Forecasting method of emergency mode of functioning of pulse-width converters in real time

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: preliminary studies by using a nonlinear model of the PWM power converter the following are determined: emergency amplitude ripple voltage at the inverter output, time periods in the pulse-width modulation amplitude between successive measurements of the voltage ripple on the output of the converter, which is minimally required for recognition of these changes of these measurement results, the factor considering the worst possible joint effect of inductance in the power converter circuit and power capacitors at the amplitude of the pulsations of the inverter output. In operation, the transducer measures the current ripple amplitude at the output, the result is stored. After each successive measurement of the amplitude of the output voltage ripple, the change of the amplitude is determined with respect to the value in memory. The result is corrected using the previously mentioned ratio. The change is compared with the adjusted alarm value, based on this comparison, is projected upon reaching emergency pulsation amplitude values, leading to an emergency mode. Forecasting is repeated after each new measurement of the amplitude of the output voltage ripple of the converter.

EFFECT: increased extent of algorithmisation of forecasting process for emergency modes of pulse width power converters.

4 dwg

 

The proposed method relates to electrical engineering, and in particular to methods of control pulse DC-DC converters, which are widely used as sources of secondary power a variety of devices, the method can be used to predict regimes in the operation of these devices.

Known way to control the pulse Converter DC voltage stabilization of the limiting current, whereby the output PWM control signal regulating element transducer receive as a result of a conjunction of two PWM signals, the first of which form the basis of the error signal voltage, and the second - on the basis of the error signal current. The level of the error signal current is adjusted depending on the values of the demodulated output PWM control signal regulating element [1].

The disadvantage of this method is that it allows you to identify only the average value of the stabilized voltage, which is one of the components that characterize emergency mode operation of the Converter, respectively, based on this identification stabilization cannot guarantee the exclusion of these modes.

Known way to control the pulse stabilizatio the ohms current according to which measure the current value of the stabilized voltage, compare it with the specified value, generate a PWM signal to control the inverter transforms the AC voltage from the inverter output, rectify and smooth the output current [2].

The disadvantage of this method is that it allows you to transform DC to identify only its amplitude, which is one of the components that characterize emergency mode operation of the Converter, respectively, based on this identification stabilization cannot completely guarantee the exception of emergency conditions.

There are emergency modes of operation pulse Converter, when there is a change in both frequency and pulse characteristics operating mode (figure 1), which leads to the most significant negative consequences for both the Converter and its associated systems. Data source emergency modes are nonlinear phenomena [3], in which after the so-called bifurcation implement various scenarios of evolution of the dynamics. Analysis of the disadvantages of both methods allows to conclude that their main reason is related to the use of traditional models of pulse Converter [4], in which the display of nonlinear phenomena in principle, the drop is about from consideration.

Closest to the invention by the technical nature of a fractal method of identifying the dynamics [5], according to which to display the dynamics of the proposed space, whose coordinates represent the pulsation characteristics of the time series of state variables, in this space on the basis of preliminary calculations using nonlinear model pulse Converter structure of images of a stationary process with variations of the parameters within the specified ranges, which allows you to compare the pulsation characteristics of process parameter values, then during the operation of the pulse Converter are measured pulsation characteristics and in the above-mentioned space displays the current image of a stationary process, then, based on pre-identified relationship pulsation characteristics and parameter values calculated current settings pulse Converter, then based on trend analysis of images of stationary processes is estimated direction of evolution dynamics.

Variant implementation of the method [5] to identify in real-time invalid parameter variation pulse Converter proposed in the utility model [6]. In this model, to display the dynamics of the space is used, the CCW is dinati which represent the surge time series power inductor (Δi) and output voltage (Δu) in the power circuit of the pulsed voltage Converter, based on preliminary calculations using a non-linear model of this Converter in the system of coordinates (I, Δu) structure images of the operational process by variation of the equivalent values of capacitance (C) and inductance (L) in their reasonable ranges, which allows you to compare a pair of values (LC) value pair (Δi, Δu), then in space (Δi, Δu) highlighted the existence region of the operating mode with guaranteed stability margin (figure 2, light gray area), when the parameters (LC) provide in a parametric space specified distance from the current state to the bifurcation border operational mode, then during the operation of the pulse Converter in space (Δi, Δu) shows the image of a stationary process (figure 2, black dot), if set this image to the field invalid parameter values (figure 2, dark gray area) is identified emergency mode operation of the Converter. This authentication method is adopted for the prototype.

In the prototype takes into account the nonlinear properties of the pulse method of energy conversion. In addition, a special form of representation of the operational mode pulse Converter displays quality changes during it is functioning, in particular, makes it relatively formal characteristic of the boundary of the region of permissible values of the parameters to assess the current state of the system and the direction of evolution of the dynamics. This analysis is intuitive to use during visual analysis of the man, however, logically grounded formal rule evaluation time before the emergency mode is missing. This shortcoming makes it difficult to algorithmization of the forecasting process and prevents the increase of management efficiency, respectively, reduces the reliability and safety of operation of PWM converters.

An object of the invention is to increase the degree of algorithmic forecasting process emergency modes pulse width energy converters aimed at practical application to improve the reliability and safety of their operation.

To illustrate the solution of the problem consider the most important from a practical point of view. Trends in the development of modern pulse transformers associated with the expansion of applications and complexity of operating conditions. This means increasing the number of variable parameters and their ranges objectively possible values. For their diagnosis should be used corresponding to the sensor system, and a device on the I mate and processing the received data, which increases the weight and dimensions and cost of the Converter and, more generally complicates its composition and structure. At the same time, for example, a sensor measuring the voltage (u) at the output of the voltage Converter is part of the traditional management system and, accordingly, preferred is the possibility of monitoring on the basis of the measurement data u. The requirement of continuity of this monitoring due neutronimity natural degradation of elements, leading to uncertainty value C. However, for the implementation of this monitoring requires the ability to automatically assess the evolution of the dynamics and forecasting of time to achieve the maximum allowable values of ripple ΔUmaxresulting in abnormal mode of the Converter.

In the proposed method for solving the technical problem prompted to enter additional time coordinate (t) in the space (Δi, Δu) and use the projection (t, Δu) or (t, Δi) to display the trend of the images of the operational process (figa). Note that the degradation parameters of the elements is characterized by the following feature is that it is unidirectional and variable speed, but the pattern of change in this rate is unknown. With this in mind offered the following sequence of operations filling the array data (t j, Δuj), where j is the element number of the current measurement; performing a linear approximation of this array direct Δu*(t) in the range [t1, tj] and its interpolation in the range [tj, tmax], where tmax- the point of intersection of the line level ΔUmax(figa); calculation of the preliminary reach anomalous values of ripple TD=(tj-t1)(ΔUmax-Δu*j)/(Δu*ju*1), where Δu*j=Δu*(tj); the calculation of the projected date of achievement of the abnormal value of the ripple (Tforecastby multiplying Tdsome factor of N, taking into account the effect of the second reactive component, and the rounding of the result to "integer towards zero.

The necessity of introducing the factor N due to the fact that depending on whether the signal at the output of the Converter is fed to the controller (current or voltage), use the appropriate sensor in the control system. Because the method involves minimal changes to the existing composition and structure of the control system, in practice, can be obtained according to only one of the pairs (Δi, L)or (Δu, S). This raises the question: how to take into account the mutual influence of variations of both parameters? Bud is to consider the maximum reduction in the operational process occurs at the minimum value of the reactive impedance. We will call the "basic" option, which corresponds to the measured state variable, the second will be called "more". To calculate the coefficient N is precomputed value of the controller parameter KBIFin which is implemented a bifurcation phenomenon based on the equivalent value of the primary parameter is the minimum of the range of valid values, then calculates the value of the controller parameter KBIFin which is implemented a bifurcation phenomenon on the basis of that value and the primary and secondary of the equivalent parameters are minimal. As a result, N=(Kbeef-KBIF)/(Kbeef-KBIF)≥1, where Kbeef- the value of the parameter of the controller, which is implemented bifurcation phenomenon at nominal parameter values.

The essence of the claimed method of forecasting emergency modes of operation of the pulse energy converters in real-time is that by preliminary research using the nonlinear model of the pulse-width of the energy Converter defined alarm value amplitudephase output voltage of the Converter on the basis of the dependence of the location of the boundaries of the stability of the operating mode from the parameters of the power capacitor and the dependence of the amplitude of the ripple voltage at the inverter output parameters of the power capacitors. In the operation of the Converter is measured, the current amplitude of the ripple voltage at the output, the result is remembered. Characterized in that it further by preliminary studies based on the use of nonlinear models of pulse-width of the energy Converter defined: coefficient taking into account the worst version of the joint effect of inductance in the power circuit of the Converter and the power capacitors on the amplitude of the output ripple of the Converter; the time periods of the pulse width modulation between successive measurements of the amplitude of the ripple voltage at the Converter output, which is the minimum required to recognize changes in these measurements. After each measurement of the amplitude of the ripple voltage at the output of the Converter is determined by a change in the amplitude with respect to the value in memory. The resulting changes in the amplitude of the pulses is adjusted by using the previously mentioned factor. The adjusted change in the amplitude of pulsation is mapped to the emergency value of the amplitude of the ripple voltage at the output of the inverter, on the basis of this mapping is given equal time between the placenta is therefore a measurement of the amplitude of the pulsations is projected to reach emergency amplitude pulsations, resulting in abnormal mode. The prediction is repeated after each new measurement of the amplitude of the ripple voltage at the inverter output.

Figure 1 shows the schema synchronized time series power inductor (I) and PWM signal (UPWM), which explains the differences between the two qualitatively different States of the Converter. In the first case (a) illustrates the mode of operation, the period of which is equal to TPWM. In the second case (b) illustrates the emergency mode, the period of which is equal to 2TPWMand the amplitude of pulsations in varying degrees higher than the ripple amplitude operational mode.

Figure 2 shows the results of numerical simulation of the regions of acceptable and unacceptable values equivalent jet parameters in the coordinate system (Δi, Δu), as well as the principle of determining the correspondence between the pairs of values (LC) and (Δi, Δu) for the image of a stationary process.

Figure 3. presents (a) diagram illustrating the idea of prediction in the proposed method, and (b) the numerical simulation of the displacement of the bifurcation border when the variation of the parameters L and C.

Figure 4 shows an example block diagram of a device that can be used for implementing the inventive method. The device includes a follower what about the United specifying the device 1, the comparator 2, the PWM controller 3, the power subsystem 4, a peak detector 5, the subsystem identification 6 and the display 7, while the second output of the power subsystem 4 is connected with the second input of the comparator 2, the second output of the PWM controller 3 is connected to a second input of the subsystem of forecasting 6.

The device in figure 4 is as follows. The value of the output voltage (UOfrom the power subsystem (pos.4) with comparator (pos.2) is subtracted from the setpoint (Uy)given driving device (item 1), the generated error signal (δ) is fed to the PWM controller (3)where in accordance with the PWM control signal is formed, which after amplification (KF) affects key element of the power subsystem (pos.4). A peak detector (5) determines the minimum value of (Umin) and max (Umaxthe output voltage coming from the control object (pos.4). The block prediction (pos.6) measure j-e values are low (Uminj) and max (Umaxjthe output voltage at moments defined by a peak detector (5), then calculates the j-e the value of the ripple voltage Δuj=Umaxj-Uminjand, in accordance with the claimed method, calculates the predicted time of reaching the maximum allowable level, the I pulses (T forecast). On the display (pos.7) displays the Protocol that contains the date, time and result of the forecast.

For example, suppose that within three days made 3 dimensions (figa). Let, as explained earlier, based on the approximation and interpolation direct Δu*(t) with the subsequent calculation of TDit is established that the achievement of the emergency mode is expected not earlier than the 6th day. Explain the definition of the factor N. this purpose on the basis of preliminary computational experiments on the nonlinear model pulse Converter DC voltage received (figb)that when the nominal values of the parameters L and bifurcation boundary runs when Kbeef=10,1, in the case of the minimum value of the parameter bifurcation boundary runs when KBIF=4, and in the case of the minimum allowable values of the parameters C and L bifurcation boundary runs when KBIF=3,1. Thus, N=1.15 and Tforecast=6,9. The result predicted the possibility of implementing emergency mode after 3 days and a message comes on screen display (figure 4, pos.7).

Thus, unlike the prototype, the beginning of the emergency mode is predicted in advance, and with this in mind, the management system provides for the use of additional sensors. The impact of both reactive status the work load is taken into account by an empirical coefficient, reflecting the nonlinearity of the dynamics of pulsed power converters, and taking into account the worst version of the joint influence of these components. The introduction of formalized sequence of operations allows you to fully algorithmization the process of forecasting the beginning of the emergency mode pulse-width power converters. In practical application, this allows implementation of the method in real-time and hardware components of a typical microcontroller, through the use of simple mathematical operations. Thus, the method provides the ability to automatically recognize emergency situations, and thereby to improve the reliability and safety of operation of the pulse energy converters.

Sources of information

1. The method of controlling a pulse Converter DC voltage stabilization limit current [Text] : U.S. Pat. on the way # 2249842, Grew up. Federation: IPC G05F 1/10, G05F 1/66 S. p. Cherdantsev, KG Gordeev, Y.A. of Sinyakov, C.V. Cockroaches; applicant and patentee of the Federal state unitary enterprise "Scientific-production center "pole": - No. 2003114596/09; Appl. 05.16.2003; publ. 04.10.2005.

2. The method of controlling a pulse current regulator [Text] : U.S. Pat. on the way # 2366067, Grew up. Federation: IPC H02M 3/335 VE Balahontsev, A.I. Zaika, V. C is leukin; applicant and patentee of the Federal state unitary enterprise Ufa scientific-production enterprise "Zip": - 2008114539/09; Appl. 14.04.2008; publ. 27.08.2009.

3. Banerjee S. Nonlinear phenomena in power electronics: attractors, bifurcations, chaos, and nonlinear control / S.Banerjee, G.Verghese. - New York: IEEE Press, 2001. - 441 p.

4. Meleshin VI continuous linear model of the power unit pulse Converter as the initial design phase of its dynamic properties) / / Elektrichestvo. 2002. No. 10. S. 38-43.

5. Kolokolov Yu., Monovskaya A., A. Hamzaoui On-line identification of multidimensional parametric vector random variation of the pulse system. // Chaos, Solitons &Fractals, 2005, V.24, Issue 3, pp. 825-838.

6. Adaptive control pulse voltage Converter based on the identification of anomalous variations of parameters in real time [Text] : U.S. Pat. for useful model №88870, Grew up. Federation: IPC H02M 3/02 J.V. Bells, A.V. Manowska, A.S., Kuzmin; applicant and patentee Yugra state University: No. 2009129609/22; Appl. 31.07.09; publ. 20.11.2009 (prototype).

A method for predicting emergency modes of operation of the pulse energy converters in real-time, namely, that by means of preliminary research using the nonlinear model of the pulse-width of the energy Converter defined alarm value amplitudephase output voltage of the Converter on the basis of the dependence of the location of the boundaries of the stability of the operating mode from the parameters of the power capacitor and the dependence of the amplitude of the ripple voltage at the inverter output parameters power capacitors; in the operation of the Converter is measured, the current amplitude of the ripple voltage at the output, the result is stored, characterized in that it further by preliminary studies based on the use of nonlinear models of pulse-width of the energy Converter defined: coefficient taking into account the worst version of the joint effect of inductance in the power circuit of the Converter and the power capacitors on the amplitude of the output ripple of the Converter; the time periods of the pulse width modulation between successive measurements of the amplitude of the ripple voltage at the Converter output, which is the minimum required to recognize changes in the results of these measurements after each measurement of the amplitude of the ripple voltage at the inverter output determined to change this amplitude with respect to the value in memory; the result of changes in the amplitude of the pulses is adjusted by using the previously mentioned ratio; adjusted to change the amplitude of the pulsations is mapped to the emergency value of the amplitude of the ripple voltage at the output of the inverter, on the basis of this mapping is given equal time between sequential matching atelinae measurements of the amplitude of the pulsations is projected to reach emergency amplitude pulsations, resulting in abnormal mode, the prediction is repeated after each new measurement of the amplitude of the ripple voltage at the inverter output.



 

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3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: protection of strong-current thyristor converter.

SUBSTANCE: maximal admissible meaning of referred value if converter's input current by maximal admissible meaning of converter's input current. Range of values of switch-off current of high-speed switch is preset on base of range of values of derivative of output current of converter. Maximal meaning of value of switch-off current of high-speed switch within that range corresponds to zero meaning of value of derivative of output current of converter and minimal meaning corresponds to maximal admissible meaning of value of switch-off current of high-speed switch of converter in such a way that minimal meaning of switch-off current within that range coincides with maximal admissible value of referred value of converter's input current. Values of output current of converter and of its derivative are put under control and high-speed switch is switched off when input current of converter reaches values of switch-off current belonging to specified range.

EFFECT: ability of keeping thyristor converter working in emergency operation.

1 dwg

FIELD: protection of strong-current thyristor converters.

SUBSTANCE: value of derived input current of blocking of control pulses is specified by maximal admissible value of input current of converter. Values of input and output currents of converters are controlled as well as derivative of converter's output current. Range of values of switch-off current of high-speed switch is preset on base of range of values of derivative in such a manner that mentioned meaning of derived value belongs to that range. Minimal meaning of output current of switching-off within that range corresponds to maximal value of derivative of output current of converter. Signal for additional blocking of control pulses is introduced when those values of derivatives of output current of converter are achieved, which values correspond to values of mentioned switching-off current that lies lower than mentioned above value of derived value. Control pulses are blocked when admissible value of output current of converter is exceeded or by signal introduced. After signal for additional blocking of control pulses is introduced, high-sped switch is switched off with time delay being equal or bigger than cut-off time of thyristor converter.

EFFECT: improved reliability of operation; higher speed of switch off; elimination of burning of power terminals; reduced hazardous heat and electrodynamic influence of super high currents in case of alarm switch-off.

1 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: in device for converter high-voltage valve condition monitoring, comprising units of high-voltage valve power keys condition monitoring by number of serially connected power keys, each unit of high-voltage valve keys condition monitoring comprises rectifier, resistor, also stabilitron and capacitor are included, connected in parallel to outputs of rectifier, unit of synchronisation, unit of delay and generation of pulses, with according time delays of pulses and key introduced between the second output of rectifier and the second input of optical transmitter arranged in the form of light diode, besides, control input of key is connected via unit of delay and generation of pulses with output of synchronisation unit connected by one input to input of rectifier, and by the second input - to the second output of rectifier, and optical receiver is arranged, for instance in the form of photodiode and is intended for all units of keys condition monitoring.

EFFECT: reduction of consumed power and cost of device, simplification of design, expansion of functional capabilities.

3 cl, 5 dwg

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