Method, appliance and application for making fuel from moist biomass

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel from compacted biomass whereat moist biomass is dried prior to compaction. Before drying, biomass is mechanically dewatered for decrease in moisture content and ground before mechanical dewatering. Note that biomass is ground to puree state, rubbed to obtain fiber and subjected to fine grinding to destruct cellular structures to biomass consistency varying from paste to fluid. Invention relates also to appliance for producing fuel from compacted biomass. Fine grinding allows better removal of water either mechanically or at preliminary dewatering.

EFFECT: decreased amount of contaminants released in combustion and boiler corrosion, higher combustion heat and ash fusion point.

11 cl, 1 dwg

 

The object of the present invention are a method, device, and application of one such device for receiving pressurized fuel from wet biomass of all types, such as agricultural products, forest products and horticultural products, including waste, such as grass clippings, waste gardening or kitchen waste, industrial waste biomass, such as food processing, paper manufacturing or similar.

Such methods and devices for their implementation are known, for example, from the document WO 2004/067685 A1.

These methods include, for example, before the final pressing process for manufacturing extruded in the form of fuel drying process before the drying process, a pressing process to reduce the moisture content before pressing the first grinding process, which will increase the efficiency of the subsequent pressing, i.e. a possible reduction in the water content of the wet biomass.

Devices for the implementation of these methods have a construction in accordance with the requirements of the following methods.

Compared with the existing, used as fuel, dry or substantially dry biomass, such as wood and compared with the pre is satisfactory field-dry biomass, as, for example, hay wet biomass during its processing into fuel has several advantages. First, wet biomass is everywhere present in large numbers, often without the idea of its other uses in addition to recycling, for example, it should compositionalist if it is not processed into fuel, or even left to rot in place without energy use.

Compared with pre-dried recycled wet biomass has the advantage that it prevents weight loss, which, for example, due to loss of seeds occur during drying in the field.

But first of all in the natural drying by evaporation remains substances, harmful combustion contained in biomass and which, for example, chlorine - accelerate corrosion incineration plants or which adversely affects the characteristics of the ash combustible material, and which reduce the cost of biomass as fuel. This deficiency may be due in large part eliminated first of all, if wet biomass according to a known method is subjected to pressing before heat drying, so it removes the contained water is an essential part of harmful substances.

However, these methods have the advantages of disadvantages. First of all they are quite energy-intensive, e negatively affect the energy balance subject to fuel fabrication. This is driven primarily by the fact that the extraction of fresh biomass, it is often quite hard grains, requires a major effort, however, contributes only a lack of moisture, so that the destruction is still very significant moisture content of the already pressed material remains to pass especially energy-intensive thermal drying. At the same time this means that the data contained in the biomass substances, harmful combustion are removed only in limited quantities, because these substances are mostly soluble in water, and therefore, thermal drying them does not diminish.

Significant efforts are required for extraction of biomass, are a significant depreciation of machines, which is greater, the greater the contaminated biomass increases abrasion materials such as sand, inorganic waste and the like, primarily, for example, if we are talking about crop farming or open space, which made transportation.

Object of the invention is thus to optimize the known methods for producing fuel from compressed biomass from wet original material, as well as to be applied to this device to a lower power consumption, especially on the I thermal drying, and at the lowest possible load of production facilities to obtain a higher heat of combustion and the best properties of the resulting fuel.

This task is proposed according to the invention the method is characterized by signs in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2 of the claims, as well as proposed according to the invention the device is characterized by signs in accordance with paragraphs 9-13 of the claims.

In the first embodiment of the present invention the biomass prior to mechanical dewatering is subjected to fine grinding using grinding, wiping through a sieve, making purees, manufacture of pulp or the like so that the obtained homogeneous porridge from Moussa/puree consistency which, preferably, from mushy to a liquid. Thus the grinding process is carried out in one or several stages.

This condition has the advantage primarily in the fact that biomass is more suitable for further processing, such as capable of pumping (with addition or without addition of another liquid) and the preparation can be easier to go to other stages of processing.

This is due to the change, or significant destruction of cell structure and with the release of the fluid of the cell or its separation (sedimentation, pre-obesos the cation) even before any mechanical dehydration.

But, first of all loosened cell structure very greatly facilitate subsequent mechanical dehydration. They facilitate not only very noticeable spin at lower cost in the car and allow much more powerful mechanical reduction of moisture. They even make it possible alternative, mechanical methods of dehydration, which is not effective when only roughly chopped biomass, such as, for example, the use of filter presses, belt presses, decantation or centrifuges.

If used for dewatering screw press or a filter press or centrifuge, the less residual moisture, which, for example, grass mechanical dehydration after the well-known ways is 64-70%, when finely ground mass to 30-55% or even up to 30-45%.

Note that the fine grinding due to the destruction of cellular structure and a corresponding increase in the surface of the particles of biomass makes possible a very effective subsequent drying of biomass.

Thanks to the fine grinding of biomass mechanically or already on the path preliminary dehydration is removed together more water. This helps to reduce dangerous from the point of view of combustion of a substance contained in the biomass, which is at a lower (preliminary dehydration) and fur is practical dehydration, accordingly stronger thermal drying would have remained in it at a larger size. This leads to reduced corrosion of the heating boiler, the higher heat of combustion, reducing the ash content and increase the melting point of ash, i.e. in General for sparing mode heating systems running on these fuels. Due to this reduction of the contained substances, harmful (high) in terms of combustion, the treated biomass can be used in various heating boilers, which traditionally were not designed for such stalked material biomass.

Above all, however, significantly improved energy and cost balances the production method, since due to the high mechanical dewatering energy costs for thermal drying, which in itself is very energy-intensive, significantly reduced. Mechanical dewatering requires 5-15% of the energy required for thermal drying to evaporate this amount of water.

Mainly to maintain, in particular, the process of pre-dehydration, i.e. before mechanical dewatering, used chemical means to dehydration, to support the process of dehydration, i.e. biomass additives are added.

In an alternative embodiment, the supply is hydrated according to the invention is a method of obtaining fuel from injection molded in the form of biomass wet biomass as a starting material is characterized by biomass before or after the first grinding process is subjected to a cleaning process. At the same time capable of deposited materials (stones, metal etc) can be deposited. Pop-up foreign material, such as plastic can manually or automatically collected from the surface of the washing water. The wash water can circulate in the circuit.

In this case, there should not be any fine grinding. Sink, as such, exerts its positive effect on the receipt and on the final product also when is the normal degree of grinding.

Originally by washing the biomass associated with the sink, like using mechanical dewatering, reduced the content of substances that have a negative effect on the technique of burning. That is, the washing improves the combustion conditions and the behavior of the ash, in particular, reduces the susceptibility to corrosion and the melting point of the ash due to the fact that eliminates the harmful effects of the installation for incineration.

Note that when the washing of the biomass at the same time removes large impurities such as stones, sand, metals, and substances that create a burden on the environment, such as soot from the exhaust gases and residues from the abrasion of tyres on the grass, stubble near roads, resulting in a sparing mode work lighting is ment for grinding and pressing, as there is no increased wear (up to the impracticability of way)that carry such is contained in the biomass material. In any event, this improves the cost balance is proposed according to the invention method, but brings with it a limitation of the comparison of biomass, which again is beneficial in terms of technology combustion means improving the quality of the product. Washing biomass only allows the preparation of biomass as fuel, regardless of the receiving device (for example, a suction fan or grid) and on the type of biomass (for example, biomass from agriculture or green stripe along the road). That is, the event also provides an economic advantage. Along with this, it turns out the economic benefit, so as to prevent burning of hazardous substances.

Finally, the sink makes possible a particularly effective control of the temperature of processing, about the way that can be maintained at such temperature of the washing water due to this collapse of the cell structure (blanching/provarivanija), which again facilitates further processing, in particular the Department of water inside the biomass (bound water in biomass).

In another preferred embodiment, the method steps of the method of washing and grinding can kombinirov is about being with each other in the form of fine grinding. Their positive effects on the course of the method in this case is enhanced. However, washing in this case takes place before fine grinding.

Biomass prior to mechanical dewatering can be dehydrated. It is recommended, in particular if it is clean, since the wash water is a simple way to play again and a mechanical device for dewatering of power is unloaded. Preliminary dehydration, which can be carried out using a filter press, hydraulic press, screw press, vibropress or belt press, centrifuge or decanter, acquires its special meaning is also a result of the proposed stages of the method for decomposition of cellular structures, such as, in particular pulverisation. They make possible the removal of a significant proportion of water without significant effort and unload their own mechanical dehydration process. This eventually leads to reduced wear and energy savings and thus to improve the energy and cost balances.

This may be useful to heat the biomass prior to fine grinding or mechanical dehydration process (provarivanija, blanching).

Heating may be carried out before grinding or after grinding, somewhere in the sink with hot washing water. Here is predpochtitelnye are temperature up to 100°.

Alternatively, heating can be carried out also during the grinding and/or prior to dehydration, or during it. The heat for heating, or part of it, might come in the way of energy recovery from the process.

Also, the heating leads to a better decomposition of the cellular structure of the biomass and thus facilitation of the output water, which can be separated to some extent already under preliminary dehydration significantly without pressing or by subsequent pressing, somewhere within the mechanical dewatering, anyway, with a little effort and energy.

By heating at the same time reduces energy consumption for thermal drying, which is particularly energy-intensive. Thus, the energy balance is improved even more.

So depending on the technique of dehydration can vary biogenic component in wrung the water. The warming due to the enhanced decomposition of cells can lead to increased biogenic component in wrung the water and thus increase its value. This effect is enhanced by fine grinding, which on its part can lead to increased release of biogenic component in wrung the water.

It really is for the case when the pressed water is allocated as fertilizer sludge is this undergoes further processing, and for the case when it is used for the production of gas. As as fertilizer and biogas yield increase due to increased biogenic component in wrung the water.

The importance of water allocated by mechanical dewatering, for the above purposes (as fertilizer or substances for manufacturing or for fermentation to get gas) may increase even more due to the fact that it is used as washing water, i.e. repeatedly enriched with biogenic material.

Since biomass after grinding, preliminary dehydration and mechanical dewatering to reduce the moisture as the case may be so sealed that it in this state it would be difficult to dry further, in most cases, it is recommended before thermal drying followed by mechanical dewatering process to expose the second grinding process (the process of loosening), whereby the mass compacted by mechanical dehydration, again loosened, but under certain conditions can further be reduced.

In particular, we are talking about:

1. The device or application devices for obtaining fuel from compressed biomass for implementing the method according to one of points 1 and 3-8 of the claims, consisting of a device for pressing the Oia biomass, installed ahead of the device for drying the biomass, installed ahead of the device for the mechanical dewatering of the biomass to reduce the content of moisture in it and installed ahead of him the first device for grinding of biomass, which helps to thin grinding.

2. The device or application devices or the use of devices for obtaining fuel from injection molded in the form of biomass for implementing the method according to one of paragraphs 2-8 of the claims, consisting of a device for pressing in the form of biomass, installed ahead of the device for drying the biomass, installed ahead of the device for the mechanical dewatering of the biomass to reduce the content of moisture in it, installed ahead of him the first device for grinding and the latter is installed in front of or behind the device for washing the biomass.

3. The device or using the device as previously described in paragraph 2, in which the first device for grinding of biomass contributes to fine grinding, and wherein the device for washing the biomass is installed in front of the device for grinding the implementation of the method according to one of paragraphs 3-8 of the claims.

4. The device or application devices, as described earlier in the paragraph is Ah 1-3, in which the device for preliminary dehydration of biomass installed in front of the device for mechanical dewatering, for implementing the method according to one of items 1-8 of the claims.

5. The device or application devices, as described previously in paragraphs 1-4, which includes a second device for grinding (loosening) of biomass, installed in front of the device for drying and behind the device for mechanical dewatering.

The invention is explained in more detail below using the single drawing, which shows a device 1 for pressing in the form to get moulds fuel, which is installed in front of the device 2 for thermal drying to be pressing biomass.

In the device 2 for drying installed device 12 for measuring the moisture content for proper adjustment of the desired degree of drying to be pressing biomass and temperature sensor 14 for optimal control of the drying process. In addition, the device 2 for drying includes a pipe 11 for removal of the resulting moisture and outlet pipeline 15 to exhaust gases generated during drying.

Ahead of the device 2 to the drying device 3 for the mechanical removal of moisture (pressing and the like)with which of the wet biomass using a pressing centrifugation, etc. mechanically removes more moisture to make more economical very energy-intensive process of thermal drying.

The device 3 for moisture removal features as the device 2 for drying, pipeline 8 for discharge of liquid through which the waste water is diverted, resulting in mechanical dehydration, and, if necessary, can be fed to another application. As for the other applications it can be used as agricultural fertilizer or further processing for this or for fermentation when getting gas.

Because mechanical removal of moisture from biomass usually it leads to condensation, which could complicate further processing, in particular subsequent thermal drying, immediately after a mechanical device 3 to remove moisture and before thermal device 2 for drying can be provided (second) device 9 for grinding as a device for loosening biomass.

Anyway, biomass, to make easier its mechanical dewatering and thermal drying and further processing and to provide a homogeneous structure of the biomass prior to mechanical dewatering crushed in a (first) device 4 for grinding. This grinding, according to the SNO invention, should be fine crushing.

Biomass to the first device 4 for grinding is fed from the Assembly device 10, in which the biomass is for its processing. A collecting device at a time can be in the form of a device for mixing various biomass, or such a device 16 for mixing may be provided separately.

Between collection device 10 and a mechanical device 3 to remove moisture can be a number of other devices. They can be, as indicated by the arrow to the positions 5, 6, 7, 13, 16 in the drawing, installed on the choice of front of or behind the first device 4 for grinding.

So behind or before the first device 4 for grinding can be provided by the device 13 for separating impurities, in particular, sand and stones. In most cases, it is recommended to install it in front of the device 4 for grinding, as thus preserved his tools for grinding.

In another embodiment, the invention may provide a washing device 5 for washing the biomass. It may be, as shown by the arrow in the drawing, is installed in front of the device 4 for grinding or can be installed behind him. This washing can even be used as an alternative to fine grinding. In this case, the but is preferably applied after the first grinding, and in this case it is possible to abandon fine grinding. If on the contrary the fine grinding is used, the washing takes place preferably before fine grinding and setting has a corresponding design. When the cleaning process in this case is the separation of sand and stones and other heavy impurities.

Ahead of mechanical devices 3 to remove moisture can be mounted device 6 for preliminary dehydration. It is used for subsequent unloading device 3 to remove moisture by removing the fraction of moisture, which may be separated without additional mechanical events, such as pressing. The device 6 for preliminary dehydration can be installed ahead of the first device 4 for grinding, if we are talking about the preliminary dehydration from the very beginning a very raw biomass. But it can also be provided after grinding in the first device 4 for grinding, or both, especially if the first cut is thin grinding, in which the biomass can be mushy, very fluid consistency, which makes it possible preliminary dehydration without additional manual intervention and is rational.

To support these processes biomass m which may be heated prior to mechanical dewatering, why before the device 3 for removal of moisture may be provided by the device 7 for heating.

Finally, mechanical dewatering may be preceded by fermentation in the device 17 fermentation.

1. The method of obtaining fuel from compressed biomass, in which the wet biomass before the pressing process in the form subjected to the drying process, before the drying process - the process of mechanical dewatering to reduce the moisture content before and mechanical dehydration process - grinding process, characterized in that the grinding process by milling, making puree condition, wipe through a sieve, making pulp or similar mechanical grinding of the biomass is subjected to fine grinding in a way that largely destroyed the cell structure and is formed biomass with consistency from soft to liquid.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the biomass before fine grinding washed.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the biomass prior to mechanical dewatering process pre dehydrate.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the biomass prior to mechanical dewatering process heat.

5. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the water obtained during the mechanical process is e dehydration, used as washing water.

6. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the biomass for its opening is subjected to a second grinding process followed by mechanical dewatering process.

7. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the biomass prior to mechanical dewatering process is fermented to get gas, and water, obtained by mechanical dehydration process, used as or for further processing into agricultural fertilizer.

8. A device for receiving fuel from compressed biomass for the implementation of the method according to any one of claims 1 to 7, containing a device for pressing the biomass in form ahead of the device for drying the biomass, installed ahead of the device for the mechanical dewatering of the biomass to reduce the content of moisture in it and installed ahead of him the first device for grinding of biomass, which by grinding, rubbing through a sieve, bring to a puree state, preparation of pulp or similar mechanical grinding exposes the biomass of fine grinding in a way that largely destroyed the cell structure and is formed biomass with mushy consistency from liquid to.

9. The device of claim 8, in which the device for the por is mywiki biomass installed in front of the device for fine grinding of biomass.

10. The device of claim 8 or 9, characterized in that it comprises a device for preliminary dehydration of biomass, installed in front of the device for mechanical dewatering.

11. The device according to claim 8, characterized in that it comprises a second device for grinding biomass, installed in front of the device for drying and installed for the device to mechanical dewatering.



 

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EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

FIELD: solid fuel technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for application in production of solid fuel in metallurgy and for domestic necessities. Method of restoring sieve composition of coke comprises mixing off-grad coke with binder, such as various cement brands and Portland cement, moistening, briquetting of mix followed by heat treatment, and cooling. Off-grad coke utilized is coke fines fraction 0-10 mm and/or coke nut fraction 10-25 mm belonging to a certain types, which are mixed with binder at ratio (60-95):(5-40), respectively. Moistening is provided by adding water to 35% based on the weight of mix. Heat treatment is effected with steam. Cooling proceeds at ambient temperature to residual moisture content 5%. Mix is completed with filler in the form of organic or inorganic naturally occurring or man-made substances. Briquetting is effected on either vibration or press equipment. Coke briquette contains 60 to 95% of above-defined off-grade coke and 5 to 40 % of binder. Size of thus manufactured briquettes corresponds to required sieve composition of coke.

EFFECT: enabled full restoration of all fractions of needless process coke residues to useful sieve composition appropriate for fabrication of environmentally safe briquettes with improved consumer's properties without considerable investments.

8 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: production of smokeless solid combustibles used for outdoors preparation and heating of food in camping.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to combustibles, which are steadily burning at an air pressure in the open air in the heating devices used for cooking and warming up of food while in camping. The combustible composition includes 90-97 % of urotropine and paraffin - the rest. At this combustible burning it ensures a synergistic effect, in particular, removal of a skeleton-type carbon film on the surface of the condensed phase and a transparency of the flame with formation of nontoxic gaseous products of burning. In such of conditions the composition ensures necessary efficiency.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of a synergistic effect at smokeless solid combustibles burning, transparency of flame, nontoxic gaseous products of burning.

The invention relates to the technology of solid molded fuel and can be used for household needs, as well as in industry

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of fuel components briquetting - coal sludges, fine classes of coal, coke dust. The method of coke dust briquetting consists in production of a concentrate. The concentrate is produced by enrichment of coke dust with particle size of less than 1 mm with initial ash content of 10-16.8 wt %, and sulphur content of 0.4-0.5 wt %, by the method of oil agglomeration to ash content of 5.0-5.5 wt% and sulphur content of 0.05 wt %. The prepared concentrate and binder heated to 100-133°C - carbamide taken in the amount of 4.0-6.0% to the weight of the initial concentrate. The mixture is briquetted in steps, for this purpose at first the load of 5-6 atm is set, with a delay of 3-5 min. and further to 15 atm with a delay under the maximum load of 3-5 min.

EFFECT: production of fuel briquettes with low ash content and sulphur content, recycling of coke dust.

1 cl, 6 tbl, 3 ex

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