Method of agricultural crop foliar application
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises spraying the agricultural crops with an initial crushing the solution flow of microelement fertilisers by the air flow and the subsequent drops electrocharge in corona electrostatic field. The liquid-air mixture is prepared at a distance from the hydraulic sprayer nozzles, then fed under pressure to hydraulic nozzles, at the output of which it is crushed and passes in the form of a torch with bubbles of air through the electrostatic field, where the mixture in the form of liquid-air drops is electrostatically charged, is additionally crushed thus increasing monodispersity, surface moisture of the fed plants, the number of free ions of nutrients of microellement fertilisers, which, precipitating on the surface of the agricultural crops, penetrate into the plant, improving its nutrition. The drop size, their crushing, monodispersity of drops and the amount of free ions is regulated by the pressure of microelement fertiliser solution from 0.2 to 0.3 MPa, the air pressure of 0.4 to 0.5 MPa, injected in the solution of fertilisers in the pumping mains, microelement fertiliser solution flow through one nozzle to 0.3 L/min, electrocharging of the sprayed liquid-air drops with the electrostatic voltage on the electrodes of 3 to 5 kV and a current of 10 mA.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the saturation of the solution mixture of fertiliser with air and to increase the monodispersity of the sprayed solution of microelement fertilisers.
The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to a sheet feeding crops.
The known method foliar application by spraying of agricultural crops dissolved trace element fertilizers by suction through the leaves and other aerial parts of the plant nutrients microelement fertilizers in ionic form (Practical application of micronutrient fertilizers Aquadon-Micro // LLC Orgainising SPB. - S.-Petersburg. - 2011. - Issue 3. - 18 C.). The solution of microelement fertilizer sprayers under pressure supplied to the hydraulic pulverizers, pulverizing it into droplets and ejected on the treated culture.
The disadvantage of this method is the large polydispersity of the droplets of the spray solution trace element fertilizers. In the small droplets carried by the wind beyond the treated plants, and large - flow from leaves of crops on the soil. The effectiveness of microelement fertilizers is reduced, and the consumption has been increasing.
There is a method of spraying crops liquid-air droplets formed during the spray cooked in the sprayer liquid-air mixture through the slotted nozzles (Patent for invention №2390128 RF Method op is asiania crops / VI Valkov, YU.N.. Volgin, VA Sluggish // WNEP-TIMESH. - Appl. 27.11.2008. publ. 27.05.2010).
The disadvantage of this method is the poor adhesion of the liquid-droplets with nutrients fertilizers on the sheet, the back side and on the stem.
Closest to the claimed method is a method of spraying crops with solutions of pesticides (Tweetin A.V. the Use of an electric field when spraying plants with pesticides / A.V. Tweetin, A.S. Gorazdova, R.S. Sukhanova // Agriculture abroad. - 1984. No. 3. - P.18-25), spray electrostatic sprayer with an initial crushing stream of solution by a stream of air and subsequent charging of the drops in the corona electrostatic field.
The disadvantage of this method is the high resistivity of aqueous solutions of pesticides requiring high static voltage and time for charging of the sprayed droplets.
The objective of the invention to increase the surface area of leaves and stems of crops irrigated with solutions of trace element fertilizers, improved adhesion and penetration of nutrients being fed through the surface of plants.
To perform this task, we propose a method of sheet feeding crops solution of microelements the fertilizer, namely, that at a distance from the hydraulic sprayers sprayers prepare the liquid-air mixture, then file it under pressure to the hydraulic nozzles at the exit from which it is crushed and in the form of a torch with bubbles, passes through an electrostatic field, where the mixture is in the form of liquid droplets receives an electrical charge, additionally crushed, increasing the monodispersity, the wetting of the surface being fed plants, the number of free ions, nutrients, trace element fertilizer, which, settling on the surface of crops, penetrate into the inside of the plant, improve his diet, the size of liquid droplets their fragmentation, the monodispersity of the droplets and the number of free ions regulate the pressure of the solution trace element fertilizers from 0.2 to 0.3 MPa, the air pressure of from 0.4 to 0.5 MPa, injectisome in solution trace element fertilizers in the discharge line, the solution flow rate of microelement fertilizers through one spray to 0.3 l/min, electrotheraphy sprayed liquid droplets when the electrostatic voltage on the electrodes 3 to 5 kV and current up to 10 mA.
The technical result from the use of the invention is more fully saturate the liquid-air mixture of rest the RA microelement fertilizers air, what is achieved by the pressure injectisome in the solution discharge line sprayer air and increase the way let it from the place of preparation before spraying on the crop, to improve the monodispersity of the spray liquid-air mixture solution of microelement fertilizers followed by electrotheraphy liquid droplets containing the trace elements iron, copper, molybdenum, zinc, boron, manganese and having a resistivity of 1%solution in 400 times lower than distilled water, which occurs for a short period of time at low voltage on the electrodes, creating an electrostatic field. Charged liquid-air drops of a solution of trace element fertilizers additionally dissolved, wetting the surface of plants, increases the number of free ions of the trace elements are forced electrostatic field toward the front and the back of the leaf, the stalk of the plant, penetrating into the inside of the plant, improving its power.
This result is achieved by first preparing a distance from the nozzles of the sprayer mixture solution of microelement fertilizers with air, which is supplied under pressure to the hydraulic sprayers sprayer. The amount of the solution is regulated by a pressure from 0.2 to 0.3 MPa in n gnetales highway sprayer and air pressure from 0.4 to 0.5 MPa, injectisome in the discharge line of a solution of trace element fertilizers and ensure the flow of solution through one nozzle of 0.3 l/min Coming out of the spray mixture solution with air is crushed, forming a spray consisting of liquid droplets that pass between the electrodes, creating an electrostatic field voltage from 3 to 5 kV and rated current up to 10 mA. Transmitting for a short time, drops additionally crushed, increasing the number of free ions of trace elements fertilizer, deposited on a negatively charged plants, pressed to the front and back of the leaf and stem feeding by plants, increasing his power.
The invention is illustrated by the following drawings:
figure 1 shows the application of sprayed and charged in an electrostatic field drops of the liquid-air mixture being fed on microelement fertilizer to the plant;
figure 2 shows a view of a figure 1 - a spray of charged droplets of the liquid-air mixture.
Operates the way the sheet feeding crops as follows. Prepared liquid-air mixture under a certain pressure supplied to the hydraulic sprayer 1, the output of which it is crushed to form spray 2 consisting of a liquid-air what's drops, including the bubbles 3, coated 4 from a solution of microelement fertilizer. Passing between the electrodes 5, creating an electrostatic field, the liquid-air drops receive an electrical charge, additionally crushed and deposited on the surface being fed plants 6. An electrostatic field is generated by a power source mounted on the sprayer, the voltage Converter 7 step-up transformer and a voltage multiplier circuit 8 with a storage capacitor.
The proposed method does not adversely impact on the environment.
The way the sheet feeding crops, including crop spraying with an initial crushing stream of solution microelement fertilizers airflow and subsequent electroporator drops in the corona electrostatic field, wherein at a distance from the hydraulic sprayers sprayers prepare the liquid-air mixture, then file it under pressure to the hydraulic nozzles at the exit from which it is crushed and in the form of a torch with bubbles of air passes through the electrostatic field, where the mixture is in the form of liquid droplets receives an electrical charge, additionally crushed, increasing the monodispersity, the wetting behavior of the displacement is being fed plants, the number of free ions, nutrients, trace element fertilizer, which, settling on the surface of crops, penetrate plants, improve his diet, while the size of the liquid droplets, their fragmentation, the monodispersity of the droplets and the number of free ions regulate the pressure of the solution trace element fertilizers from 0.2 to 0.3 MPa, the air pressure of from 0.4 to 0.5 MPa, injectisome in solution trace element fertilizers in the discharge line, the solution flow rate of microelement fertilizers through one spray to 0.3 l/min, electrotheraphy sprayed liquid droplets when the electrostatic voltage on the electrodes 3 to 5 kV and power current up to 10 mA.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fluid spraying and can be used for spraying of growth liquid promoter in boiling bed granulator. In compliance with proposed method gas and fluid are fed via appropriate channels into mixing chamber inside nozzle 1. Gas velocity approximates to sound speed or exceeds it. Fluid speed at mixing chamber inlet is notably lower that that of gas. Mass flow of gas fed into mixing chamber varies from 1 to 10 wt % of fluid mass blow. This produced emulsion of gas and fluid inside pressurized chamber formed by gas bubbles and surrounded by filmy fluid. Sprayed flow results from expansion of emulsion whereat fluid film gets sprayed at nozzle outlet. Proposed nozzle comprises gas and fluid feed channels. Besides, said nozzle includes mixing chamber communicated with said channels via gas and fluid control valves. Said gas and fluid control valves allow formation of high-speed inlet gas flow and low-speed inlet fluid flow for making gas emulsion if fluid. Proposed nozzle can be used in boiling bed granulators.
EFFECT: lower costs, simplified assembly/disassembly.
15 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of gas-drop jets and may be used in fire-fighting and agriculture for irrigation. Proposed device comprises fluid and gas feed systems and nozzle. Fluid is fed in two ways: axially via feed pipe and confuser and cylindrical nozzle aligned with said pipe, and tangentially via case composed of cylinder-conical sleeve aligned with cylindrical case. Vortex annular chamber with fluid feed branch pipe is secured on cartridge cylindrical part. Two lines of fluid feed tangential channels are made along edges of said annular chamber. At least three tangential channels are arranged in every said line to communicate annular chamber with housing cylindrical chamber. Shaped nozzle is secured to said chamber and aligned therewith and consisting of two concatenated confusers. First confuser connected with housing cylindrical chamber has conical shell with cone vertex angle smaller than that of second confuser connected with outlet nozzle. Nozzle outlet cross-section is shaped to rectangle.
EFFECT: increased atomisation.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device 1 for applying coating on inner side 51 of hollow body 49 by sprayed fluid. Device has, at least, one outlet 9 to displace along, at least, portion of axial length of inner side 51 of hollow body 48 with the help of drive. Besides, proposed device allows centering sprayer tube 5 by centering device 47 in hollow body 49 relative to its lengthwise axis 65. Hollow body 49 may represent a syringe or a capsule.
EFFECT: good mixing of propellant and sprayed fluid, homogeneous distribution of fluid drops on hollow body inner surface.
20 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for applying some components, for example, fast setting foam. Proposed sprayer gun comprises pneumatic piston, piston limiter and handle. Piston serves to shut off fluid channels selectively on displacing between closed position, partially closed position to allow limited fluid flow, and open position to allow full fluid flow. Stroke of said piston may be selected without breaking the operation. Mechanical limiter defines piston stroke limits. Handle is used to set piston into required position.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to double spray nozzles used to spray liquids with compressed gas. The nozzle has mixing chambers. Mixing chamber (40) has liquid inlet (38), compressed air inlet (46a, 46b, 46c) and an outlet (52). Outlet (52) is situated in the mixing chamber (40) downstream. The mixing chamber is filled with liquid and compressed air. The mixing chamber includes circular clearance (64) surrounding the outlet (52) used for discharge of compressed air with high speed. It is made and located so that to spray liquid film into little drops to the outlet (52) inner wall.
EFFECT: increase of speed and reach of flow at the nozzle outlet with no additional power.
16 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: this method covers device (1) for liquid injection into bulk solids, first and foremost, flour for batter preparation. In this device solids are fed down and move towards mixing area (12) along inner wall (11) of mixing chamber (4), which is vertically tilted - preferably a vertical chamber - and are soaked by liquid (4) under pressure from at least one nozzle (14), a fast jet striking inner wall (11) of mixing chamber, and run down towards below outlet (6). Meanwhile, the device is equipped with a discharge opening directed towards mixing chamber part and located between nozzle (14) and mixing area, used for liquid and paste additives feed. This invention also covers a method of liquid injection into bulk materials.
EFFECT: ease of additives injection and its intensive feed with liquid into solids using all possible mixing methods under pressure liquid jet.
16 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spraying equipment to be used, for example, in ash catching. Spraying nozzle has one of its flow channels is a self-cleaning one and/or incorporates cleaner for at least one flow channel. At least one of said flow channels has rounded tapered cross section of side opposite the discharge or mixing chamber. Fluid flows via flow channel to mixing chamber inlet without flow separation. In operation of spraying nozzle, fluid cleaners or cleaning particles are fed into fluid flow line. Besides, fluid flow line may incorporate the line to feed compressed gas to mixing chamber and into line to feed fluid to mixing chamber. Also, fluid flow direction is varied in cleaning conditions.
EFFECT: preventing sedimentation in flow channels, long-term operation with no preventive maintenance.
39 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a technology to generate gas and drop jets by ejection and may be used in machine building, for instance, to apply melt sprayed solid lubricant material onto a polishing disc. Compressed air and fluid material are supplied into a mixer to form a gas and drop mixture in a mixing chamber. The mixture is supplied via a nozzle in the form of a sprayed torch to a processed surface. At the same time parameters of the sprayed torch are controlled by variation of supplied compressed pressure and volume of the mixing chamber. The volume is varied by longitudinal displacement of a tube for fluid material supply. A mixer is used with a replaceable bushing arranged in it, as well as replaceable tubes for supply of fluid material and a nozzle. The following ratio is observed: S3/S2>1, where: S3 - area of the cross section of the nozzle; S2 - area of the circular gap formed by the external diameter of the tube for supply of fluid material and inner diameter of the bushing.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of generation of finely dispersed gas and drop flow, even distribution of liquid drops in a gas flow and expanded technological capabilities of the method with reduction of costs for manufacturing and operation of the mixing unit.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to two-component foam sprayer to be used in construction. Proposed sprayer gun comprises two pressure reservoirs 2, 3 housing initial components, initial components transfer channels, initial components proportioning valves and mixing chamber to produce two-component foam. Two pressure reservoirs 2, 3 are arranged in parallel in gun case 1. Said proportioning valves are made up of needle valves. Each valve incorporates orifice to open directly into detachable nozzle 4 accommodating mixing chamber. Connection points of pressure reservoirs are arranged one after another in axial direction. Said pressure reservoirs are arranged, in fact, perpendicular to each other.
EFFECT: simple design, ruling our foam hardening inside gun.
7 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dispersion of solid particles and can be used in analysing the properties of radioactive aerosols using materials-simulators with behaviour similar to that of radioactive materials under blast loads. Proposed invention aims at developing the method to produce high-dispersion aerosols from solid particles of analysed materials. For this, prior to accelerating, solid particles are uniformly arranged in fusible tablet. Said tablet is fitted into recess made on the pan front face. Particles are accelerated together with tablet in the pan of ballistic unit barrel to hyper sound velocity. Tablet material is evaporated due to adiabatic air compression in said barrel and solid particles are released. Pan elements are removed from particle flight path outside of ballistic unit barrel. Particles are dispersed to form aerosol due to high-enthalpy ram airflow.
EFFECT: higher quality of experiment results.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed aerosol generator comprises casing, drive shaft, sprayer, dielectric impeller with disc fitted on bottom end and secured jointly with sprayer on drive shaft, and fluid feed branch pipe. Note here that said sprayer is composed of conical bowl while disc is provided with holes to feed air to impeller. Note also that HV electrode is secured in impeller side surface.
EFFECT: fine and uniform-size highly charged aerosol.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to antirust protection of metal, concrete and other surfaces by metal-filled paintwork materials. In applying dense conductive zinc layer on the surface, fine zinc powder is mixed with paint directly behind sprayer nozzle. To allow high homogeneity of paint mix and formation of dense uniform zinc layer of the surface, prior to mixing with paint zinc particles get static electric charge for uniform distribution with paint flow drops produced by spraying. Mixing is performed in jet flowing from nozzle to surface being coated.
EFFECT: simplified process, possibility to use common industrial painting equipment.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrostatic spraying of fluid by natural discharge and may be used for deodorisation and disinfection. Electrostatic sprayer comprises thermoelectric element, condensation element and electrode. Thermoelectric element has heat absorption and radiation sides. Condensation element is arranged to cover said heat absorption side. Electrode receives electric power from base end opposite the condensation element. Said electrode sprays moisture condensed on condensation element cooled by heat absorption by thermoelectric element into mist with radicals by natural discharge from electrode end face. Electric vacuum cleaner comprises housing with dust collector and electrically driven blower. Electrostatic sprayer is arranged in said housing to form sprayed moisture to act on dust in dust collector.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, expanded applications.
9 cl, 25 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: operation of multi-fuel thermal engine and compressor comprises electro thermal dissociation of conducting fluid by adding compacted powder of solid or liquid carbon fuel into heating zone, heating, thermo chemical decomposition and gaseous products efflux. Note here that jet of conducting fluid is injected into heating zone. Note also that heating and thermo chemical decomposition of sold or liquid fuel are carried out by electric blasting of injected jets in intermittent excitation of electric discharges therein to produce white-hot mix of gaseous products of carbon fuel and conducting fluid decomposition.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of carbon fuel and contamination of atmosphere.
14 cl, 29 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: method is intended for fuel injection systems, for spraying of various liquids. In method that includes injection of liquid jet through nozzle hole with generation of electric spark discharge in flow of liquid, inlets of nozzle channels are arranged along lines that pass between discharge surfaces of electrodes; nozzle channels are opened prior to electrohydraulic discharge and closed after injection of fuel, and process of nozzle channels opening and closing is controlled; inside electric discharge nozzle, at least between electrodes, fuel is pumped, and pressure of pumped fuel is maintained as close to pressure in volume for injection; dose of injected fuel is controlled by variation of distance between end of high-voltage electrode and grounded electrode and (or) variation of discharge energy; to provide for permanent and high characteristics of fuel, it is exposed to cleaning from gases and some other discharge products in fuel; to provide for high parametres of voltage from high-voltage energy accumulator (delay, voltage, duration, slope, frequency), high-voltage commutator is connected into electric circuit for provision of operation of electric discharge nozzle.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and environmental compatibility.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: medicine, medicinal technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to physics of aerodispersed systems, namely to methods for preparing hygroscopic submicrone aerosols of alkaline metal iodides. Method for preparing hygroscopic submicrone aerosol of alkaline metal iodides in atmosphere air involves feeding atmosphere air into heated quartz cylindrical reactor with evaporating alkaline metal halide, saturation the air flow with its vapors, mixing vapor-air mixture with cold air in outlet from quartz cylindrical reactor and its cooling up to the supersaturation degree 102 and their condensation to form submicrone aerosol of alkaline metal halide. As alkaline metal halide method involves using potassium iodide, sodium iodide or their mixture. Atmosphere air is fed into heated quartz reactor with its relative moisture above 30% at temperature 10-40°C and saturated its with vapors of potassium iodide and/or sodium iodide at temperature 550-750°C with simultaneous formation of bipolar gaseous ions and saturated molecular iodine vapor. Vapor-air flow in outlet from quartz cylindrical reactor is cooled initially to temperature 150-250°C with additional coaxial flow of atmosphere air for formation of bipolar charged submicrone aerosol of potassium iodide and/or sodium iodide with addition of molecular iodine followed by cooling aerosol flow to temperature 30-50°C with simultaneous its dilution of its concentration by turbulent stirring with additional coaxial atmosphere air flow. Invention provides formation of hygroscopic bipolar charged submicrone aerosol alkaline metals iodide (KJ and/or NaJ) with addition of molecular iodine (J2) that is stable by size and the mass concentration in atmosphere used in system for conditioning atmosphere air and creating the curative microclimate into compartments, and for providing the possibility for its using for medicinal aims for inhalation. Invention can be used in systems for conditioning air and creating the curative microclimate into compartments, and in medicine in treatment of diseases with using atmosphere air comprising hygroscopic submicrone aerosol of alkaline metals iodide.
EFFECT: improved preparing method, valuable medicinal properties of aerosol.
6 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing of fuel systems of diesel engines. According to proposed method of building high pressure of fuel injected into combustion chambers of diesel engines, fuel is delivered from fuel tank by fuel-feed furnished with overflow hydraulic valve under low pressure through filter and suction hydraulic valve into working chamber of electrohydrodynamic pump accommodating electrodes. High-voltage discharge is created in working chamber of electrohydrodynamic pump by passing high-voltage pulses between electrodes placed in fuel. High-voltage pulses are supplied to high-voltage electrode from high-voltage source with electronic control, and other electrode is grounded. High-voltage discharge forms vapor-fuel phase volume, thus forming high-pressure shock wave (from 400 to 500 MPa) forcing out fuel working chamber of electrohydrodynamic pump which is supplied through pressure hydraulic valve either direct to each electrohydraulic nozzle, or preliminarily through fuel accumulator. After relaxation of vapor-fuel phase and reduction of pressure in working chamber of electrohydrodynamic pump, chamber is filled with fuel through suction hydraulic valve under pressure built by fuel feed pump. Control of fuel high pressure at input of electrically controlled nozzles of diesel engine is provided by changing frequency and amplitude of high-voltage pulses delivered to high-voltage electrode and by means of pressure regulators installed on electrohydraulic pump. Pressure in fuel accumulator is regulated by electrically controlled overflow hydraulic valve by signals from pressure transmitter installed in fuel accumulator. Fuel system to implement the method consists of fuel tank, fuel-feed pump with overflow hydraulic valve and fuel filter, all coupled through suction hydraulic valve with input of electrohydrodynamic pump in working chamber of which electrodes are fitted. Output of electrohydrodynamic pump is coupled through pressure hydraulic valve and high-pressure pipes with input of electrohydraulic nozzles. Electrodes are installed in working chamber of electrohydrodynamic pump with spark gap between and faces. One of electrodes is grounded, and the other, high-voltage one, is connected to high-voltage source with electronic control to built high-voltage discharge and high-pressure shock wave (from 400 MPa to 500 MPa) in working chamber of electrohydrodynamic pump. High-voltage source consists of high-voltage pulse generator supplied by starter battery of vehicle and generates high-voltage pulses controlled by high-voltage unit and transmitted to high-voltage electrode of electrohydraulic pump through transistor switch. System is controlled by signal control unit.
EFFECT: provision of internal combustion engine with high fuel saving, power and ecological characteristics.
3 cl, 3 dwg