Multi-layer thermal block, method and device for its realisation
SUBSTANCE: multi-layer thermal block for construction comprises a stiff spatial element - a matrix, besides, the block comprises three bearing concrete layers and two thermal insulation layers from foam plastic arranged between them, for instance, foam polystyrene, having holes for connection of three concrete layers into a single monolithic structure with the help of formation of solid links during pouring, besides, heat insulation layers are shifted relative to bearing layers along the vertical line and along the horizontal line for production of a slot and comb connection of blocks, which insulates bearing layers from each other by thermal insulating layers along edges of the block in the zone of contact with an adhesive mixture. Concrete links in one heat insulating layer are shifted relative to links in the other heat insulating layer to the maximum possible value and have the size of cross section required for provision of strength of the structure, and in case of the slot and comb connection the adhesive layer having the highest heat conductivity, in process of mounting it is broken into 5 segments, in accordance with the number of layers. Also the method and the device for its manufacturing are described.
EFFECT: higher strength of connection between block layers, higher thermal protection properties of a block and heat and wind protection properties of an erected structure, higher quality of mounting, reduced time of construction.
4 cl, 7 dwg
1. The invention relates to the construction and can be used in the manufacture of building envelopes in terms of a wide range of seasonal temperatures.
Known similar "Block wall construction" EN 2131501 C1 CL E04C 1/40. In this block, the concrete shell is connected with the insulating core only due to the adhesion of the concrete, which is not sufficient.
Known analogues "Concrete block" EN 2208102 C1 CL E04C1/40, "Building block" EN 2208101 C1 CL E04C1/40, "Concrete building block" EN 2317381 C1 CL E04C1/40, "multi-layer building block" EN 2317381 C1 CL E04C1/40, "heat-Insulating building block" RU, 33 589 U1, E04C1/00. When creating these materials, an attempt was made to create a multi-layer building block, connecting bearing and insulating layers using fiberglass, plastic, and metal rods of different configurations. As shown, this connection cannot withstand the serious load. Joints in this building structure is not insulated in any way and are "cold bridges".
The prototype is a "heat-Insulating building block", EN, 33589 U1, E04C1/00, 27.10.2003, PP-22, 36 formula, p.5-6 description of, 4-12, /1/, which describes a multilayer insulating building block, including external and internal the unit layers, made on the basis of different binding solutions, between which the insulating Styrofoam plate, for example, polystyrene foam, which is made of the through-hole for the formation of links. The insulating plate is shifted in the vertical and horizontal plane relative to the faces of the outer and inner layers of the block by a value not less than the thickness of the mortar joint. The disadvantage of this insulating block is insufficient bonding strength of the layers using the specified elements of communication, because the holes for their formation are in the same plane. Despite the presence of additional insulation boards are "cold bridges"because of the holes in the two insulating plates are located on the same axis. In the prototype is specified (page 6 of the description)that is manufactured building block according to standard technology in the forms, it does not specify how to keep it from surfacing lighter layers of polystyrene foam when pouring a load-bearing layers and how is the uniformity of the thickness of the bearing layer, which is of paramount importance when creating the material connection (p formula). Therefore, as a prototype for the method of manufacture and apparatus for manufacturing the fuser selected closer on a technical level, the "Fuser", EN, 2157875 C2, 04C 1/00, B28B 7/22. (PP,7 formula), the disadvantage of this method and device is the impossibility of fixing the insulating layer outside faces of the bearing layer. The purpose of this invention was the creation of a set of unified thermally protected products for construction, combining all the advantages of existing building blocks, but devoid of the disadvantages of these products, as well as method and device for its manufacture.
1.1 Technical result achieved when using the invention:
1.1.1 Increase the strength of the connection layers in multilayer fuser.
1.1.2 Improving thermal properties of multilayer fuser.
1.1.3 Increase heat and windproof properties of the building envelope as a whole.
1.1.4 improving the quality of the installation due to the precision of the Assembly.
1.1.5 reducing the number of masonry material.
1.1.6 the Opportunity to fulfill facing in parallel with the masonry works without installation of scaffolding (for multi-storey building).
1.1.7 a Significant reduction in construction time.
1.2. The challenge is in getting the kit termozakalennyh uniform products of house-building systems for low-rise and precast-monolithic construction, having the properties that provide the claimed technical result and having h is superexistence differences from the prototype and its analogues.
This technical result is the following differences fuser: multilayer fuser for construction, containing a three-dimensional rigid - item matrix, and the block consists of three load-bearing concrete layers and two located between insulating layers of foam, such as polystyrene, with holes for the connection of three concrete layers in a single monolithic structure through education monolithic lintels during pouring, and insulating layers are shifted relative to the bearing layer vertically and horizontally to obtain the material connection blocks that completely isolates bearing layers from each other insulating layers on the edges of the block in the zone of contact with the glue mixture, characterized in that the concrete lintel in one insulating layer is shifted relative to the jumper in the other insulating layer on the maximum size and have a size of section is necessary to ensure structural strength, and when the partition connection adhesive layer, having the highest thermal conductivity, the installation process is broken into 5 segments, respectively, the number of layers.
1.2.1 multi-layer fuser consists of five layers: three bearing construction made of foamed or expanded clay, concrete representing samojedny monolithic spatial element (matrix) (1), two layers of EPS (2), and are made of foam (such as Styrofoam or other materials with similar properties) (Fig.1-4).
1.2.2 In insulating layers are holes, "mirror" shifted relative to each other in each layer (Figure 2). Holes should be at least three in each layer for the formation of solid bridges (3) (3), provides the necessary bonding strength of the layers during pouring. The shape of the section of the jumpers may be different. The layers of insulation are shifted vertically and horizontally relative to the bearing layer to a depth sufficient for the formation of the material connection of thermal blocks. Thus there are formed two rows of tongue and groove vertical and horizontal elements, greatly improving thermal insulation properties of masonry, as well as completely eliminating its insufflation. Partition units connection greatly improves the quality of installation. The edges of the block in the zone of contact with the glue mixture, construction layers are completely isolated from each other by insulating layers. The application of the adhesive layer by using devices of mechanization allows you to minimize costs on the adhesive mixture and significantly improve the quality of masonry, productivity and reduce heat loss by suture joints. When partition blocks connect the research Institute of the adhesive layer, with the greatest conductivity, in the process of installation is broken into 5 segments (number of layers), thereby increasing the overall thermal resistance of the building envelope.
1.2.3. To facilitate mounting of the angular designs created corner elements multilayer fuser (5-6).
When using multilayer fuser for the manufacture of walling in frame-monolithic high-rise construction, revealed main major advantage is no need for the installation of scaffolding that provides significant economic benefits. In scaffolding is not necessary, as high-quality insulation already made in the process of masonry work, and facing multi-storey buildings can be conducted in parallel with the stacking blocks inside buildings. Insulating layers of expanded polystyrene inside the concrete blocks do not burn, therefore the proposed multilayer fuser has superior fire properties.
There is a significant savings in time, labor, and, consequently, a sharp increase in economic indicators of construction, while improving the quality of work.
2. A method of manufacturing a multilayer fuser including a load of concrete in the molding cavity, the alignment on top of the spine, vibroplate under vibrodiagnosis separation from the cavity, which differs from the prototype in that, instead of sliding punches-hole-forming cores, retaining insulating insert (aperture) in the prototype, insulating layers of foam vertically fixed in the molding cavity (4) prior to fill using the vertical and horizontal grooves (5) in the side and bottom of the molding cavity, firmly insert insulating layers, fix the top clamping lugs (6)which is rigidly fixed inside the molding cavity in the filling process (Fig.7).
2.1 the Method of manufacturing a multilayer fuser differs from the prototype so that there is a technical result, it is impossible for prototype - division form for making insulating layers allows to fill the outer concrete layer simultaneously with the internal (claydite-concrete) concrete mix with different (visual and mechanical) properties, while the layers are firmly connected to each other inside jumper (3) in the process of making. In similar Concrete building block" EN 2317381 C1 CLE04C1/40, "multi-layer building block" EN 2317381 C1 CLE04C1/40 attempted connection concrete layers with different visual and structural qualities through the layer of peopl the hundred with a metal, plastic or fiberglass reinforced plastic rods by continuous horizontal casting of bearing construction layers and horizontal stacking insulating layer between them, but with this method the strength of the connection construction of the layers is low and it is impossible to maintain the predefined thickness of the concrete layer.
3. For the manufacture of multilayer fuser created the device includes a molding cavity formed by the planes hinged sides, vibropress, vibrator, Stripping mechanism, actuator, forming a cavity(4) a Device for manufacturing a multilayer fuser differs from the prototype in that the moulding cavity no vidvijenie punches-hole-forming cores, holding the heat-insulating insert (aperture), but in the side and bottom of the molding cavity is made of vertical and horizontal grooves (5) depth, enough to form a tongue and groove elements of thermal blocks and a width sufficient to dense occurrence and fixation of the insulating layers, which is rigidly fixed insulating layers inside molding cavity(4)and the upper strap (6), for rigid fastening of the insulating layers in the form by pouring (Fig.7). The performance of the bearing structure of the block (matrix) as possible by vibrocompression and fill with concrete. In the performance of the bearing structure of the block of foam concrete, forms to fill merged into the cassette.
1. Multilayer fuser for construction, containing a three-dimensional rigid - item matrix, and the block consists of three load-bearing concrete layers and two located between insulating layers of foam, such as polystyrene, with holes for the connection of three concrete layers in a single monolithic structure through education monolithic lintels during pouring, and insulating layers are shifted relative to the bearing layer vertically and horizontally to obtain the material connection blocks that isolates bearing layers from each other insulating layers on the edges of the block in the zone of contact with the glue mixture, characterized in that the concrete lintel in one insulating layer shifted relative to the jumper in the other insulating layer on the maximum size and have a size of section is necessary to ensure structural strength, and when the partition connection adhesive layer, having the highest thermal conductivity, the installation process is broken into 5 segments, respectively, the number of layers.
2. Multilayer fuser for construction according to claim 1, characterized in that it is corner.
3. A method of manufacturing a multilayer thermal the eye according to any one of claims 1 and 2, enable loading of concrete in the molding cavity, the alignment surface, vibroplate under vibrodiagnosis separation from the cavity, characterized in that the insulating layers of foam, such as polystyrene, vertically fixed in the molding cavity before filling with slots in the side and bottom of the form, fixed top clamp bar, simultaneously pour of external and internal building layers of concrete mixtures with different visual and mechanical properties, connect the layers to each other inside the jumpers in the process of making.
4. The device for manufacturing a multilayer fuser according to any one of claims 1 and 2, includes a molding cavity formed by the planes hinged sides, vibropress, vibrator, Stripping mechanism, actuator, characterized in that the side and bottom of the molding cavities are grooves of a depth sufficient for the formation of the tongue and groove elements of thermal blocks, and a width sufficient to dense occurrence and fixation of the insulating layers, and the upper hold-down straps for rigid fastening of thermal insulation layers in the form when filling.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flaky items used in construction for heat insulation of buildings and premises in it. The heat and sound insulation unit comprises filler webs laid one onto another, every of which comprises a corrugated sheet with corrugations of zigzag shape and a flat sheet connected to it. In each filler web, at least at one longitudinal side of the filler web, the flat sheet is arranged with a transverse size below the corrugated sheet by value of at least half of a pitch of a zigzag-shaped corrugation, thus producing a compensator from corrugations protruding beyond the flat sheet, capable of being compressed in transverse direction for gapless laying of the filler web into a building structure. A serrated line of corrugated sheet bend matches the edge of the flat sheet of the web. In the first version of block laying into a building structure the block is pressed with its longitudinal side with a compensator to the element of the building structure, and in this condition it is installed into the filled space of the building structure. The block compensator due to action of springing forces fills a gap produced between the block and the element of the building structure. In the second version, in case of layer-by-layer installation of block filler webs into a building structure, block filler webs that are adjacent along the height of the building structure are laid with a rotation relative to each other by 180°, and thus the compensator of the below block filler web is covered with a flat sheet of the filler web sheet. In the third version, in case of layer-by-layer installation of block filler webs into a building structure with equal longitudinal and transverse dimensions, block filler webs that are adjacent along the height of the building structure are laid with a rotation relative to each other by 90°, and thus gapless laying of the block is provided at all sides of the building structure.
EFFECT: invention provides for higher heat and sound insulation properties of blocks due to elimination of gaps between elements of building structures and fillers.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multilayer building block consists of a decorative face layer, a bearing layer and a heat insulating layer provided in between, which are fixed to each other with polymer rods. The block is arranged in the form of a prism, trapezoid bases of which are ends of the block, and non-parallel prism faces of identical area are upper and lower bases of the block. The parallel side face of the prism of larger area is an outer side of the decorative layer of the block, the parallel side face of the prism of smaller area is an inner side of the bearing layer of the block, besides, the angle between planes of prism bases and the outer side of the face decorative layer makes 89 and less degrees, on one of bases in the decorative and bearing layers there are slots, axes of which are in planes parallel to the face side of the decorative layer, with the area of section of each slot of more than 5 sq. cm., on the other base there are ledges arranged as complying with slots. The method of construction of the multilayer construction blocks is also described.
EFFECT: higher labour efficiency in erection of a building, elimination of damages on a decorative layer when erecting a building, compensation of uneven subsidence of a block during laying, strict dosing of mortar, reduced flow of concrete mortar in laying and reduced costs for erection of a building.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wall unit is arranged in the form of a faceted structure from a hardened material, having a face surface arranged on the outer face side of the unit, an inner surface arranged on the inner side of the unit, lower, upper and side surfaces, at the same time the unit comprises a face layer, an intermediate layer and an inner layer arranged serially along its width, besides, the face layer has thickness of s1, which is less than the thickness s2 of the intermediate layer, and the thickness s3 of the inner layer is less than the thickness s1 of the face layer, the latter contains cement, a plasticiser and ground haydite with fractions within 1 to 5 mm, the intermediate layer of the unit contains cement, a plasticiser and haydite with fractions within 5 to 20 mm, the inner layer of the unit contains sand, cement and a plasticiser, the specified thicknesses of the unit layers are selected depending on the width S of the unit and are in the ratio of s1:s2:s3=(0.10-0.17)S:(0.89-0.79)S:(0.007-0.037)S, the unit comprises a L-shaped crest made in the face layer and covering it at two adjacent lateral and lower sides, and also a L-shaped groove made in the face layer and covering at two other adjacent lateral and upper sides of the unit, the crest and the groove are installed in a single plane, parallel to the face surface of the unit, the surface of the crest and the groove, the face and inner surfaces are arranged as solid and smooth, and the lower, upper and lateral sides of the unit arranged between the face and inner layers are made as rough with grooves stretching inside the unit from 0.1 mm to 20 mm between fractions, at the same time the length of the unit L at its face side is selected depending on the width S of the unit within the limits of L=(0.99-1.01)S, the length Lin of the unit at its inner side is selected as equal to the length of the unit at its face side, the face surface of the unit is arranged at the distance s4 from the crest axis, the inner surface of the unit is arranged at the distance s5 from the crest axis, which is more than the distance s4, besides, s4 and s5 are in the ratio s4=(0.08-0.16)s5. Also the versions of units design are described, as well as a material for manufacturing of a unit, versions of molds for manufacturing of a unit, the method to manufacture the unit and a line for unit manufacturing.
EFFECT: reduced weight of units, its higher strength, provision of possibility to increase strength of units connection in a wall, simplified technology of production by usage of moulds from unified elements, using a simplified method for manufacturing of units and a line for method implementation.
41 cl, 61 dwg
SUBSTANCE: tape is designed to fill seams between construction slabs. It contains a non-woven base, containing fibres, selected from a group made of natural cellulose fibres, synthetic polymer fibres, glass fibres and their combinations. At the same time the nonwoven base has the following properties, determined according to ASTM C474-05: relative swelling in cross direction is below approximately 1.3%; relative swelling in longitudinal direction is below approximately 0.2% and breaking strength in cross direction is at least approximately 2625 N/m. Besides, a method is proposed for finishing treatment of a seam between slabs, including the following: (1) application of a tape for filling seams onto a seam between slabs by submersion of a tape for seam filling into the first layer of the composition for filling seams; (ii) application of the second layer of the composition for filling seams above the tape, besides, the stage (ii) is carried out before the tape for seam filling and the composition for seam filling applied at the stage (i), have dried substantially, and if required, (iii) application of the third, filling or final layer of the composition for filling seams above the tape, besides, the stage (iii) is carried out before the tape for seam filling and the second layer have substantially dried.
EFFECT: improved quality of the tape due to high strength and reduction of swelling during moistening at simultaneous acceleration of seams filling.
20 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: light heat-insulation building unit arranged in internal and external walls of a building and formed from bubble synthetic resin, comprises a connecting ledge on the upper side, so that when it is laid, no cavity is formed, a connecting slot in the basement of the unit corresponding to the connecting ledge, and also a protruding section and a section of the slot arranged on the front and rear surfaces of the unit. At the same it is equipped with an auxiliary unit having the same shape as the heat insulation unit, which is cut as "L" on a segment of the upper section of its one surface, and has a ledge of cylindrical shape on the upper section of the cut element, and is joined to one side of the heat insulation unit. Also versions of the units are described.
EFFECT: development of units that make it possible to complete treatment of building walls by attachment of a finishing material to a unit, reduction of costs, simplified process of unit formation.
13 cl, 21 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multilayer building block comprises a decorative layer, a central layer arranged between an inner and outer structural layers made of ceramsite-concrete mix. The mix to make the central layer contains the following components, per 1 m3 of the mix: ceramsite gravel of 8÷22 mm fraction with apparent density of 350÷450 kg/m3 in volume of 1 m3; portland cement 130÷440 kg, polyvinyl acetate glue in volume of 1.3÷4.7 l, water in volume of 115÷125 l. The method is characterised to manufacture the multilayer building block.
EFFECT: increased strength of the block and simplified method of its manufacturing.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for production of multilayer structural material includes mould filling, subsequent supply of layer materials, moulding, soaking, withdrawal from mould. At the same time serial filling of layer materials is carried out through placement of basalt cloth layers impregnated with epoxide resin onto mould bottom, placement of foam polyurethane layer onto layers of basalt-plastic with further laying of basalt cloth layers impregnated with epoxide resin onto foam polyurethane layer, with intermediate arrangement of carbon threads in between. Ends of carbon threads are taken outside. Moulding and soaking of all layers is carried out simultaneously in process of heating up to temperature of 60°C and pressure of 0.5-1.0 MPa until resin hardens. At the same time ratio of foam polyurethane layer thickness to basalt-plastic layer thickness makes 20-80:0.5-1.5.
EFFECT: improved mechanical properties and reduced process cycle.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to production of building materials used in particular in low-rise and frame housing and also during building of civil and industrial projects with high requirements to decorative outer cladding of buildings, heat- and acoustic insulation of rooms, for example of multistorey apartment houses, cottages and other buildings. Set of blocks includes sets of main, corner and aperture blocks containing face layer with thickness A, bearing layer with thickness C and heat-insulating layer with thickness B located between them, they are attached to each other by polymeric bars, at that basic thickness of blocks in each set is chosen discretely either 300 mm or 400 mm, at that relation of thickness B of heat-insulating layer to sum of thicknesses (A+C) of face and bearing layers, i.e. (B:(A+C)) is chosen completed with basic thickness of blocks 300 mm either 0.50 or 0.67, and completed with basic thickness of blocks 400 mm - either 0.60 or 1.00, at that sum of thicknesses (A+C) of face and bearing layers is constant for all sets, at that each set consists of two groups of blocks. Thickness A of decorative layer in each group increases in arithmetic progression according to relation Ai=A0+10·n, where A0 is chosen not less than 40 mm, and n is integral number and corresponds to range from 1 to 6, and thickness C of bearing layer decreases in arithmetic progression in each group correspondingly. Blocks in each group are made according to regional weather conditions requirement and are characterised by thickness B of heat-insulating layer being constant in group for region. Each group is provided additionally with belt blocks made one-piece and consisting of face and bearing layers, and with air-exchange block provided with through-hole and ventilating grill rigidly fixed in it. Blocks of corner type are made in two forms, one of them is provided with equidistant L-shaped face and heat-insulating layers, and in cavity of heat-insulating layer shortened bearing layer is located. The other form of blocks is provided with equidistant L-shaped bearing and heat-insulating layers, and in cavity of heat-insulating layer shortened face layer is located.
EFFECT: improvement of universalisation of set of blocks and enhancement of their use in low-rise and high-rise house building under various weather conditions, simplification of technology of walls construction observing all required technical and technological parametres, optimisation of ratio of all layers dimensions, improvement of their strength properties and cheapening of building.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial construction materials, and more specifically to double-layer structures and method of making such structures, particularly non-sparking double-layer tiles, meant or covering floors in category A and B fire safety buildings. The non-sparking double-layer tile is in form of a concrete monolithic body with a face layer, which has a regular or irregular geometrical shape, where material for both layers is a mixture, used in semi-dry state, containing, wt %: composition of the mixture of the base layer: portland cement of at least grade 500 DO 20.55 to 22.78, construction sand with particle size 5 mm with fineness modulus of not less than 2.4 72.89 to 75.34, Poliplast MB-1 0.20-0.30, water - the rest; composition of the mixture of the face layer: portland cement of at least grade 500 DO 23.98 to 26.19, limestone in form of sand from siftings from crushing sedimentary rocks with strength grade of at least 400 with particle size 2 to 4 mm and fineness module of not less than 2.4 69.84-71.94, Poliplast MB-1 0.23 to 0.30, water - the rest, where the face layer has thickness of not less than 10 mm. The method of making the said tile involves preparation of each of the said mixtures with moisture content of 6-8% in mixers by successive loading the given filler, additive, portlant cement, stirring dry components for 30 to 60 s, then, while stirring, adding water and continue to stir the mixture for the base layer for 30 to 40 s, and the mixture for the face layer - for 2 minutes, placing the mixture for the base layer into a mould, preliminary compacting with light vibration or ramming without vibration, placing the mixture for the face layer on top of the compacted base layer, final compacting with vibrocompression for 20 to 23 s of the said mixtures and solidification in a steam curing chamber at temperature of 40°C, moisture 95 to 100 % and rate of increase and decrease of temperature not more than 25°C/h. Invention is developed in subclaims.
EFFECT: increased compression and bending strength, reduced wearability.
4 cl, 4 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: masonry unit consists of a lightweight block with face being coated with decorative-protective layer. The vertical grooves are made on lightweight block face during forming. The face of block is implemented with a plate, which is glued leak tightly to the said block after solidification or represents pigment stained layer of highly strong concrete mix as forming open-end vertical channels in masonry unit parallel to block face.
EFFECT: wide functional applications of masonry unit due to increase gas permeability.
7 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: construction industry, in particular, manufacture of multilayer construction stones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming undetachable frame by mounting of closed outer form onto pallet, with sides of frame being equipped with vertical slots; placing internal insert symmetrically in form, said insert being similar to form in shape and equipped with vertical slots; fixing form and insert with respect to one another with the help of vertical members introduced into vertical slots; filling space between form and insert with sand concrete; imparting monolith structure to filler by vibratory pressing or vibratory casting; withdrawing form, insert and vertical members; forming cells inside resultant undetachable frame by placing interconnected partition walls; fixing their free ends in slots formed in sides of undetachable frame by means of vertical members; filling cells with cellular concrete or light-weight concrete such as polystyrene, clay filler, sawdust, ash; holding; drying and removing partition walls to produce ready multilayer wall stone, which is further directed for stacking.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by combined employment of various construction materials and reduced labor consumed for performing frame forming and handling works.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the gypsum composition made of hardened gypsum and to a method for its preparing. The composition made of hardened gypsum comprises the bound matrix unbroken phase made of hardened gypsum having the enhanced volume of empty spaces from water, and/or the indicated composition is prepared from a mixture showing the enhanced ratio of water to calcined gypsum at least 3:1. Also, invention describes an article comprising composition made of hardened gypsum. Invention provides preparing nonshrinking composition of hardened gypsum with reduced density, improved insulating and/or acoustic properties.
EFFECT: improved preparing method and properties of composition.
21 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: building, particularly to fill cavities in articles.
SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding article having at least one cavity by conveyer; providing filling station; positioning the article under vessel with filling material as viewed in vertical plane; filling the cavity with filling material along with simultaneously shaking the article; removing the article with filled cavity from the filling station by conveyer. Filling material is pumped under pressure created by rotor blades. The rotor is installed in the vessel. Filling material poured in the cavity is stirred and simultaneously compacted by pressure application during cavity filling or after filling operation termination. Filling station comprises vessel with filling material made as supply bunker, conveyer to move trays each having one article arranged in the tray, compacting means adapted to fill cavity with filling material under pressure. The compacting means has at least one rotor with guiding blades installed in vessel. The blades are secured to at least one cantilever holder and provide supply of filing material to at least one cavity of the article.
EFFECT: increased uniformity of hollow block filling.
15 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building units to erect walls characterized by increased resistance to breaking.
SUBSTANCE: building member comprises rectangular concrete body and reinforcing frame. Concrete body is formed of class B60-B90 concrete. Reinforcing frame is composed of two reinforcing members having rectangular sections and of at least one V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member. The reinforcing members having rectangular cross-sections are flush with inner side of building member and extend to edges thereof. The V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member ends are fixedly secured to one reinforcing member having rectangular section. Top thereof faces outer side of building member. In accordance to the second embodiment building member comprises one reinforcing member having rectangular cross-section and at least one V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member having top fixedly secured to reinforcing member having rectangular cross-section.
EFFECT: increased resistance to breaking, reduced metal consumption and simplified structure.
17 cl, 15 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: construction industry; methods of manufacture of the wall products made out of the light concretes with the facial surface finish layer.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of construction industry, in particular, to the method of production of the wall products made out of the light concretes, which may be used at erection of the external walls of the buildings and structures. The technical result of the invention consists in the capability of production of the wall products from the light concretes having the high compression strength, the low thermal conductivity, the qualitative facial finish layer, and also the sufficient degree of fastness of cohesion between the layers excluding the possibility of destruction caused by delamination or spalling. The method of production of the wall products made out of the light concretes with the facial surface finish layer providing for preparation of the molding mass, its piling into the mold and the bilayered molding differs by the fact, that the molding mass for the facial surface finish layer is prepared from the cement-sand admixture with addition of the ferric oxide pigments of different colors, and the molding mass for the primary layer is prepared from the light-concrete mixture including the natural or artificial porous fillers, which is placed in the mold in the form of collapsible or detachable formwork with the mounted in it plug-in technological molding bed. Then exercise compaction by light pressure of the light-concrete admixtures and, in the mold volume formed after the compaction of the light-concrete admixture place the layer of the cement-sand admixture with the added the ferric oxide pigments, on which the upper punch with lower die, the dimension and the form of which are identical to the formwork and the mounted in it the plug-in technological pan, then, exercise the molding with the simultaneous compression and the vibration compaction of the layers being in the mold.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the wall products made out of the light concretes having the high compression strength, the low thermal conductivity, the qualitative facial finish layer, the sufficient degree of fastness of cohesion between the layers excluding destruction caused by delamination or spalling.
3 cl, 3 tbl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect multilayered units, for instance, concrete articles, namely building blocks and slabs for envelope forming during industrial, civil and other building structures erection.
SUBSTANCE: method to produce multilayered building block on the base of rigid cement mixes and including one at least one heat-insulation layer of light-weight concrete and at least two fine concrete layers involves serially pouring different concrete mixes in form. After at least two different concrete mix layers pouring in two horizontal parallel planes upper block part is covered with additional form part. Then form with laid concrete mix layers is rotated through 90° about horizontal axis. Form part is removed from top part of the block and form is built up to adapt form for upper fine concrete layer pouring so that upper fine concrete layer is transversal to previously poured layers. After that all layers are subjected to vibroforming and curing up to cement mix stiffening. Finally form is removed.
EFFECT: improved heat insulation properties of straight and corner wall areas, window and door openings, increased strength, possibility to erect high buildings and buildings characterized by varying number of stories without the use of additional structural members to cover opened heat-insulation layers at wall corners and in window and door opening edges.
FIELD: construction, particularly multilayered construction blocks and stones used for building wall erection and adapted to stabilize temperature inside room.
SUBSTANCE: construction block has several layers formed of cement based material. Block includes two extreme layers, one core layer and one face layer. Block is provided with the second face layer. Extreme layers are heat-insulating ones and are formed of porous concrete. Core layer is arranged between extreme ones and is made of fine concrete having high heat capacity and heat conductivity. Face layers lie in planes transversal to extreme and core layers and are arranged from opposite construction block ends. Face layers are hollow and made as sealed panel of two-ply sheet provided with inner stiffening ribs. Each cavity of sealed panel is defined by concrete layer in inner space of two-ply sheet along face panel perimeter. Each sealed panel has two connecting pipes with valves to be linked to pipelines. Fluid supply device is also discloses.
EFFECT: increased cold- or heat-accumulation capacity, possibility of inward and outward heat radiation.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly production of multilayered building blocks provided with pneumatic structural members used for building and building structure wall erection and having ability of heat conductive properties change in response to ambient temperature change.
SUBSTANCE: building unit comprises concrete layer made of concrete mix preferably based on rigid cement and heat insulation layer. Concrete layer is box-like member with faces defining cavity for heat-insulation layer receiving. Heat-insulation layer is made as sealed bag of air-tight elastic material. The bag is secured inside the cavity and has inlet and outlet orifices provided with two chambers. The first chamber has mechanical thermocontroller to close outlet orifice if ambient temperature is greater than predetermined temperature value and one-way valve. The one-way valve opens in the case of decreased ambient air pressure. The second chamber has the second mechanical thermocontroller to close inlet orifice if ambient temperature is below predetermined temperature value and one-way valve. The one-way valve opens in the case of increased ambient air pressure.
EFFECT: improved heat-insulation properties and possibility of building block usage as load-bearing member.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: air conditioning, particularly laminated building blocks used for building wall erection and having properties facilitating dust removal from ambient air passing into building.
SUBSTANCE: filtering building block for load-bearing wall enclosure erection comprises outer concrete layers formed of material mainly based on rigid cement mixes and porous layer arranged in-between. Porous layer is located in sealed cavity defined by outer concrete layer. Inlet and outlet orifices are made in opposite cavity sides. The inlet and outlet orifices are communicated with two chambers located near porous layer. The first chamber is provided with one-way valve assembly so that if ambient air pressure increases the valves are brought into opened state. The second chamber has one-way valve assembly and opens the valves if ambient air pressure decreases.
EFFECT: improved heat-insulation and sound-proofing properties of filtering building block used in load-bearing building structure.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building materials, particularly heat-insulation materials used for all-purpose building frame filling structure erection.
SUBSTANCE: heat-insulated modular structure comprises multilayered shell defining inner cavity and made as plastered reinforced net. Filler is placed in the cavity. The shell is made as rectangular parallelepiped with height h equal to b or 2b, where b is parallelepiped width. Parallelepiped length is equal to b, 2b or 4b. The shell is covered with air-tight heat-shrinkable film. Modular structure comprises stiffening members made as ribs extending along diagonal lines connecting cavity corners and crossing each other. The ribs are provided with slots formed in rib centers to insert the ribs one into another to connect the ribs in cross structure.
EFFECT: facilitation of structure sides mating, increased efficiency of heated building and building structure space filling, improved rigidity and manufacturability, as well as storage and transportation ability.
3 cl, 14 dwg