fibrous material impregnated with a polymeric binder, is wound spirally in two opposite directions at an angle 5÷89° to the pipe axis, and the middle layer is formed of interconnected elements have the same rectangular cross-section, laid on the pipe at an angle of 0° to its axis. The elements of the middle layer is made of material the and, identical to a material of the inner and outer layers or different (RF patent No. 2197670). This pipe provides reliable adhesion layers, in addition, it is not strong enough.

Known layered profile (patent RF №2305216), is selected as the closest analogue that contains made of fibrous material impregnated with a polymeric binder, the inner and outer layers and located between the inner and outer layers and connected with them by a middle layer made from stacked one next to another, and interconnected prefabricated elements of impregnated polymeric binder unidirectional fibrous material, the inner and outer layers as a fibrous material containing the chords or tape material or fabric, and the middle layer is made of the same or a combination of different elements having a trapezoidal, rectangular or triangular cross section, this profile has closed or open cross-section.

A disadvantage of the known products is the low reliability means of ensuring the adhesion of the protective layer from the inner structural layer and a low resistance as a protective layer and the structural layer.

The technical object of the present invention is to improve reliability of the spine products by providing increased bonding of the layers while ensuring Flammability protective layers, as well as increasing strength and heat resistance layers and ensure their adherence with the filling material, with a simultaneous decrease in the content of the reinforcing elements by increasing the speed of manufacture of the finished product.

This task in the first embodiment of the invention is solved due to the fact that the multilayer power structural element includes inner and outer layers are made by winding on a mandrel reinforcing yarns or rovings impregnated with a polymeric binder with the specified protective properties to the formation of a solid layer, and placed between them and rigidly associated structural layer made of prefabricated volumetric elements ensuring the adhesion of the inner and outer layers, with pre-prepared three-dimensional elements made in the form having a cross connection net longitudinal force elements, formed of reinforcing yarns or rovings impregnated with a polymeric binder, and formed cavity between the outer and inner layers, the United structural layer, is used to inject the filler. Structural layer multilayered power structural element may be made of evenly spaced longitudinal bulk compositional elements. Multilayer power construction the th element can be designed that the outer layer is further provided with a reinforcing cage. Mainly structural layer multilayered power structural element of the longitudinal bulk compositional elements connected in a ring fittings with the formation of the spatial framework, as a material of the reinforcement used non-metallic materials and/or stainless steel wire or steel with corrosion-resistant coating. Multilayer power structural element may be further provided with evenly distributed longitudinal reinforcement bars. Multilayer power structural element may be further provided with a lateral or connecting or longitudinal channels performed without destruction of the outer and structural layers prior to their polymerization and curing. Lateral or connecting or longitudinal channels multilayer power structural element is mostly carried out with the possibility of angular displacement similar attachable multilayer power of structural elements. These channels multilayer power structural element can be made with the possibility of lock elements and can be located on the external surface at an arbitrary specified and angles.

According to the second variant of the invention multilayer power structural element containing the inner and outer layers are made by winding on a mandrel reinforcing yarns or rovings impregnated with a polymeric binder with the specified protective properties to the formation of a solid layer, and placed between them and rigidly associated structural layer made of prefabricated volumetric elements ensuring the adhesion of the inner and outer layers, provided with longitudinal reinforcing rods located between the inner and outer layers, pre-prepared three-dimensional elements made in the form of net longitudinal force elements, formed of reinforcing yarns or rovings impregnated with a polymeric binder, and formed cavity between the United structural layer of the outer and inner layers is used to inject the filler. In multilayer power structural element longitudinal reinforcing bars mostly evenly spaced between the inner and outer layers. In multilayer power structural element of the longitudinal reinforcing bars are mainly made of wire of stainless steel or steel with corrosion-resistant coating. The outer layer of the multilayered power of structural elements which may be further provided with a reinforcing cage. Multilayer power structural element may be further provided with a lateral or connecting or longitudinal channels performed without destruction of the outer and structural layers prior to their polymerization and curing. Lateral or connecting or longitudinal channels multilayer power structural element is mostly carried out with the possibility of angular displacement similar attachable multilayer power of structural elements. These channels multilayer power structural element can be made with the possibility of lock elements and can be located on the external surface at any desired angles. These channels can be filled with a rigid foam material which prevents the clogging of the channels during use or installation of multilayer power structural element, for example.

Figure 1 presents a cross-section of a fragment of the product in the first embodiment, figure 2 presents a cross-section along a-a product for option 1, figure 3 presents a cross-section of a fragment of the product according to the second variant, in figure 4 shows the cross section along B-B of the product according to the second variant, figure 5 presents a cross-section of a fragment of the product by the third variant, figure 6 presents the prohibited cross section of the locking element 11.

In the first embodiment of the multilayered structural power element contains the inner layer 1, the outer layer 2 and placed between them and rigidly associated structural layer 3. The inner layer 1 is performed by the method of "wet" winding on the mandrel reinforcing yarns or rovings impregnated with a polymeric binder with the specified protective properties to the formation of a solid layer. Then installs pre-prepared three-dimensional elements 4 made in the form having a cross connection 5 net longitudinal force elements, formed of reinforcing yarns or rovings impregnated with a polymeric binder. Followed by winding the outer layer 2 of the reinforcing filaments or rovings impregnated with a polymeric binder with the specified protective properties to the formation of a solid layer. Followed by curing. This ensures the adhesion of the inner 1 and outer 2 layers. Formed cavity 6 between the outer 2 and inner 1 layers, the United structural layer 3 having a mesh structure is used to inject the filler, for example, concrete, aerated concrete, polymer concrete, polystyrene foam, polyurethane foam.

Due to the fact that the polymeric binder can be selected with different characteristics for the resulting wound layer in advance in the chosen protective against various aggressive properties also fire resistant properties. This ensures that the required temperature and time interval of finished products at elevated temperatures, corrosive environments and climatic impact.

The inner layer 1 and outer layer 2, designed to protect from fire, heat, weathering filler material (e.g., concrete, aerated concrete, polymer concrete, polystyrene foam, polyurethane foam), are performed, for example, of quartz cloth using binder compositions of mineral origin, such as adhesive mastic KAMINFIX that can withstand temperatures up to 1000 degrees C.(for example, mastic Bolars KaminFix, specifications of which are given in table 1). Constructive layer 3 may be performed, for example, fiberglass, carbon fiber or blends with other fibers using high-temperature binder compositions, such as epoxy resin up-631. When this pre-prepared three-dimensional elements 4 of the structural layer 3 are not solid, and mesh, which allows the filler to penetrate throughout the cavity formed between the outer 2 and inner 1 layers. These three-dimensional elements 4 are also manufactured by the method of "wet" winding of the longitudinal elements having, for example, a trapezoidal cross-section, in which the fiber when wet" winding from ladywood at different angles to the generatrix of the longitudinal element. The distance between the individual fibers or groups may be for example from 1/10 of the height of the trapezoid to 2 full height of the trapezoid. Groups of fibers can be combined, for example, coaxial so that the inside are of high modulus carbon fiber is surrounded from the outside, for example, alkali-resistant glass fibers, and then caulk the longitudinal volumetric elements 4 are installed on a non-cured inner layer.

Constructive layer 3 multilayer power structural element may be made of longitudinal bulk compositional elements 4, which are evenly spaced around the circumference on the inner layer 1. This design is preferably selected in the case of annular, conical or other shaped body of rotation multilayer power structural element.

In multilayer power structural element, the inner layer 1 which is obtained by the method of "wet" winding on a mandrel or forming source element (Besobrasova technology) reinforcing yarns, ribbons, fabrics, rovings impregnated organic or not organic binder containing pre-prepared three-dimensional elements 4, which, for example, the longitudinal structural members and having a transverse link 5, is also provided reliable connection all is specified the output layers. Constructive layer 3, consisting of pre-prepared three-dimensional elements 4 made in the form having a cross connection 5 net longitudinal force elements, formed of reinforcing yarns or rovings impregnated with a polymeric binder, provides the interlayer connection and adhesion with the filling materials.

Multilayer power structural element can be made so that the outer layer 2 is additionally provided with reinforcing cage 7.

Mostly constructive layer 3 multilayer power structural element of the longitudinal bulk compositional elements 4 connected ring armature 8 with the formation of the spatial framework, as a material of the reinforcement wires of stainless steel or steel with corrosion-resistant coating. Ring armature 8 can be manufactured from non-metallic reinforcement or of coaxial fittings, uniting in its composition as the metal components and metal.

Multilayer power structural element may be further provided with longitudinal reinforcing rods 9, evenly spaced around the circumference of the multilayer power structural element.

Multilayer power structural element can be d is further provided with side or connecting or longitudinal channels 10, performed without destroying the outer 2 and design 3 layers prior to their polymerization and curing. Lateral or connecting or longitudinal channels 10 multilayer power structural element is mostly carried out with the possibility of angular displacement similar attachable multilayer power of structural elements. These channels 10 multilayer power structural element can be performed with optional locking elements 11 and can be located on the external surface of the outer layer 2 at any desired angles. Lateral or connecting or longitudinal channels 10 multilayer power structural element formed by not forming the cured outer layer 2 in the manufacture of products with a punch with a simultaneous reduction of the external perimeter of the finished cylindrical products so that after a clearance or side mounting or longitudinal channel 10 turned out to be a product with the outer cylindrical surface.

Locking element 11 is intended to reduce seepage of fluid between the individual grooves can be manufactured, for example, of polyethylene pipes, welded longitudinally between a strip of similar material. The protective properties of isdel the th as on the outer 2, and the inner layer 1 may vary depending on the assignments of products.

Options products in the first embodiment are, for example, pillars, pipes, annular elements, other vertical and horizontal product in the form of fixed fire-resistant casing and protected internal structural layer for the manufacture of columns, posts, beams, pipes experiencing axial forces, bending moments, torsion, including taking into account the variations of the strength properties of the structural layer around the perimeter of the product and the plane of application of various loads. Such products, including, can be used as a separate construction element and as an element of production drilling, punching, for the manufacture of the final product at the place of work, can be used as pipes, an internal cavity which is used for the issuance of spoil, for passing a working tool.

According to the second variant of the invention (examples of products are the column and beam, ceiling girders in the form of non-removable casing with the power of structural elements for the installation of floor slabs, followed by pouring such as concrete cavities for insertion of the filler) of the multilayer power structural element also contains the inner 1 and outer 2 layers, vypolnennogo on the mandrel reinforcing yarns or rovings, impregnated with a polymeric binder with the specified protective properties to the formation of a solid layer. Between them is placed and rigidly connected with constructive layer 3, made of pre-prepared three-dimensional display elements 4, which provides adhesion of the inner 1 and outer 2 layers. When this multilayer power structural element provided with longitudinal reinforcing rods 9 arranged between the inner 1 and outer 2 layers.

Pre-prepared three-dimensional elements 4 made in the form of net longitudinal force elements, formed of reinforcing yarns or rovings impregnated with a polymeric binder.

As a result of this structural embodiment is formed cavity between the United structural layer 3 outer 2 and inner 1 layers, which serves to introduce a placeholder.

In multilayer power structural element longitudinal reinforcing bars 9 mostly evenly spaced between the inner 1 and outer 2 layers. In multilayer power structural element longitudinal reinforcing bars 9 are mainly made of wire of stainless steel or steel with corrosion-resistant coating. The outer layer 2 of the multilayer power structural element may be further provided with a reinforcement cage is m 12 (shown in figure 5). Multilayer power structural element may be further provided with a lateral or connecting or longitudinal channels 10, performed without destroying the outer 2 and design 3 layers prior to their polymerization and curing. Lateral or connecting or longitudinal channels 10 multilayer power structural element is mostly carried out with the possibility of angular displacement similar attachable multilayer power of structural elements. These channels 10 multilayer power structural element can be performed with optional locking elements 11 and can be located on the external surface at any desired angles. These channels 10 can be filled with a rigid foam material which prevents the clogging of the channels 10 in the use or installation of multilayer power structural element. Lateral or connecting or longitudinal channels 10 multilayer power structural element that can transmit the mechanical load of similar products.

The outer protective layer in the proposed version is made of a material that allows you to get the layer by wet winding or forming, and as the binder material may be ispolzovaniem, asbestos cement or other organic or not organic binder.

In the manufacture of products using the method of "wet" winding on a mandrel or forming source element (Besobrasova technology) reinforcing yarns, ribbons, fabrics, rovings impregnated organic or not organic binder, and for lateral or connecting or longitudinal channels 10 before the forming process of the product are side, connecting, longitudinal channels by punching, as in the first embodiment.

As the polymer binder, in particular, can be used the following materials: phenol-formaldehyde, urea, polyester, epoxy, polyurethane and other

For the manufacture of the product according to the second variant previously performed by the method of "wet" winding on the mandrel reinforcing yarns or rovings impregnated with a binder, a certain number of layers of the inner protective layer 1. Next on the outer surface of these layers 1 have a pre-prepared three-dimensional elements 4 and the reinforcing frame 12, and carry out the subsequent winding of the upper layers of the outer layer 2.

Longitudinal reinforcing bars 9 in both variants of the invention due to partial location them in the outer layer 2 and the structural layer 3 provide welding ready is steli in preparation for the installation, fastening thereto accessories.

In the production process for the subsequent longitudinal joint of products made using the side or connecting or longitudinal channels 10 or volume of the reinforcing frame 12, the products are produced editions of the longitudinal structural elements in a length of, for example, from 10 to 40 heights of the trapezoids on the part of smaller diameter products. On the opposite side on the outer protective layer is formed socket to reach the outer layer attachable similar articles. In the production process for products using the side or connecting or longitudinal channels 10, the product is not yet otverzhdennye the outer and inner layers being formed of longitudinal channels punches and subsequent curing.

As an example of products with side or connecting or longitudinal channels 10 can cause the tongue and groove joints, frames bored piles, beams, pipes, how to perform a cavity for insertion of a filler, and without. Multilayer power structural element such channels 10 may not only push, to immerse (in relation to the tongue), but spin it without damage around the longitudinal axis to its immersion in the drilling process. All products and channels before installing it in the ground could the t to be closed by the outer layer of a polymeric film, prevent abrasive damage to the product during the installation process.

The product performed as described above, including can be used as a power element beams for installation of floor slabs or power elements in a fixed timbering to further concreting.

Additionally, products containing in its composition coaxial valve, which can be used as a separate construction element, can also be combined in a mesh design. This element incorporates internal high strength and high modulus layer of fibers, the outer protective layer made of less durable fibers and covering the normally open or normally closed layer of thin metal, allowing the anchoring of the reinforcement and standard methods of welding metal to join the reinforcement frames.

The sequence of production for the manufacture of the product according to the second variant of the invention. On the ring armature 8 is a longitudinal weld element with top shelf of a steel sheet of a thickness of, for example, from 3 mm to 40 mm and the lateral “G” shaped elements made of steel sheet with a thickness of, for example, from 3 mm to 20 mm, with the length of the hole, for example, round or other shape with rounded corners. This item is part of the product and serves as not recoverable frames and for wet winding with the installation of the longitudinal elements of the structural layer. Next, the inner cavity is not retrievable mandrel are pre-fabricated elements of internal and part of the elements of the structural layers. Their recording is made, for example, the ring a “wet” winding such as glass fibers or carbon fibers. After winding the fixing layers of fibers, the product is removed from the machine and it installs the bottom of the structural layer, recording its outer layer. After this the temperature treatment products for bonding layers formed "wet" winding.

Multilayer structural power
Table 1
NameValue
Colorgrey
Ph9,0-11,0
The drying time2 hours
Thickness2-3 mm
Adhesionnot less than 0.6 MPa, adhesion after heating to 1000 - not less than
0.4 MPa
Temperature works+5 To +30
Operating temperature+5 To +1000
Frost5 cycles
Consumption, kg/m1,0-1,3 kg/m
The cure time6 hours

1. Multilayer power structural element containing the inner and outer layers are made by winding on a mandrel reinforcing yarns or rovings impregnated with a polymeric binder with the specified protective properties to the formation of a solid layer, and placed between them and rigidly associated structural layer made of prefabricated volumetric elements ensuring the adhesion of the inner and outer layers, wherein the pre-prepared three-dimensional elements made in the form having a cross connection net longitudinal force elements, formed of reinforcing yarns or rovings impregnated with a polymeric binder, and formed a cavity between the outer and inner layers, the United structural layer serves for the introduction of a placeholder.

2. Multilayer power con is tractional element according to claim 1, wherein the structural layer is made of evenly spaced longitudinal bulk compositional elements.

3. Multilayer power structural element according to claim 1, wherein the outer layer further provided with a reinforcing cage.

4. Multilayer power structural element according to claim 1, wherein the structural layer is made of longitudinal bulk compositional elements connected in a ring fittings with the formation of the spatial framework, as a material of the reinforcement used non-metallic materials and/or stainless steel wire or steel with corrosion-resistant coating.

5. Multilayer power structural element according to claim 1, characterized in that it further provided with evenly distributed longitudinal reinforcement bars.

6. Multilayer power structural element according to claim 1, characterized in that it further provided with a lateral or connecting or longitudinal channels performed without destruction of the outer and structural layers prior to their polymerization and curing.

7. Multilayer power constructional element according to claim 6, characterized in that the lateral or connecting or longitudinal channels configured to provide angular displacement similar attachable multilayer power of structural elements.

8. Multilayer power constructional element according to claim 6, characterized in that the side, or connection, or longitudinal channels made with the possibility of lock elements.

9. Multilayer power constructional element according to claim 6, characterized in that the side, or connection, or longitudinal channels can be located on the external surface at any desired angles.

10. Multilayer power constructional element according to claim 6, characterized in that the channels can be filled with a rigid foam material which prevents the clogging of the channels during use or installation of multilayer power structural element.

11. Multilayer power structural element containing the inner and outer layers are made by winding on a mandrel reinforcing yarns or rovings impregnated with a polymeric binder with the specified protective properties to the formation of a solid layer, and placed between them and rigidly associated structural layer made of prefabricated volumetric elements ensuring the adhesion of the inner and outer layers, characterized in that it is provided with longitudinal reinforcing rods located between the inner and outer layers, pre-prepared three-dimensional elements done the us in the form of a net longitudinal force elements, formed from reinforcing yarns or rovings impregnated with a polymeric binder, and formed a cavity between the outer and inner layers, the United structural layer, serves for the introduction of a placeholder.

12. Multilayer power structural element according to claim 11, characterized in that the longitudinal reinforcing bars evenly spaced between the inner and outer layers.

13. Multilayer power structural element according to claim 11, characterized in that the longitudinal reinforcing bars made of wire of stainless steel or steel with corrosion-resistant coating.

14. Multilayer power structural element according to claim 11, wherein the outer layer further provided with a reinforcing cage.

15. Multilayer power structural element according to claim 11, characterized in that it further provided with a lateral, or connection, or longitudinal channels performed without destruction of the outer and structural layers prior to their polymerization and curing.

16. Multilayer power constructional element according to item 15, wherein the lateral, or connection, or longitudinal channels configured to provide angular displacement similar to the attached multilayer power of structural elements.

17. Multilayer power design is traditional element according to § 15, characterized in that the side, or connection, or longitudinal channels made with the possibility of lock elements.

18. Multilayer power constructional element according to item 15, wherein the lateral, or connection, or longitudinal channels can be located on the external surface at any desired angles.

19. Multilayer power constructional element according to item 15, wherein the channels can be filled with a rigid foam material which prevents the clogging of the channels during use or installation of multilayer power structural element.



 

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FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: wall unit is arranged in the form of a faceted structure from a hardened material, having a face surface arranged on the outer face side of the unit, an inner surface arranged on the inner side of the unit, lower, upper and side surfaces, at the same time the unit comprises a face layer, an intermediate layer and an inner layer arranged serially along its width, besides, the face layer has thickness of s1, which is less than the thickness s2 of the intermediate layer, and the thickness s3 of the inner layer is less than the thickness s1 of the face layer, the latter contains cement, a plasticiser and ground haydite with fractions within 1 to 5 mm, the intermediate layer of the unit contains cement, a plasticiser and haydite with fractions within 5 to 20 mm, the inner layer of the unit contains sand, cement and a plasticiser, the specified thicknesses of the unit layers are selected depending on the width S of the unit and are in the ratio of s1:s2:s3=(0.10-0.17)S:(0.89-0.79)S:(0.007-0.037)S, the unit comprises a L-shaped crest made in the face layer and covering it at two adjacent lateral and lower sides, and also a L-shaped groove made in the face layer and covering at two other adjacent lateral and upper sides of the unit, the crest and the groove are installed in a single plane, parallel to the face surface of the unit, the surface of the crest and the groove, the face and inner surfaces are arranged as solid and smooth, and the lower, upper and lateral sides of the unit arranged between the face and inner layers are made as rough with grooves stretching inside the unit from 0.1 mm to 20 mm between fractions, at the same time the length of the unit L at its face side is selected depending on the width S of the unit within the limits of L=(0.99-1.01)S, the length Lin of the unit at its inner side is selected as equal to the length of the unit at its face side, the face surface of the unit is arranged at the distance s4 from the crest axis, the inner surface of the unit is arranged at the distance s5 from the crest axis, which is more than the distance s4, besides, s4 and s5 are in the ratio s4=(0.08-0.16)s5. Also the versions of units design are described, as well as a material for manufacturing of a unit, versions of molds for manufacturing of a unit, the method to manufacture the unit and a line for unit manufacturing.

EFFECT: reduced weight of units, its higher strength, provision of possibility to increase strength of units connection in a wall, simplified technology of production by usage of moulds from unified elements, using a simplified method for manufacturing of units and a line for method implementation.

41 cl, 61 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: tape is designed to fill seams between construction slabs. It contains a non-woven base, containing fibres, selected from a group made of natural cellulose fibres, synthetic polymer fibres, glass fibres and their combinations. At the same time the nonwoven base has the following properties, determined according to ASTM C474-05: relative swelling in cross direction is below approximately 1.3%; relative swelling in longitudinal direction is below approximately 0.2% and breaking strength in cross direction is at least approximately 2625 N/m. Besides, a method is proposed for finishing treatment of a seam between slabs, including the following: (1) application of a tape for filling seams onto a seam between slabs by submersion of a tape for seam filling into the first layer of the composition for filling seams; (ii) application of the second layer of the composition for filling seams above the tape, besides, the stage (ii) is carried out before the tape for seam filling and the composition for seam filling applied at the stage (i), have dried substantially, and if required, (iii) application of the third, filling or final layer of the composition for filling seams above the tape, besides, the stage (iii) is carried out before the tape for seam filling and the second layer have substantially dried.

EFFECT: improved quality of the tape due to high strength and reduction of swelling during moistening at simultaneous acceleration of seams filling.

20 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: light heat-insulation building unit arranged in internal and external walls of a building and formed from bubble synthetic resin, comprises a connecting ledge on the upper side, so that when it is laid, no cavity is formed, a connecting slot in the basement of the unit corresponding to the connecting ledge, and also a protruding section and a section of the slot arranged on the front and rear surfaces of the unit. At the same it is equipped with an auxiliary unit having the same shape as the heat insulation unit, which is cut as "L" on a segment of the upper section of its one surface, and has a ledge of cylindrical shape on the upper section of the cut element, and is joined to one side of the heat insulation unit. Also versions of the units are described.

EFFECT: development of units that make it possible to complete treatment of building walls by attachment of a finishing material to a unit, reduction of costs, simplified process of unit formation.

13 cl, 21 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: multilayer building block comprises a decorative layer, a central layer arranged between an inner and outer structural layers made of ceramsite-concrete mix. The mix to make the central layer contains the following components, per 1 m3 of the mix: ceramsite gravel of 8÷22 mm fraction with apparent density of 350÷450 kg/m3 in volume of 1 m3; portland cement 130÷440 kg, polyvinyl acetate glue in volume of 1.3÷4.7 l, water in volume of 115÷125 l. The method is characterised to manufacture the multilayer building block.

EFFECT: increased strength of the block and simplified method of its manufacturing.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method for production of multilayer structural material includes mould filling, subsequent supply of layer materials, moulding, soaking, withdrawal from mould. At the same time serial filling of layer materials is carried out through placement of basalt cloth layers impregnated with epoxide resin onto mould bottom, placement of foam polyurethane layer onto layers of basalt-plastic with further laying of basalt cloth layers impregnated with epoxide resin onto foam polyurethane layer, with intermediate arrangement of carbon threads in between. Ends of carbon threads are taken outside. Moulding and soaking of all layers is carried out simultaneously in process of heating up to temperature of 60°C and pressure of 0.5-1.0 MPa until resin hardens. At the same time ratio of foam polyurethane layer thickness to basalt-plastic layer thickness makes 20-80:0.5-1.5.

EFFECT: improved mechanical properties and reduced process cycle.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: construction industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to production of building materials used in particular in low-rise and frame housing and also during building of civil and industrial projects with high requirements to decorative outer cladding of buildings, heat- and acoustic insulation of rooms, for example of multistorey apartment houses, cottages and other buildings. Set of blocks includes sets of main, corner and aperture blocks containing face layer with thickness A, bearing layer with thickness C and heat-insulating layer with thickness B located between them, they are attached to each other by polymeric bars, at that basic thickness of blocks in each set is chosen discretely either 300 mm or 400 mm, at that relation of thickness B of heat-insulating layer to sum of thicknesses (A+C) of face and bearing layers, i.e. (B:(A+C)) is chosen completed with basic thickness of blocks 300 mm either 0.50 or 0.67, and completed with basic thickness of blocks 400 mm - either 0.60 or 1.00, at that sum of thicknesses (A+C) of face and bearing layers is constant for all sets, at that each set consists of two groups of blocks. Thickness A of decorative layer in each group increases in arithmetic progression according to relation Ai=A0+10·n, where A0 is chosen not less than 40 mm, and n is integral number and corresponds to range from 1 to 6, and thickness C of bearing layer decreases in arithmetic progression in each group correspondingly. Blocks in each group are made according to regional weather conditions requirement and are characterised by thickness B of heat-insulating layer being constant in group for region. Each group is provided additionally with belt blocks made one-piece and consisting of face and bearing layers, and with air-exchange block provided with through-hole and ventilating grill rigidly fixed in it. Blocks of corner type are made in two forms, one of them is provided with equidistant L-shaped face and heat-insulating layers, and in cavity of heat-insulating layer shortened bearing layer is located. The other form of blocks is provided with equidistant L-shaped bearing and heat-insulating layers, and in cavity of heat-insulating layer shortened face layer is located.

EFFECT: improvement of universalisation of set of blocks and enhancement of their use in low-rise and high-rise house building under various weather conditions, simplification of technology of walls construction observing all required technical and technological parametres, optimisation of ratio of all layers dimensions, improvement of their strength properties and cheapening of building.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 9 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial construction materials, and more specifically to double-layer structures and method of making such structures, particularly non-sparking double-layer tiles, meant or covering floors in category A and B fire safety buildings. The non-sparking double-layer tile is in form of a concrete monolithic body with a face layer, which has a regular or irregular geometrical shape, where material for both layers is a mixture, used in semi-dry state, containing, wt %: composition of the mixture of the base layer: portland cement of at least grade 500 DO 20.55 to 22.78, construction sand with particle size 5 mm with fineness modulus of not less than 2.4 72.89 to 75.34, Poliplast MB-1 0.20-0.30, water - the rest; composition of the mixture of the face layer: portland cement of at least grade 500 DO 23.98 to 26.19, limestone in form of sand from siftings from crushing sedimentary rocks with strength grade of at least 400 with particle size 2 to 4 mm and fineness module of not less than 2.4 69.84-71.94, Poliplast MB-1 0.23 to 0.30, water - the rest, where the face layer has thickness of not less than 10 mm. The method of making the said tile involves preparation of each of the said mixtures with moisture content of 6-8% in mixers by successive loading the given filler, additive, portlant cement, stirring dry components for 30 to 60 s, then, while stirring, adding water and continue to stir the mixture for the base layer for 30 to 40 s, and the mixture for the face layer - for 2 minutes, placing the mixture for the base layer into a mould, preliminary compacting with light vibration or ramming without vibration, placing the mixture for the face layer on top of the compacted base layer, final compacting with vibrocompression for 20 to 23 s of the said mixtures and solidification in a steam curing chamber at temperature of 40°C, moisture 95 to 100 % and rate of increase and decrease of temperature not more than 25°C/h. Invention is developed in subclaims.

EFFECT: increased compression and bending strength, reduced wearability.

4 cl, 4 ex, 3 tbl

FIELD: construction industry, in particular, manufacture of multilayer construction stones.

SUBSTANCE: method involves forming undetachable frame by mounting of closed outer form onto pallet, with sides of frame being equipped with vertical slots; placing internal insert symmetrically in form, said insert being similar to form in shape and equipped with vertical slots; fixing form and insert with respect to one another with the help of vertical members introduced into vertical slots; filling space between form and insert with sand concrete; imparting monolith structure to filler by vibratory pressing or vibratory casting; withdrawing form, insert and vertical members; forming cells inside resultant undetachable frame by placing interconnected partition walls; fixing their free ends in slots formed in sides of undetachable frame by means of vertical members; filling cells with cellular concrete or light-weight concrete such as polystyrene, clay filler, sawdust, ash; holding; drying and removing partition walls to produce ready multilayer wall stone, which is further directed for stacking.

EFFECT: increased efficiency by combined employment of various construction materials and reduced labor consumed for performing frame forming and handling works.

5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: building materials.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the gypsum composition made of hardened gypsum and to a method for its preparing. The composition made of hardened gypsum comprises the bound matrix unbroken phase made of hardened gypsum having the enhanced volume of empty spaces from water, and/or the indicated composition is prepared from a mixture showing the enhanced ratio of water to calcined gypsum at least 3:1. Also, invention describes an article comprising composition made of hardened gypsum. Invention provides preparing nonshrinking composition of hardened gypsum with reduced density, improved insulating and/or acoustic properties.

EFFECT: improved preparing method and properties of composition.

21 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

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