Method of air moisture content determination

FIELD: instrumentation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in filling measuring vessel of known volume with dry air and weighing it. Then, measuring vessel is filled with air and weighed to record air temperature and pressure using measured magnitudes. Then, air moisture content d is defined by the formula: g/kg dry, where m1 is the weight of measuring vessel with dry air, g; m2 is the weight of measuring vessel with analysed air, g; V is measuring vessel volume, liter; Pap is analysed air barometric pressure, mm Hg; Tat is analysed air temperature, °C; gn is specific weight of steam, g/l (gn = 0.803 g/l); gc is specific weight of dry air, g/l (gc= 1.2928 g/l); P0 is normal pressure, mm Hg (P0=760 mm Hg); T0 is normal temperature °C(T0=273°C).

EFFECT: lower costs, higher precision and reliability.

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The invention relates to hygrometry, in particular hygrometers measure relative humidity of the gas, and calibration of hygrometers without Dismounting from the site of operation.

There are various methods of measurement and reproduction of values of humidity of gases presented in RMG 75-2004 (Recommendations on interstate standardization. The CIO. Humidity measurement substances. Terms and definitions):

- sorption gravimetric method gravimetric method for measuring the humidity of gases, based on sorption method of separation of moisture from gases;

- condensation-gravimetric method gravimetric method for measuring the humidity of gases, based on the condensation method of separation of moisture from gases;

- condensation method is a method of measuring the dew point [frost], which consists in cooling the gas to a temperature of condensation (dew or frost) and the measurement of this temperature;

and others.

Known direct method of weight determination of the moisture content of gases, which boils down to absorb moisture from the sample gas being monitored energetic sinks and determination of its amount by weight sinks. This method has high accuracy, but requires time-consuming (up to 30 hours).

Implementation of all these methods is characterized by sufficient dlitelinaia preparation and measurements (a few hours), as well as the complexity of the required equipment, which limits their application possibilities (for example, for checking the working of hygrometers without Dismounting from the site of operation).

Closest to the claimed solution, taken as a prototype, is the Method of full absorption" (Berliner M.A. humidity Measurement. - M.: Energy, 1973, str-351), based on weighing a certain volume of gas by passing it through a substance capable of absorbing water vapor, and evaluation of changes of the parameters of this substance in the total absorption of moisture. To implement the method using the system absorb moisture to determine its mass and volume measurement of intervening gas. The analyzed gas is passed through three serially connected vessel in the form of U-shaped tubes filled with solid sorbents. To determine the mass of water vapor compared to the mass of the tubes with the sorbents before and after the gas flow using an accurate analytical balance. To measure the amount of gas used a system of two cylindrical chambers, immersed in a thermostated oil bath. The cells are filled alternately. Mass of dry gas is calculated by the number of fillings of the cameras with respect to temperature and pressure.

Method total absorption can be regarded as absolute, and its precision ogranichivayushchei measuring operations (weighing absorber, measurement of amount of gas) and the presence of impurities in the gas. The measurement process is long and laborious, and therefore these methods are used only as a laboratory. This method is used as the most precise reference in the calibration, testing and calibration of hygrometers.

This method is costly and time-consuming (more than 30 hours) determination of moisture content of gases, and its implementation uses a bulky device. In addition, when measuring this way, you need to make the dismantling of the hygrometer with the object of exploitation and deliver it to the calibration laboratory.

Objective of the claimed solution is the reduction of operating time and costs, improving the accuracy and reliability of measurements, as well as improving the ease of measurement and the possibility of an electronic database checks.

This goal is achieved due to the fact that in the known method of determining the moisture content of gases, which consists in the direct weighing, according to the claimed solution, the measuring vessel of known volume is filled with dry air and weighed, then the measuring vessel is filled studied air and weigh and record the temperature and pressure of the studied air and, using the measured values, determine the moisture content of the investigated air is of the formula:

, g/kg dry.

where m1is the mass of the measuring vessel with dry air, g;

m2is the mass of the measuring vessel with the test air, g;

V is the internal volume of the measuring vessel, liter;

PYves- atmospheric pressure of the investigated air, mm Hg;

TYvesthe temperature of the investigated air, °C;

gn- the proportion of steam, g/liter (gn=0,803 g/liter);

gc- unit weight of dry air, g/liter (gc=1,2928 g/liter);

P0- normal pressure, mm Hg(P0=760 mm Hg);

T0- normal temperature °C(T0=273°C);

The technical result of the claimed method and device is the reduction of operating and time costs, due to the fact that in the proposed method, instead of bulky equipment and time-consuming operations to determine the moisture content of the air conducting the weigh-sealed measuring vessel, for example, a spherical shape, made of light material with a known volume V, alternately filling it dry and test the air.

Comparative analysis of the claimed solution with known shows:
Feature comparison The placeholderThe proposed method
Logistics1. The exact linkage analytical balanceElectronic scales
2. Three glass vessel with chemical sorbentsNot required
3. Two calibrated cylindrical chamber made of stainless steel and solid thermally stabilized bathCalibrated vessel made of duralumin or titanium.
4. Vacuum pump with pressure switchVacuum pump (without pressure switch)
5. The compressor with the compressed air dryingNot required
6. Refrigeration unit for oil bathsNot required
7. The bypass line shut-off valvesNot required
8. Thermometers and pressureThermometers and pressure
Preparation timeUp to 16 hoursNot required
Duration measurementsUp to 30 hoursUp to 3 minutes
The duration of treatment resultsUp to 30 minutesUp to 3 minutes

The advantages of the proposed method:

a) to implement the method does not require expensive and bulky equipment;

b) all operations of the proposed method takes only a few minutes.

C) the possibility of mathematical recalculation of the values of the moisture content of the air in any of his other hygrometric characteristics;

g) allows you to create a working standard (measuring Cup) for periodic calibration of measuring instruments humidity operating at normal pressure, without Dismounting from the site of operation, operating conditions;

d) the accuracy of the proposed method (method) depends only on the errors of the used measuring instruments (pressure and temperature), and can be extremely small values.

The claimed solution is illustrated by a drawing.

The drawing shows a structural diagram of the implementation of the method. The schema contains a measuring vessel 1, high precision scales 2, dry air 3 (for example, a container with dry air), a device for pumping air 4, inlet valve (stopcock) 5, output is Noah valve (stopcock) 6, barometer 7, thermometer 8, the device for sampling the studied air 9, position 10 marked the studied environment.

To determine the moisture content of the air is used sealed measuring vessel 1 (for example, a spherical shape, aluminum or titanium) from any lightweight material known volume V, which is determined by the difference of the weights of the vessel without water and vessel with water. The value of the volume of the measuring vessel is entered in his passport.

To calculate the moisture content of the investigated air out the following operations:

1. Determination of the total mass of the measuring vessel 1 with dry air.

The measuring vessel 1 with two taps, input 5 and an output 6, pumped dry air 3 using the device for pumping air 4 (compressor or vacuum pump). Dry air can be obtained by dehydration of the investigated air passing through the zeolite or from a prepared container with dry air. The valves 5 and 6 alternately close the first valve 6 at the outlet of the vessel, then the valve 5 at the door) and the measuring vessel 1 is weighed on electronic scales 2 with the required accuracy (for example, not more than ±0.1 mg).

2. Determination of the total mass of the measuring vessel with the test air.

Open both valve of the measuring vessel 1. In the measuring vessel 1 through the device DL is pumping air 4 (compressor or vacuum pump) is pumped analyzed air. The valves 5 and 6 are alternately closed (in the beginning at the outlet of the vessel, then the input), and a measuring vessel 1 is weighed on electronic scales 2 with the required accuracy (for example, not more than ±0.1 mg).

3. Record the pressure of the investigated air with the aid of a barometer 7.

4. Record the temperature of the investigated air with thermometer 8.

5. Carry out calculations of the moisture content of the investigated air by the formula:

, g/kg dry.

where m1is the mass of the measuring vessel with dry air, g;

m2is the mass of the measuring vessel with the test air, g;

V is the internal volume of the measuring vessel, liter;

PYves- atmospheric pressure of the investigated air, mm Hg;

TYvesthe temperature of the investigated air, °C;

gn- the proportion of steam, g/liter (gn=0,803 g/liter);

gc- unit weight of dry air, g/liter (gc=1,2928 g/liter);

P0the pressure under normal conditions, mm Hg(P0=760 mm Hg);

T0temperature under normal conditions, °C (T0=273°C).

At a certain moisture content d (g/kgdryair from the I-d charts Rasina obtained an empirical expression for determining the relative humidity φ (%):

, %

The resulting humidity φ islebe is on air compared with the testimony of attorney hygrometer & Phi; rand conclude its metrological suitability.

For the implementation of the proposed method was made of hollow glass vessel with two ground stoppers mass 185,46, mass Measurements were performed in the laboratory at a temperature TYves=+23°C and atmospheric pressure PYves=756 mm Hg at open jams, in order to avoid the influence of air density in the laboratory for the measurement of the mass of the vessel. The internal volume of the vessel was determined by the difference of the masses of the vessel with distilled water and empty:

V=1,6127-0,18546=1,4272 l

mpackaging=185,46 g and the internal volume of the vessel V=1,427 l entered in the passport.

Filled the vessel with dry air, and weighed, which amounted to m1=187,1584, This mass consists of the sum of the mass of the container and air minus the weight corresponding to the pushing force of Archimedes marchitect:

187,1584=185,46+gc·V0-marchitect

where V0- reduced to normal conditions the volume of gas.

Filled vessel studied air, exemplary thermometer-hygrometer showed relative humidity 47,6%. The vessel weighed on electronic scales with a resolution of 0.1 mg. Weight amounted to m2=187,1500, the mass Difference Δm:

where mc- mass of dry air;

mxis a mass air is;

gx- the proportion of the investigated air.

Therefore, the mass of air in the vessel

mx=gc·V0-Δm=1,2928·1,3092-0,0084=1,6841,

Mass mxthe sum of the masses of dry air and water vapor with regard to the occupied volume, ie,

mx=gx·V0=mwith+mn=gc(V0-Vn)+(gn·Vn)=1,6841 g

The volume of the vapor Vnis

The moisture content of the investigated air

At t°=+23°C, this moisture content corresponds to a relative humidity φ%=at 47.63% (I-d chart Rasina)

To increase the sensitivity of the proposed method measuring vessel should make greater capacity.

The claimed method can be used for checking the working of hygrometers for measuring relative humidity in the working conditions (without Dismounting from the site of operation). In addition, it can be used to determine the moisture content of any gas, with a corresponding adjustment coefficients of the components of the mathematical apparatus.

The method of determining the moisture content of the air, which consists in the direct weighing, characterized in that the probe is the first vessel of known volume is filled with dry air and weighed, then, the measuring vessel is filled studied air and weigh and record the temperature and pressure of the studied air and, using the measured values, determine the moisture content d of the investigated air by the formula:
, g/kg dry.
where m1is the mass of the measuring vessel with dry air, g;
m2is the mass of the measuring vessel with the test air, g;
V is the internal volume of the measuring vessel, liter;
PYves- atmospheric pressure of the investigated air, mm Hg;
TYvesthe temperature of the investigated air, °C;
gn- the proportion of steam, g/liter (gn=0,803 g/liter);
gc- unit weight of dry air, g/liter (gc=1,2928 g/liter);
P0- normal pressure, mm Hg(P0=760 mm Hg);
T0- normal temperature °C(T0=273°C).



 

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