Method of modifying carbon surface

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing a carbon suspension in aqueous copper acetate solution in weight ratio C : H2O : Cu(CHCOO)2-H2O = 1 : 10…15 : 0.25…0.30, heating to 90...100°C, adding aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to the carbon suspension with weight ratio of copper acetate to sodium hydroxide Cu(CH3COO)2·H2O : NaOH = 1 : 1.05…1.2 for 20…30 minutes, adding aqueous solution of a surfactant - octyl phenyl ether of polyethylene oxide to carbon of 0.005…0.02 : 1. The mixture is then held while stirring for 10…15 minutes and then cooled to 25…30°C, followed by filtration, washing with water and drying at temperature of 90…100°C to constant weight.

EFFECT: invention enables to modify the surface of carbon with copper oxide with maximum output.

1 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to a method for producing a component of solid rocket fuel (TRT) ballistic and mixed type with elevated burning characteristics that is used to increase the range, reduce the height of the material trunks, masking trajectory and launch a rocket.

It is known that the regulation of the speed of combustion and its dependence on temperature and pressure in solid rocket fuels (TRT) is carried out by the use of catalysts combustion. The most effective way of introducing them to the fuel mass is the method of chemical deposition on the surface of carbon in the form of fine powder.

It is known from literature about the planting of metal oxides on fillers: nitrocellulose, HMX article (Seekable "the Mechanism of action of catalysts on the combustion of gunpowder". Physics of combustion and explosion, 1991. v.27, No.1, pp.33-36).

It is known that the use of metal oxides such as copper oxide, can accelerate the decomposition of HMX, which increases the speed of combustion and reduce its dependence on pressure.

Known several articles on planting the metal oxides on the HMX crystals of salts of heavy metals and organic acids (Stepanov RSS employees, Physics of combustion and explosion, 1999. t.35, No.3, pp.52-56; 2000. T.36, No. 5, p.74-77; 2004. T, No. 5, pp.86-90).

All listed m the methods of obtaining of copper oxide on the surface Octo-gene associated with the use of an organic solvent, after deposition of sediment need to either drive off or evaporate with stirring with an open surface.

In the work of the Institute of chemistry and chemical technology SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk Properties of modified copper porous carbon materials obtained by the pyrolysis metallosalen pulp and aspen wood" ("Chemistry of plant raw materials", 2001, No. 4, p.59-64) investigated the properties of porous carbon materials obtained by the pyrolysis ions modified si samples sulfite pulp and aspen wood. In this work for the preparation of metal-containing porous carbon materials used method for the introduction of copper compounds in the pulp material, followed by carbonization at elevated temperatures. For example, aspen sawdust with a grain size of ≤2 mm were impregnated with aqueous solutions of Cu(NO3)2, Cu(CH3COO)2, Cu(NH3)n(OH)2different concentrations. The excess solution was removed by filtration, and dried to air-dry state. The pyrolysis of the samples was carried out in a quartz reactor at temperatures up to 600°C.

The disadvantage of this method is not sufficiently high contents of Cu+2in the carbon material.

The technical problem of the invention is to develop a method of surface modification of carbon in the form of a dispersion of oxide m the di in an aqueous solution of copper acetate with a maximum output in the presence of surfactants. The process water to preclude the fire.

The technical result of the invention is achieved by preparing a suspension of carbon in an aqueous solution of copper acetate in a mass ratio of C:H2O:Cu(CHCOO)2·H2O=1:10...15:0,25...0,3, heated to 90...100°C and dispense an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide in the suspension of carbon in a molar ratio of copper acetate to caustic nitro Cu(CH3COO)2·H2O:NaOH=1:1,05...1,2 within 20...30 minutes and add the aqueous solution of surfactant - octylphenols ether of polyethylene oxide (OPC) in the mass ratio RPP:C=0,005 0,02...:1 stand under stirring for 10...15 minutes, cooled to 25...30°C, filtered off, washed with water, dried at a temperature of 90...100°C to constant weight.

Copper salt at thermal decomposition to form fine particles of copper oxide, reducing the temperature of decomposition of the compounds, and have a positive effect on the combustion characteristics.

The selected carbon-coated copper oxide is a black powder, which is well scattered, not crumpled, non-caking.

The deposition of crystals of copper oxide is in the moment of their formation, which ensures their high dispersion.

Adhesion of crystals of copper oxide is achieved through the use of surfactant - active the silt ether of polyethylene oxide (OPC).

Planting of copper oxide proceeds in two stages according to the scheme:

Cu(CH3COO)2+NaOH↔Cu(OH)(CH3COO)+CH3COONa

The first stage is formed oxyacetic copper, which when heated becomes the oxide of copper.

Cu(OH)(CH3COO)↔CuO|+CH3COOH

The duration of the deposition process of copper oxide on carbon is ~ 20...30 minutes.

Temperature limits process of planting of copper oxide on carbon account for 90 to 100°C. the temperature drops below 90 C slows down the process of hydrolytic decomposition of oxoacetate copper. The upper limit is limited by the boiling point of water (table 1, experience 4-5).

The experimental results presented in the table that lists the parameters of the technological process, the deposition of a dispersion of copper oxide on carbon.

Table
p/pThe ratio of C:H2O:Cu(CHCOO)2H2O (by mass)Temperature, °CThe ratio of Cu(CH3COO)2H2O:NaOH (moles)The dosing time, (min)The concentration of the RPP, %The exposure time, minThe output of copper oxide, %
12345678
11:8:0,21801:0,9100,003796,8
21:10:0,25901:1,05150,0051099,6
31:12:0,27951:1,1200,011299,7
41:15:0,31001:1,2300,021599,9
51:20:0,31001:1,340 0,022098,1

The mass ratio oomega amount of water and carbon is 10...15:1, which is associated with good mixing. Increase the amount of water contributes to the poor performance of the device.

The mass ratio of the RPP to carbon is 0,005 0,02...it can almost be planted the copper oxide on carbon.

The dosing time of an aqueous solution of caustic soda is 20...30 minutes. The decrease in feeding time promotes the formation of agglomerates of crystals of copper oxide. The increase in time over 30 minutes helps to increase the production cycle.

The exemplary embodiment of the present invention.

In a heated reactor, equipped with a mechanical stirrer, thermocouple and a funnel for dispensing, was placed a solution consisting of 1500 parts by weight of water and 25...30 parts by weight of copper acetate, include mixing and download 100 parts by weight of carbon technical, heated to 90° and dispense an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide at a molar ratio of copper acetate and caustic soda - 1:1,05 1,2...for 20...30 minutes. After dosing poured an aqueous solution of a surfactant in the amount of 0.02 parts by weight of the carbon and incubated for 10...15 minutes. The composition is cooled to 25...30°C, filtered off, dried at 90-100°C to post the regular weight. The output of copper oxide on carbon is 99.6...99,9% (table 1, experience 2-4).

The positive effect of the invention is to obtain a dispersion of copper oxide and planting her on carbon. The resulting product is a component consisting of carbon precipitated dispersion of copper oxide using OPC, used for the manufacture of ballistic structure, and composite solid rocket fuel.

The preparation of the composition is carried out on the technology of ballistic fuel, namely, consists of the preparation of the fuel mass, spin, rolling, drying and molding the fuel elements.

Improving the combustion characteristics is achieved by uniform dispersion deposition of copper oxide on carbon at a molecular level and uniform distribution over the entire surface. The proposed method of surface modification of carbon Loubressac composition tested in industrial conditions OJSC "December".

Method of surface modification of carbon monoxide copper, including the preparation of a suspension of carbon in an aqueous solution of copper acetate in a mass ratio of C:H2O:Cu(CHCOO)2·H2O=1:10...15:0,25...0,30, heated to 90...100°C, dosing aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide in the suspension of carbon in a molar ratio of copper acetate to caustic nitro Cu(CH3COO)2·H2O:NaOH=1:1,05...1,2 within 20...30 min,the addition of an aqueous solution of surface-active substances, antiferromag ether of polyethylene oxide to carbon mass ratio RPP:C=0,005 0,02...:1, keeping under stirring for 10...15 min, cooled to 25...30°C, filtering off, washing with water and drying at a temperature of 90...100°C to constant weight.



 

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