Electric room heating device

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: device includes a thermoelectric battery used as a thermal pump and connected to an AC network through a rectifier and a temperature regulator and consisting of thermoelectric modules, the plates of which are thermally connected to heat exchangers respectively for supply of low-potential heat and removal of heat to the heated room. The thermoelectric battery is made of one or several parallel connected electrical circuits, each of which is formed with series connected thermoelectric modules, the number of which in the circuit is determined by the following ratio: n=KUo/Umax, where Uo - supply voltage of thermoelectric battery at the rectifier outlet, Umax - maximum allowable supply voltage of one module of the circuit, K=2-5 - electric load reduction factor of one module.

EFFECT: increasing the ratio of generated thermal power to consumed electrical power.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of heating devices, and in particular to heating systems using an external low-grade heat source.

Such systems in the face of rising energy prices and stricter requirements for sustainability are becoming more common, as they allow to realize the most efficient thermodynamic cycles using low-grade natural resources heat: geohistorical, soil, water and air environment. These devices include heat pumps, which due to the applied external electric power transfer heat from a heat source of low temperature to the heated object with a higher temperature, while the obtained thermal heating capacity is several times higher power consumption.

The most developed and effective, and therefore widely used in heat supply systems are vapor compression heat pumps with heat exchangers, respectively, for supplying a low-potential natural heat sources and heat to the heated space (see, for example, the patents of the Russian Federation No. 2033584, F25B 27/00, 1995; No. 2152567, F25B 29/00, F25B 30/00, F25B 9/04, 2000; No. 2209381, F25B 11/00, 2003; No. 2034205, F25B 11/00, 1992; No. 2213306, F24D 3/02, 2003). Despite the relative but is the function of the occurrence of the vapor compression heat pumps in the Russian market many domestic manufacturers have mastered their production, for example, FSUE "Rybinsk plant instrumentation", CJSC "Energy", JSC Concern "RTI Systems", NPF TRITON LTD, group of companies "Atmosohere", PC NPF TEAM and other

The main advantage of these vapor compression heat pumps is the high coefficient of thermal power generation, 2-4 times greater than the expended energy. However, they have inherent weaknesses inherent in all Electromechanical devices in General and compressor in particular: limited life time caused by the wear of moving parts and assemblies, high demands on the tightness of the brine circuit, increased noise levels, the need for periodic maintenance, etc.

In addition, the steam compressor heat pumps have the physical limitations of thermodynamic cycles with the heat from low-grade natural sources with lower temperature.

These shortcomings are deprived of thermoelectric heat pumps, which as heaters just beginning to be used in domestic practice, while abroad such devices is widespread (see for example, U.S. patent No. 2012/0313575 A1, F25B 21/04, F25B 21/05, No. 2011/100298 A2, F25B 21/00, F25B 21/02). A high coefficient of thermal power generation specified in the devices obtained by the additional circuits of circulation of heated air in the heat exchangers, thermoelectric battery, allowing, for example technological operation of drying, but causes significant technical difficulties for the purpose of heat extraction from low-grade natural sources.

Closest to the technical nature of the claimed device is a thermoelectric heat pump for domestic heating, described in the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2367855, F25B 30/00, F25B 21/02, 2009, and which is connected to the AC current through the rectifier power supply and thermostat thermoelectric battery, equipped with heat exchangers, respectively, for selection of heat output from radiators and supply of selected additional heat input to this battery Central heating.

The disadvantage of the prototype is a low coefficient of thermal energy applied to thermoelectric pump: according to the authors of the patent, the achievable gain of thermal energy in the Central heater only 30-50% more of the consumed electricity, which makes it uneconomic use of the prototype for heat extraction from low-grade natural sources.

The aim of the invention is to increase the heat produced by the power of electricity consumed in the heat extraction from low-grade natural sources thermoelectric th is the first pump to a level comparable vapor compression heat pumps.

To achieve this goal is used as a heat pump is a thermoelectric battery, is connected to the AC current through the rectifier and the regulator and consisting of thermoelectric modules, the plate which is thermally connected to the heat exchangers, respectively, for supplying a low-potential heat and heat to the heated space, made of one or more parallel connected circuits, each of which is formed by series-connected single-type thermoelectric modules, the number of modules in each circuit is determined by the ratio n=KU0/Umaxwhere U0- supply voltage thermopile output rectifier, Umax- the maximum allowable supply voltage of one module branch, K=2÷5 is the coefficient of reduction of the electric load one module.

Figure 1 shows the electric diagram of the device when it is connected to the three phase AC current.

The device comprises a thermoelectric battery 1 connected to AC power through the controller 2 and the rectifier 3. Thermoelectric battery 1 is made of parallel connected electric circuits 4, the each of which contains of the same type connected in series thermoelectric modules 5. Wiring devices to a single-phase mains voltage of 220 V similar (changing only the rectifier 3).

The proposed device operates as follows. When connecting thermoelectric battery 1 through the controller 2 and the rectifier 3 to AC current connected in series thermoelectric modules 5 in parallel connected circuits 4 begin to intensively cool the coolant in the heat exchanger for supplying low-grade heat, which is thermally connected to the cold plate module 5 circuits 4, and to heat the coolant in the heat exchanger in a heated room, which is thermally connected to the hot plates of these modules (the design of heat exchangers are well known, their descriptions are listed, for example, in the above-mentioned patents, and so on figure 1 to simplify the heat exchangers not shown).

The goal of the invention is achieved as follows. As is well known (see for example the article leading specialist KRYOTHERM" P. of shestakovskaja "Modern solutions thermoelectric cooling", J. "Components and technologies, №1, 2010),when the work of thermoelectric module on his hot plate stands out heat capacity ofwhere

Pneed to change the- power of the electric power consumed by the module;

Q - cooling module, i.e. in this case, the amount of heat extracted by the module from low-grade natural source.

Taking into account the efficiency of thermoelectric cooling, received the common name of "coefficient RUBBISH" (coefficient of performance), i.e. ratio of cooling power module to their consumption of electric energy, the expression (1) can be represented in the following form

.

In the vast majority of modern thermoelectric devices are used as refrigerators, not the heaters, and the coefficient RUBBISH modules of these devices is determined in a first approximation as the ratio of the maximum cooling capacity of the module Qmaxto the product of the maximum voltage module Umaxand consumed while the current Imaxas a rule, does not exceed the values from 0.3 to 0.7. However, by reducing the supply module voltage almost proportionally reduces the current consumption, as follows from the graph in figure 16 of the mentioned article, by reducing, for example, twice the current value for maximum cooling capacity of the module, i.e. reduce actually 4 times consumed by the module electric power, only almost halved its holtop poizvoditelnosti, but correspondingly increases the coefficient RUBBISH. The increase in this ratio to values greater than unity, in accordance with expression (2), leads to a significant increase in the amount of heat produced by thermoelectric battery 1, in comparison with consumed by the modules 5 of the electrical energy.

This circumstance is implemented in the claimed device performing thermoelectric battery 1 in the form of one or more parallel-connected electrical circuits 4, each of which contains "n" series-connected identical modules 5. the number of modules n in each circuit is determined by the ratio n=KU0/Umaxwhere U0the output voltage of the rectifier, i.e. the voltage of one chain, Umax- the maximum allowable supply voltage of one module, K=2÷5 is the coefficient of reduction of the electric load module, showing how many times applied to the module voltage is lower than the maximum voltage of this module type.

On the website published schedules of changes in operating characteristics of different thermoelectric modules firms KRYOTHERM" when the power supply voltage for these modules. In accordance with this publication, for example, when using modules Frost-73 in a heat pump to heat the water from the well when the temperature +7°C (module parameters I max=6,2A, Umax=16,5B, Qmax=64 W, ∆ Tmax=73°C, the initial value of COP=Qmax/Umax×Imax=64/16,5×6,2=0,63), and in the case of power supply of this module voltage of 6 V, according to the schedules 4, 5 and 6 of his characteristics, he will provide when the power consumption 1A×6V=6 watts cooling capacity ratio SOR=1,5, i.e. will provide heat in a heated room with a maximum coolant temperature of 7°C+ ∆ Tmax=7°+73°=80°C and thermal power 6 (1+1,5)=15 W, 2.5 times the power of electricity consumed.

The map published on the above website graphics modules shows the almost identical nature of these graphs for different types of modules, manufactured by KRYOTHERM", therefore, these graphs with the corresponding amendment applies to modules from other manufacturers.

Based on this, realized the possibility of a patented device, any thermal power determined the necessary number of parallel-connected circuit of series-connected modules, the number of which in the circuit are defined as specified in distinguishing characteristic value, in this case the claimed limits of variation coefficient "to" best meet the objectives of the invention: when K<2 reduced factor save electricity, when K>5 unjustifiably otrastaet the cost of the heat pump due to the increased number of modules used.

Thus, in the inventive device applied the well-known principle of improving thermal and energy-saving characteristics of thermoelectric devices, heating / cooling, which is now almost never used, because it requires a large number of modules. Indeed, in the above example, for heat pump heating power 15 kW requires the use of 1000 thermoelectric modules Frost-73, the value of which substantially exceeds the cost of similar capacity vapor compression heat pumps, however, a wide range of currently available thermoelectric modules allows to minimize their number and get a comparable value with the vapor compression heat pumps, for which you should use modules with a maximum cooling capacity and the maximum supply voltage. For example, when using modules D-288-10-05 (Umax=36,7 V, Imax=8,9 A, Qxmax=reach 201.9 W)manufactured by Spa "Crystal", when the power circuit of thermoelectric battery with the mentioned modules from the AC voltage of 380 V (Uo=550), each circuit must contain 40 series-connected modules, (K=2,66), which when consumed 1,84 kW of electricity will receive 5.5 kW of heat for space heating. Elements is ary calculations show, even at current prices per kW/hour of electricity that is similar to thermoelectric heat pump will pay for itself in three heating season, which in the temperate zone of the Russian Federation often last up to 6 months.

It should be noted that an almost unlimited resource of thermoelectric modules (according to the manufacturers, MTBF is at least 200, OOO hours) ensures the reliability of thermoelectric heat pump in their series connection, and high dielectric strength ceramic plates these modules can withstand a breakdown voltage of more than 10 kV, ensure the safe operation of the claimed device.

Thermoelectric heat pump can be controlled by the controller 2 of any type with the corresponding load feature. If the controller 2 includes a reversing switch that provides switching the polarity of the supply voltage of thermoelectric battery 1 (for example, the controller SU-103, manufactured by LLC "System STK", , Perm), you may use the claimed device not only for heating, and air conditioning facilities.

Device for electric heating of premises containing used as a heat pump is a thermoelectric battery is connected with the t AC through a rectifier and regulator and consisting of thermoelectric modules, plate which is thermally connected to the heat exchangers, respectively, for supplying a low-potential heat and heat to the heated space, characterized in that thermoelectric battery is made of one or more parallel connected circuits, each of which is formed of series-connected thermoelectric modules, the number "n" of modules in each circuit is determined by the ratio n=KUo/Umaxwhere Uo- supply voltage thermopile output rectifier, Umax- the maximum allowable supply voltage of one circuit module, K=2÷5 is the coefficient of reduction of the electric load one module.



 

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