Method of protective anti-scratch coat application and articles with said coat
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protective coats including organic material on article with applied stack of layers for protection against scratches. In compliance with proposed method, intermediate article with premade coat is prepared including the substrate with applied monolayer or coat or sandwiched stack. Then, protective coat is applied so that said article has larger contact angle and smaller surface friction than those of intermediate article. Application steps include dipping liquid material at low vapour pressure in heating vacuum chamber communicated with spraying unit. Vent buffer is arranged between vacuum chamber and spraying unit. Then, heating chamber is evacuated when spraying unit is evacuated to the pressure of said vent buffer. After rarefaction, vapour is accumulated in vacuum chamber. For blowing the spraying unit vent buffer is vented and vacuum chamber is blown for feeding the entire vapour into spraying unit vacuum buffer. After venting the chamber is partially evacuated. Besides, invention covers article with applied coat and device for coat application.
EFFECT: higher resistance to scratch formation.
19 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex
Variants of the present invention relate to methods of applying protective coatings to products that are already coated. More specifically, variants of the present invention relate to a method of applying a protective coating (which, for example, may contain organic material) on a product that has already inflicted on him the pack of layers, to reduce the potential of surface scratches. Pre-applied layer package in illustrative embodiments of the present invention may be applied by a sputtering method in a vacuum (for example, for use in problems associated with low-emissivity or solar energy), and a protective coating in embodiments of the present invention can be applied with a process associated with pumping.
Prerequisites to create and a brief description of illustrative options inventions
Application of single-layer and multilayer coatings, for example by evaporation in a vacuum and the like, are known. Known coating with low emissivity caused by evaporation in a vacuum, known in the industry as soft cover, because under normal handling conditions they usually are very easily damaged. For example, the standard coating with low emissivity caused by evaporation in a vacuum, have the disadvantage in education scratches, dust and shock is h, and, in fact, are soft coverings.
The possibility of damage to the coating on the products is a drawback common to many coatings deposited by sputtering in a vacuum and/or dealt in another way. Damage often forcing manufacturers to take special precautions in the coating, including the steps of this process, during transport of intermediate and/or finished products, all stages of the finishing, installation, etc. These special measures increase the cost and time required to manufacture the product with the coating. Even when using a variety of precautions the possibility of damage, such as scratching, maintained and quite often lead to reduced yield.
Thus, it is clear that there is a need for methods of protection layers applied to products.
It was found that the ease with which the soft coatings to scratch, at least partly, be explained by the surface roughness of the coatings and the weak link between the service layer and glass or between the layers in the layer package. Thus, it was found that the surface energy can be modified to reduce the friction caused by surface roughness, which will increase the soprotivlenie scratch. Indeed, it was found that when applying the slippery protective coating on a pre-applied layer package predisposition to the formation of scratches reduced. In some illustrative embodiments, the protective coating can be applied by the process, associated pumping.
In some embodiments, the present invention proposes a method of manufacturing coated by applying a protective coating that reduces the appearance of scratches on the intermediate product with already applied coating. The intermediate product with already applied coating contains a substrate coated with a single layer or multi-layer package. A protective coating to reduce scratching, causing the intermediate product with already applied coating using the process associated with pumping so that the product with the already-coated with a protective coating that reduces the appearance of scratches, has a contact angle greater surface friction is less than the contact angle and surface friction of the intermediate product with already applied coating.
According to variants of the present invention the pumping process may include the following steps. In the heating vacuum chamber connected with nepalaya installation, served in liquid form material with low vapor pressure, while between the heating chamber and nab the Commissioner installation installed ventilation buffer nepalaya installation. After creating a vacuum in the heating chamber is formed pairs. When nepielausu the installation must be purged ventilation buffer is vented and the heating chamber is blown so that essentially all the steam goes into the ventilation buffer nepalaya installation. When the purging is completed, the storage buffer of the pair of partially pumped.
The heating chamber may be provided with first and second valves, the second valve is located between the heating chamber and cooling buffer nepalaya installation, and the first valve is located in front of the heating chamber. During pumping open the second valve and closing the first valve, at the stage of accumulation close the second valve, on stage, blowing open the second valve, and then open the first valve and the phase of the partial pumping close the first valve, wait a predetermined time and close the second valve.
In some embodiments, the present invention offers the product with already applied coating. On a substrate applied a single-layer or multi-layer package. On a single-layer or multi-layer package, opposite the substrate, directly or indirectly coated to reduce scratching containing organic material. The product with already applied coating, including a protective coating that reduces paulinacharmed, has a contact angle greater surface friction is less than the contact angle and surface friction single-layer or multi-layer package, deposited on a substrate.
In some embodiments, the present invention proposes a device. The camera is connected to nepalaya installation, between the heated chamber and nepalaya installing ventilation is the buffer, the camera is configured to contain a liquid form of the material with low vapor pressure. [Vacuum pump] is made with the ability to create in the chamber of the vacuum conditions. The heating mechanism is configured to selectively heat the chamber to vaporize the liquid from the material contained in it, for the accumulation of steam in the heating chamber in a vacuum. There is a pumping means for pumping the camera, when in nepalaya installation will create the same pressure as in the ventilation buffer. There is a vent means for venting buffer and purge heating chamber for drawing essentially just a pair of ventilation in the buffer when nepalaya installation requires ventilation for partial pumping chamber upon completion of the ventilation.
The features, aspects, advantages and illustrative options described in this document, can be combined to create additional is the option.
These and other features and advantages of the present invention will be clearer from the following detailed description of illustrative options with the enclosed drawings, where:
Figure 1 - part device for applying a protective coating that reduces the appearance of scratches, on a substrate with pre-coated by feeding the vapor phase material in the normal flow of gas to nepalaya installed in accordance with the illustrative version of the present invention.
Figure 2 is a sequence chart of a process of applying a protective coating to reduce scratching, for a product with pre-coated by feeding the vapor phase material in the normal flow of gas to nepalaya installed in accordance with the illustrative version of the present invention.
Figure 3 - cross section illustrative of the product with the coating applied by the method according to variants of the present invention.
4 is a table illustrating the data about the angle of contact is measured on several samples made in accordance with the variants of the present invention.
Some illustrative variations of the present invention relate to the deposition of protective coatings on pre-deposited layer packages. In some embodiments of the invention the protective coating may contain organic material. The organic Mat is Rial coating preferably is hydrophobic (i.e., for example, the water repellent), although the present invention is not limited. In some embodiments of the invention the organic coating material may be oleophobic (i.e., for example, Iraq's oil), and also contain silicon and/or to be fluorinated. The coating can be done in different ways, here are some options, in some embodiments, the coating can be applied using the process of pumping. The product with a pre-applied coating containing protective coating that reduces the appearance of scratches, has a contact angle greater surface friction is less than the contact angle and surface friction single-layer or multilayer stack deposited on the substrate. After applying a protective coating to reduce scratching, any scratches caused by sharp objects, such as cat's claws and the like, preferably not visible when 4-fold increase.
The first illustrative method of applying a protective coating to reduce scratching, consists in the application of water-soluble material using the output of the flushing device nepalaya installation. As is known, intermediate or finished product at the outlet of nepalaya installation is usually washed. In some embodiments of the present invention in the flow of water can on the removed water-soluble material, thereby effectively washing out the product at the outlet of nepalaya installation and giving a protective coating directly or indirectly formed on the previously deposited layer package. The advantage of this method lies in the fact that from a technical point of view it is easy to implement. It is also cost effective, because in the existing processes, you can use a great variety of widely available materials.
The second illustrative example of applying a protective coating to reduce scratching, associated with plasma-chemical deposition from the vapor phase by using the local ion beam. In some illustrative embodiments for applying a protective coating on the package using the deposition of the ion beam, it is possible to use organic precursors, such as hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) or fluorinated materials. Since the area of deposition nepalaya installation is typically very expensive, in some embodiments of the present invention, this process can be performed in the output gateway. Of course, in some other embodiments of the present invention can be used, and other areas nepalaya installation. It should be understood that when this process is performed in the output gateway, you may experience problems with reliability, cyclicality of operations on the treatment/off when working, when the pressure of the vacuum rises from basic to atmospheric. Accordingly, in some embodiments of the present invention may be necessary to control the process conditions in order to increase reliability.
The third illustrative variant of the method of applying a protective coating to reduce scratching, associated with the application by filing a vapor phase material in the normal flow of purge gas nepalaya installation, for example, as shown in figure 1, which is essentially a storage buffer of the hydrophobic pair, as will be clear from the following description. The following stages of the process visually shown in figure 2. In some embodiments of the present invention a hydrophobic material with low vapor pressure, at least initially in liquid form 5, contained in a vacuum chamber 3 or vessel made with the possibility of heating (for example, using a heated casing 7 or other suitable heating element, such as a hot plate, one or more of the wire heater and the like), the camera 3 has adjustable valves 1 and 2 on the exhaust and vacuum sides (step 21). Side valve 2 is connected (and so is next) with ventilation buffer nepalaya installation, and side valve 1 is removed from nepalaya installation and therefore is before heating the tion chamber.
In some illustrative operations of the heating chamber 3 is pumped out when nepalaya installation is pumped to the same pressure and vent buffer (step 23). As shown in figure 1, the vacuum valve 2 heating chamber is open and valve 2 is closed. When the desired vacuum, the valve 2 is closed and accumulate hydrophobic pairs 9 in the vessel 3 (step 25).
Then determine, does purge ventilation buffer nepalaya installation (step 27). When ventilation buffer requires a purge valve 2 open shortly before the opening of the valve 1, so that the air can blow out of the heating chamber 3 and, thus, submit essentially the entire hydrophobic vapor in the vent buffer nepalaya installation. When ventilation is completed, the valve 1 is closed and after a certain period of time will also close the valve 2. After a predefined period of time is allowed to partially drain the storage buffer of the pair (step 29). Pumping buffer nepalaya installation continues as normal while in the heating chamber 3 is accumulated hydrophobic pairs 9 (i.e. partial pressure), until he will not need to enter into the ventilation buffer nepalaya installation, as described above.
Essentially low pressure steam hydrophobic material is applied to the product with a pre-marked the first floor, condense it and form thereon a protective coating.
In terms of safety in the system, partially shown in figure 1, optional can be installed to monitor pressure. If the pressure exceeds a pre-defined threshold (for example, when the excessive accumulation pair), pressure can be automatically reset.
Regardless of the specific method of vacuum used for the application of the slippery protective coating on the previously applied layer package, the obtained product in the cross-section is similarly shown in figure 3 (assuming that the pre-printed package is multi-layered, and not a single layer). In other words, figure 3 shows a cross section illustrative of a product coated with a protective coating made using some variants of the invention. There is a substrate (e.g. glass substrate) 31. On the substrate 31 in advance put the package 33 layers, which may consist of one or more layers 33a-n. The protective layer 35 is applied directly or indirectly to the upper layer 33n package 33. The protective layer 35 preferably has a surface friction and the contact angle is less than the pre-printed package 33. As is known, the term "contact angle" refers to the angle at which the interface liquid or steam is with a hard surface, in this with what you learn with a protective layer 35. In some illustrative embodiments of the present invention a liquid or vapour is water, and therefore, the term "contact angle" refers to the angle at which the water or steam forms an interface with the protective layer 35. Of course, it should be understood that the methods according to other variants of the present invention can use other liquids or vapours.
One example of material that can be used in some embodiments of the present invention and which is commercially produced by the company Umicore under the trade name is SuperHydrophobic TopCoat. This material is a granular material containing a porous alumina impregnated with a hydrophobic liquid. It is clear that in some illustrative embodiments, it is possible to use granules, devoid of liquid.
Using the above-described illustrative material shown in and described with reference to figure 1 variants of the present invention, was obtained protective coating, which had no visible color shift. However, the surface contact angle increased from approximately 10-25 degrees for initially covered with glass to approximately 75 degrees after coating. To simulate the scratching test was performed by damaging and sintering products coated with a coating having a protective coating, formed the Noah using the above-described illustrative material in embodiments of the invention, shown and described with reference to figure 1. In normal conditions without treatment were visible damage. On the contrary, when tested processed sample, damage simulation scratching was significantly less (and sometimes they were invisible). When tested sample, lesions were visible only under a microscope with magnification significantly more threshold 4-fold, which is often used as a standard for acceptance of products.
Given the above, it is clear that the methods according to some variants of the invention are used for coating pre-formed layer packages. Such coatings preferably do not give a visible color shift, for example, so that the Delta E* is preferably less than about 10, more preferably less than 5, even more preferably less than 3 and more preferably less than 2. Essentially in some embodiments of the invention Delta E* can be obtained within 3 to 5 (or even less) without significant effect on the reliability of the coating, and this can be achieved, for example, changing the thickness of the coating. These coatings also provide increased surface contact angle compared to the previously applied layer package, preferably to more than 50 degrees, more preferably to more than 60 degrees, and even more prefer is Ino to more than 70 degrees. Such coatings preferably have an average surface roughness of less than approximately 0.1 μm, more preferably less than 0.01 μm. These coatings also have a level of reliability that scratches will not be detected by the naked eye, more preferably, in a two-fold increase, more preferably, with a fourfold increase, and even more preferably at tenfold increase.
Figure 4 shows a table that summarizes the data about the angle of contact, collected on a set of samples obtained in accordance with some variations of the present invention. Measurement of contact angle, is shown in figure 4, were made 24 hours after the application of a hydrophobic material. Specified process conditions, the temperatures are indicated in degrees Celsius, time is in seconds, and the assessment of the thickness is just the product of temperature and time. Sample 11 is a reference sample, as his glass was not applied hydrophobic coating, and the values in column "Delta" represents the difference between the average contact angle and the reference value. As can be seen in figure 4, the first 10 samples, the contact angle increased on average by 15 degrees, until there has been a significant increase in temperature and time. To 400 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes to increase the contact angle of the composition is Il 45 degrees. However, the thickness for these samples the thickness of the layer may be considerably higher, as follows from optical data.
All samples from table 1 were tested with a brush. The test brush included approximately 2000 movements. Experienced a more pronounced improvement of the samples with just a coat and thicker hydrophobic layers (for example, with very large contact angles). In addition, after heat treatment, all samples showed very good results. All samples shown in figure 4, were also tested for cracking. This test did not show any damage of the samples coated, but the reference sample without coating showed light and medium damage with values between 50 and 100, respectively.
It should be understood that the above described illustrative options can be used for coating to reduce scratching, directly or indirectly, on a single-layer or multilayer coating. Such single-layer or multi-layer coatings can be applied by any suitable method, including sputtering, chemical deposition from the vapor or gas phase, chemical deposition, combustion, flame, or spray pyrolysis, by centrifugation, Sol-gel technology, etc.
In addition, although some illustrative variants have been described in connection with low emissivity and/or using solar energy, the present invention is not limited. In other words, the described illustrative options can be used in other areas where you want to reduce the chance of scratching, for example, when exposed to sharp objects, etc. Should be understood that the protective coating as described illustrative options can be used for a variety of products, such as photovoltaic solar panels, greenhouses, sports equipment, instruments, road lighting, fireplaces and doors of ovens, glass frames for paintings, etc.
Although we can say that a particular layer or coating is "on" the surface or on another floor or put on it (directly or indirectly)between them can be applied to other layers and/or coatings. For example, the coating can be considered as applied to surface and be supported by it, even if between this coating and the substrate has other layers. In addition, some of the layers or coatings in some embodiments, can be removed, and in other embodiments, some of the layers can be added without going beyond the scope of the present invention. For example, the encapsulating coating applied in liquid Sol-gel form variants of the present invention is applied "on" sputtered target material or "supported" them, even if the coating sformirovannym Sol-gel method and the target material, there are other coatings and/or layers.
Although the above described variants of the present invention, is now considered the most practical and preferred, it should be understood that the invention is not limited to the disclosed variants and covers various modifications and equivalent constructions included in the scope of the inventive ideas and appended claims.
1. A method of manufacturing a product with a pre-applied coating by applying a protective coating to reduce scratching, which provide an intermediate product with a pre-applied coating containing a substrate coated with a single layer or multi-layer package; and cause the protective coating to reduce scratching, a process involving pumping so that the product with a pre-applied coating and the applied protective coating has a contact angle greater surface friction is less than the contact angle and surface friction of the intermediate product with a pre-applied coating, and the step of applying includes the steps are loaded into the liquid form material with low vapor pressure in the heating vacuum chamber connected with nepalaya installation, between the heating vacuum chamber and nepalaya installation has ventilation buffer; Adachi which indicate the heating chamber, when nepalaya installation is pumped to the same pressure, and ventilation buffer; after creating a vacuum accumulate pairs in the vacuum chamber; when nepielausu the installation must be purged, ventilated ventilation buffer and vacuum purge chamber for supplying essentially all vapor in the vent buffer nepalaya installation and upon completion of the ventilation partially pumped chamber.
2. The method according to claim 1, in which the heating chamber provide the first and second valves, the second valve is placed between the heating chamber and cooling buffer nepalaya installation, the first valve is located in front of the heating chamber.
3. The method according to claim 2, in which at the stage of pumping open the second valve and closing the first valve; during the accumulation phase, the pair close the second valve, on stage, blowing open the second valve, and then open the first valve and the phase of the partial pumping close the first valve, wait a predefined period of time and close the second valve.
4. The method according to claim 3, containing also the stage at which automatically ventilate the heated chamber when the pressure therein exceeds a predefined threshold.
5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the protective coating that reduces the appearance of scratches, contains organic material.
6. The method according to claim 5, in which the torus protective coating, reduces the appearance of scratches, is a hydrophobic layer.
7. The method according to claim 5, in which a protective coating that reduces the appearance of scratches, is oleophobic layer.
8. The method according to claim 1, protective coating that reduces the appearance of scratches, contains silicon and/or is fluorinated.
9. The method according to claim 1, in which any scratches caused by hard objects are not visible when a fourfold increase after applying a protective coating to reduce scratching.
10. The product is coated, containing a single-layer or multi-layer package, supported by the substrate, and a protective coating that reduces the appearance of scratches, containing organic material, directly or indirectly, on a single-layer or multi-layer package, opposite the substrate, in which the product is coated, containing protective coating that reduces the appearance of scratches, has a contact angle of more, and the surface friction is less than the contact angle and surface friction single-layer or multi-layer package, supported by the substrate.
11. Product of claim 10, in which a protective coating that reduces the appearance of scratches, is a hydrophobic layer.
12. Product of claim 10, in which a protective coating that reduces the appearance of scratches, is oleophobic layer.
13. Product of claim 10, in which the protective coating, the mind is lawsee scratching, contains silicon and/or is fluorinated.
14. Product of claim 10, in which any scratches resulting from the impact of solid objects invisible at 4-fold increase after applying a protective coating to reduce scratching.
15. Product of claim 10, in which the product contains a protective coating that reduces the appearance of scratches having a contact angle of at least 60 degrees.
16. Product of claim 10, in which the value of Delta E*based on a comparison between a product with a protective coating that reduces the appearance of scratches, and a product without such a protective coating is less than 2.
17. Device for the manufacture of products coated with a coating containing a camera connected to nepalaya installation, while between the camera and nepalaya installation installed ventilation buffer, but the camera made with the possibility of content liquid form material with low vapor pressure, a device for creating a vacuum made with the possibility of creating conditions of vacuum in the chamber, the heating mechanism performed by the possibility of selective heating chamber and the evaporation of the liquid form of the material within it, so as to retain the steam in a heated chamber, when it is reached, the vacuum pumping means for pumping the camera when nepalaya installation is pumped to t the th same pressure, available in ventilation buffer, venting means for venting the vent buffer and blowing the heated chamber for supplying essentially all vapor in the vent buffer nepalaya installation when nepalaya installation requires ventilation, and partly pumping chamber upon completion of the ventilation.
18. The device 17 includes first and second valves mounted on the heating chamber, the second valve is located between the heating chamber and cooling buffer nepalaya installation, and the first valve is located in front of the heated chamber.
19. The device according to p, in which the second valve is open and the first valve is closed during pumping pumping means; second valve is closed during the accumulation of steam; the second valve is open and the first valve is then opened during purge venting means; first valve is closed and the second valve is closed after a preset period of time after closing of the first valve during partial pumping ventilating means.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sandwich materials intended for making aircraft rescue hardware, particularly, to making sliding ways of rescue duckboards, mainly, to sandwich material for rescue means. It comprises textile substrate of synthetic threads with polyurethane coat with fire retardant applied thereon on face and back sides. Said textile substrate represents a polyester fabric. Said polyurethane coat comprises extra fluorine rubber. Face side includes additionally an electrically conducting layer. Said electrically conducting layer contains polyurethane, fluorine rubber and carbon filler. Carbon nanotubes are used as a carbon filler.
EFFECT: higher wear resistance and tensile strength.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to production of identification documents, made of thermoplastic material and a method of their manufacture. The identification document comprises the layers A), B) and C), at that the layer A) is thermoplastic, the layer B) is made of a storage-stable adhesive with latent reactivity, and the layer C) is thermoplastic, at that the adhesive comprises an aqueous dispersion comprising a diisocyanate or polyisocyanate with a melting point or, respectively, softening point above +30°C and the polymer reactive towards isocyanates, which is polyurethane composed of crystallised polymer chains which, according to the study results, by thermomechanic method at temperatures below +110°C decrystalise partially or completely.
EFFECT: exclusion of layers stratifying.
11 cl, 8 ex, 8 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electronics and nanotechnology and cab be used in production of composite containing laminar graphite- and molybdenum sulphide-based materials. TEG or oxidised graphite and thiomolybdate are used as initial compounds. Note here that thiomolybdate is decomposed in the mix with TEG or oxidised graphite at heating or subjected to decomposition in solution with acid medium. Formed product containing TEG or oxidised graphite and precursor of molybdenum sulphide are flushed and heated in vacuum to 350-1000°C to obtain composite including molybdenum sulphide on graphite layers pile of composition MoxSy, where x=1-3, y=2-4. Note also that TEG or oxidised graphite are pre-dispersed while molybdenum precursor represents molybdenum tri-sulphide.
EFFECT: possibility to vary size, morphology and phase composition of nanoparticles on graphite surface.
4 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polymer compositions for producing multilayer materials meant for making inflatable rescue equipment, including inflatable stairs for aircraft. The polymeric polyurethane composition contains a polyurethane polymer, filler - titanium dioxide and a fire-retardant - antimony trioxide, and additional filler in form of a layered nanosilicate which is organically modified with imidazole, and decabromodiphenyl oxide as a fire-retardant. Content of the organic modifier in the layered nanosilicate is at least 100% of the cationic volume capacity of the layered nanosilicate. The polymer composition can additionally contain polyisocyanate and ethyl acetate. The multilayer material contains a high-strength textile base coated with layers of said polymeric polyurethane composition on the front and back sides. The textile base used is a textile made from high-modulus SVM threads with density of 70-80 g/m2 and breaking strength on the base and filling of at least 1200 kg/cm2. The multilayer material has density of 220-270 g/m2 and is air-tight and self-extinguishing.
EFFECT: obtaining a polyurethane composition and a multilayer material based on said composition, having high fire-safety (self-extinction), air-tightness, low density and hardness.
7 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of decorating the textile materials and relates to printing on textiles. The applied ornament for printing on fabric comprises a substrate resistant to paint migration, flock having fibers in the form of a predetermined multicolored pattern, and the flock fibers are held in the said substrate by the adhesive for flocking, and the adhesive for application located adjacent to the said substrate resistant to paint migration, and opposite to the flock. The adhesive for application is suitable for glueing the applied ornament on the fabric. The garment or a piece of fabric with applied ornament is described, as well as the method of decorating fabric by glueing the applied ornament using the adhesive for application.
EFFECT: invention provides improvement of printing on textiles.
24 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: coating is obtained in an electrostatic field by successive deposition of layers. A support layer from a polymer powdered composition is deposited in an electrostatic field, followed by heat treatment at temperature below the temperature of formation of the polymer powdered composition. An information mark of the corresponding colour is formed on top of the support layer on a mask from similar polymer powdered composition with heat treatment similar to that of the support layer. Subsequent deposition of a reflecting layer with optical microspheres is carried out in an electrostatic field. After depositing the reflecting layer, final heat treatment is carried out until fixation thereof, followed by deposition of a protective layer from a transparent polymer material. The apparatus has a housing (1) with a handle (2), a hopper (3) for feeding microspherical particles, a shaft (4) with a channel (5) for flow of microspherical retroreflective particles and a voltage multiplier (6) with a corona electrode (7) lying in the outlet of the shaft (4). A spray seat includes a cylindrical housing (8) with a conical section at the outlet, in which in series, in the direction of flow, there is a central channel (9) with a closed end at the outlet, and at the inlet connected to the channel (5) for flow of microspherical retroreflective particles, an annular cylindrical channel (10) which transforms at the outlet into an annular conical channel (11), respectively formed by a cylindrical bushing (12) and a conical reflector (1) at the outlet, lying coaxially with the housing (8). The central channel (9) is connected to the annular channel (10) at its inlet by tangential holes (14) on the circular surface of the cylindrical bushing (12). On the surface of the conical reflector (13) there are grooves (15) for ordered movement of microparticles on the annular conical channel (11) to the article, as well as under the action of air ejected through a row of holes (16) and (17) on the housing (8). The central channel (9), at the inlet of the spray seat, has a section (18) which narrows in the direction of flow, and at the end surface of the central channel (9), there is a conical splitter (19) with a vertex which is directed opposite the flow of microspherical retroreflective particles.
EFFECT: invention simplifies the process, improves quality and prolongs the service life of the article.
9 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hygiene and sanitary, particularly, to barrier fabric. Fabric with layer of nanofibre for mechanical trapping of organic matter consists of sandwich structure containing bearing nonwoven material to support, at least, one layer of nanofibre. Note that said layer of nanofibre has protective layer wherein separated sandwich structures are interconnected. Layer of nanofiber creates barrier to prevent an ingress of allergens and consists of organic polymer material. Said coating layer may be made of nonwoven material of spanbond type, meltblown type, cotton fabric and/or mix of cotton with polyester. In compliance with one version, at least one layer of nanofibre is arranged on case material to create barrier against microorganisms. Note also that said layer consists of organic hydrophobic material of polyurethane or PVDF, or their copolymers. Note that separate layers of sandwich structure are interconnected. In compliance with another version, barrier fabric consists of sandwich structure including base spanbond-type nonwoven material to carry, at least, one layer of nanofibre secured thereto consisting of hydrophobic polymer of polyurethane or fluoropolymer PVDF, or copolymer thereof. Note here that separate sandwich structures are interconnected.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of entrapping organic substances and fluids.
9 cl, 2 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is intended for producing such 3D components as branches, T-joints, crossovers in 3D structures, protective bodies and cases, machines and mechanisms, submarine hulls and motor boats, etc. In compliance with proposed method, forming reinforcing material with preset properties is used to cut out contour complying with structure being developed. Water-and-gas-tight thermoplastic material is used to make sealed cylinder shaped to said structure. Forming material outer surface is impregnated with cold-curing thermosetting resin to force working medium into sealed cylinder during resin polymerisation at pressure sufficient to ensure preset shape and sizes.
EFFECT: whatever spatial shape without using molding tooling.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aerospace engineering, particularly, to production of platforms including those located outside the spaceship. In compliance with first version, platform is composed of composite spatially closed structure made by two panels with cutouts, side walls and end flanges. Cutouts of second panel are located asymmetrically relative to those of the first panel. Second panel surface area is smaller than that the first panel. End flanges comprise hinge assemblies and are made from metallic alloy. Second panel is thicker than the first one, or elasticity modulus of second panel exceeds that of the first one at identical thermal linear expansion factors approximating to zero. In compliance with second version, platform is composed of composite spatially closed structure made by two panels with cutouts, side walls and end flanges. Cutouts of second panel are located asymmetrically relative to those of the first panel. Second panel surface area is smaller than that the first panel. End flanges comprise hinge assemblies and are made from metallic alloy. First panel thermal linear expansion factor approximates to zero while that of second panel is negative at equal thickness and elasticity modulus.
EFFECT: decreased spatial thermal deformations.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to material workpiece and workpiece processing press plate. Material workpiece comprises, at least, one substrate central layer and decorative layer made on, at least, one side of substrate layer. Decorative layer is arranged on both sides of workpiece to allow precise embossing. Note here that structures on workpiece both sides are accurately leveled.
EFFECT: higher quality.
11 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: textiles, paper.
SUBSTANCE: conductive material comprises a conductive nonwoven fabric containing conductive carbon fibers in an amount of 5-50 wt % in combination with cellulose fibers and/or synthetic fibers. The nonwoven fabric comprises conductive and non-conductive zones that contain sonicated sections. The conductive material is used in production of heating devices, electronic switches, electronic devices, RF modification devices. In the electronic switch the conductive nonwoven fabric is spaced from the opposite conductive layer and the electrical connection is formed between them when they are pressed to each other. The electronic switch is used in production of a garment, a glowing symbol. The electronic product comprises an outer surface intended for location of plurality of keys, a first conductive layer located under the keys, the second conductive layer, spaced from the first conductive layer, and in which when pressing one of the keys an electric connection is created between the conductive layers.
EFFECT: reduction of weight of the non-woven conductive fabric, increased strength of the multilayer flexible electronic device, reduction of the total resistance of heating devices.
19 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of various-purpose arts and crafts articles and may be used for application of one-colour coats. Proposed method comprises mixing quartz-based dry sand with particle size of 0.1-0.15 mm (10-15 mcm) with thermostable lacquer fine powder in equal weight parts. Obtained mix is filled on flat degreased surface of heat-treated glass sheet to level applied layer by operator hands.
EFFECT: simplified process, better surface quality.
3 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of articles with a multilayer light-sensitive coating and can be used to make thin-film solar cells and photocatalytic articles. The article has a substrate, e.g. a glass substrate, and a first coating formed on at least part of the substrate. The first coating is multilayered and contains a mixture of oxides including oxides of at least two elements selected from P, Si, Ti, Al and Zr. A functional coating is formed on at least part of the first coating. The functional coating is selected from an electroconductive coating and a light-sensitive coating. In one embodiment of the invention, the functional coating contains tin oxide doped with fluorine. In another embodiment, the functional coating contains titanium dioxide. A glass substrate, for example, is made in order to make a coated article. The first multilayer coating is formed on at least part of the substrate by chemical vapour deposition. The functional coating is formed on at least part of the first coating.
EFFECT: high functionality of the first layer of the article.
14 cl, 5 dwg, 12 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an additive which increases water-resistance and is suitable for making composite panels, which contains triglyceride with saponification number of at least 150 and iodine number of at least 35 and at least one nonionic emulsifiier, which contains a fatty acid ester and a polyalcohol, wherein the additive does not contain hydrocarbon wax. The invention also relates to a composite panel and a method of making a composite panel using said additive.
EFFECT: additives gives composite panels resistance to moisture absorption and swelling.
17 cl, 4 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to additive, which increases waterproofness. Additive is suitable for production of composite panels and is present in form of emulsion, containing from 10 to 50 wt % of triglyceride with saponification number, at least, 150 and iodine number, at least, 35; from 0.5 to 20 wt % of hydrocarbon wax; from 0.5 to 3 wt % of linear fatty acids C12-C22; compound or compounds, selected from group, consisting of amine in amount from 0.5 to 3 wt % of emulsion; inorganic base in amount from 0.5 to 6 wt% of emulsion and their mixtures; and water. Invention also relates to composite panel, made with application of said additive and method of panel manufacturing.
EFFECT: claimed additive gives composite panels resistance to water absorption and swelling.
13 cl, 3 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composition of priming composition to be applied to aluminium substrates. Proposed composition comprises polyene, thiol, and substrate corrosion inhibitor selected from chromium-bearing compounds. Said chromium-bearing compounds exist in amount of, at least, 5 wt % of chromium per weight of solid substance of said priming composition.
EFFECT: curing at ambient temperature, non-polluting composition.
14 cl, 7 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bonding physically-, chemically- or biochemically-active molecules 30 with carrier 2. Proposed method comprises preparing chemical composition bearing, at least, cationic micelles 3, each including, at least, one active molecule 30 and, at least, one polymerisable and/or cross-linkable chemical composition 31 that forms micelle 3 with, at least, one such active molecule 30. Carrier 2 is impregnated with chimerical composition of cationic micelles 3. Active molecules 30 are bonded 2 with carrier by establishing, at least, one electrostatic bond between cationic micelles 3 and said carrier 2. Said electrostatic bonding is completed by polymerisation and/or cross-linking of compounds 31 intended for making micelles 3 with said active molecules 30. Besides, this invention relates to active element and composition produced by above described method.
EFFECT: perfected bonding.
34 cl, 2 ex, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a conformal coating applied on a substrate in form of an electronic block or an electronic circuit, containing a binding layer and a particulate, which enables to shield growth of the electroconductive crystalline structure. The invention also relates to a method of shielding formation an article with a conformal coating.
EFFECT: particulate contains substances which provide a winding path, which significantly inhibits growth of said structure on electroconductive surfaces.
23 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a metal substrate coated, at least partially, with a coating in form of a multilayer composite comprising at least one layer selected from an electrodeposited coating layer, a base coating layer and a transparent coating layer; and a coating containing polyurea obtained from a reaction mixture containing isocyanate and a product of reaction between a monoamine and poly(meth)acrylate, which is (meth)acrylated amine, in which the ratio of isocyanate group equivalents to amine group equivalents is greater than 1.3:1, and isocyanate and the reaction product, which is (meth)acrylated amine, can be deposited on the substrate in volume ratio of concentration of components of 1:1. The invention also describes a building having a structural element coated, at least partially, with a coating from said polyurea, as well as a substrate coated, at least partially, with a coating from said polyurea, where the ratio of isocyanate equivalents to amine group equivalents is greater than 1.3:1.
EFFECT: coating can attenuate an explosion, eg, protection in case of an explosion or breakage in the immediate vicinity of flying debri formed by an explosion wave.
21 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: when a coating is applied onto a substrate, a composition of a priming coating on the basis of an organic dissolvent is applied onto at least a part of the substrate; a coating composition on the basis of an organic dissolvent with painting containing a dyeing agent, insoluble particles and cellulose acetate-butyrate is applied at least on a part of the specified composition of the priming coating; and at least a part of the specified composition of the priming coating on the basis of the organic dissolvent and the composition of the coating on the basis of the organic dissolvent with painting are hardened.
EFFECT: invention eliminates the necessity to modify the surface upon application of the coating.
19 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: working of substances in a plastic state.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary heating the particles of the refractory material up to a temperature that exceeds that of the softening of the polymer used for coating the particles, adding the polymer to the heated particles made of a refractory material, mixing the polymer and heated particles of the refractory material under conditions that provide the particles to be coated with the polymer, and molding refractory article from the particles coated with the polymer. The refractory material comprises aluminum acid, magnesium acid, roasted dolomite, graphite, carbon, silicium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, silicium carbide, and their combinations.
EFFECT: reduced solution consumption and improved environment protection.
3 cl, 12 dwg