Friction shoes from sintered material for railway car disc brakes

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises bearing plate, connector, some brake-shoe linings arranged above said support plate. Connector is furnished with shoe holder arranged above said plate. Every said lining incorporates an insert, said lining and said insert being made from different powder mixes. Insert features higher thermal expansion factor and compressibility than those of the lining. Insert area makes 19-26% of total area of one lining.

EFFECT: uniform pressure distribution over contact surface at every braking.

16 cl, 55 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a friction pads of the sintered material designed for disk brakes of railway wagons.

More specifically, the present invention relates to the aforementioned friction pads, providing uniform pressure distribution over the surface of the contact pads and the disc each time you brake.

There are many types of pads of the sintered material, on the base plate which has a separate lining; in addition, the pads contain elastic elements (springs Belleville or special plates), which provides more uniform contact of the pads with the brake disc, absorbing the deformation of the base plate due to the heat load generated by braking.

In the absence of the above-mentioned elements of the pads in contact with the disk, heat up and expand much more than the pads, not involved in the inhibition, which leads to the enhancement of these phenomena. Thus, some parts of the disk may be subject to local overheating, and thus be damaged.

The use of the friction pads of the present invention eliminates the above disadvantages, mainly due to the lack of metal elastic elements between the plates and the support plate.

Pads corresponding to astasia the invention, made of the first sintered material, in which is inserted prismatic elements, the data elements are made from a powder mixture that is different from the powder mixture, which is made lining; thus, the physical properties of prismatic elements differ from the physical properties of the other parts of the lining, in particular, the prismatic elements are characterized by a different coefficient of expansion and high compressibility.

The present invention is the creation of the friction pads of the sintered material used in disc brakes of railway cars, and the data pads contain a base plate, a connecting element provided with a holder block, which is located under the support plate, and a series of plates located above the support plate; this block is characterized by the fact that each plate is equipped with at least one insert, and the cover and insert are made from different powder mixtures, the coefficient of thermal expansion of the insert has a different coefficient of thermal expansion of the lining and the compressibility of the insert exceeds the compressibility of the pads.

The right and left pads corresponding to the present invention, equipped with a 4 or 5 plates of sintered material, while pads are mirror-symmetric.

In the presence of 4 pads square is the area of each of the pads is in the range from 30 to 38 cm 2.

If there are 5 overlays the area of each of the pads is in the range from 27 to 30 cm2.

The contact surface of each of the pads corresponding to the present invention, with the brake disc has the shape of a polygon, in particular a circular sector.

Preferably, the cover plate corresponding to the present invention, was connected with the support plate with nails/rivets.

In accordance with the preferred implementation of the pad corresponding to the present invention, pads set so that:

- median circumference of each of the pads touch the circle passing through the center of the pads, while the center of the circle coincides with the center of the disk;

the center of mass of the total area of friction was lying on the axis of the element made in the form of a swallow's tail, the position of which relative to the center of the disk is determined by the rules of the UIC (international Union of Railways);

- the pads were spaced out enough for even wear of the disk.

The height of each of the insert corresponding to the present invention, equal to the height of the overlay.

Each plate corresponding to the present invention may contain one or more inserts.

Each insert may be located in an overlay of "Islands", or the material of the inlay or onlay can be located forward in Emiko.

In accordance with the preferred implementation of the present invention, the percentage content of iron in the powder material of the insert may be substantially less than the percentage of iron in the powder material lining.

Preferably, the coefficient of thermal expansion of the lining was about 1.110-5C-1and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the insert is about l,5l0-5C-1.

The area of each of the insert corresponding to the present invention, ranges from 19% to 26% of the area of the overlay.

Cross-section of the insert may be limited polyline or circle.

The overlay can be installed on the stove with one, two or three nails or rivets.

Preferably, the element for connection with the holder block was performed in the form of a dovetail, which is connected to the support plate by means of nails or weld.

In accordance with the preferred implementation of the pad corresponding to the present invention, the contact surface of the base plate and holder pads are made by rolling/stamping data items at half the thickness.

Preferred embodiments of the present invention illustrated by the drawings, which represent the following:

figure 1 is a top view of the first left free the operating pads, relevant to the present invention;

figure 2 is a top view of a second left friction pads corresponding to the present invention;

figure 3 is a top view of a third left friction pads corresponding to the present invention;

figure 4 is a top view of the fourth left friction pads corresponding to the present invention;

figure 5 is a top view of the fifth left friction pads corresponding to the present invention;

figure 6 is a top view of the sixth left friction pads corresponding to the present invention;

figure 7 is a top view of the seventh left friction pads corresponding to the present invention;

figure 8 is a top view of the eighth left friction pads corresponding to the present invention;

figure 9 is a top view of the ninth left friction pads corresponding to the present invention;

figure 10 is a top view of a tenth left friction pads corresponding to the present invention;

figure 11 is a front view of the left friction pads with four pads;

figure 12 is a rear view of the left friction pads on the figure 11;

figure 13 is a left side view of the friction pads on the figure 11;

figure 14 is a front view of the left friction pads with five pads;

figure 15 is a rear view of the left friction pads on the figure 14;

figure 16 - view from the CMOS left friction pads on the figure 15;

figures 17A and 17b respectively a top view and cross section of the pads of the first type that contains the insert and the locking nail;

figures 18a and 18b respectively a top view and cut pads of the second type containing the insert and the locking nail;

figures 19a and 19b respectively a top view and cross section of the lining of the third type, containing the insert and the locking nail;

figures 20A and 20b respectively a top view and cross section of the lining of the fourth type, containing the insert and the locking nail;

figures 21A and 21b respectively a top view and cross section of the lining of the fifth type, containing the insert and the locking nail;

figures 22A and 22b respectively a top view and cross section of the lining of the sixth type, containing the insert and the locking nail;

figures 23 a and 23b respectively a top view and cross section of the lining of the seventh type containing the insert and the locking nail;

figures 24A and 24b respectively a top view and cross section of the lining of the eighth type, containing the insert and the locking nail;

figures 25A and 25b respectively a top view and cross section of the lining of the ninth type containing the insert and the locking nail;

figures 26a and 26b respectively a top view and cross section of the lining of the tenth type containing the insert and the locking nail;

figures 27A and 27b respectively a top view and cross section of the lining of the eleventh type containing box and fixed the existing nail;

figures 28a and 28b respectively a top view and cross section of the lining of the twelfth type containing the insert and the locking nail;

figures 29A and 29b respectively a top view and cross section of the lining of the thirteenth type containing the insert and the locking nail;

figures 30A and 30b respectively a top view and cross section of the lining of the fourteenth type containing the insert and the locking nail;

figures 31A and 31b respectively a top view and cross section of the lining of the fifteenth type containing the insert and the locking nail;

figures 32A, 32b and 32C respectively a top view and cross section of a metal support pads without friction element and a partial section of the base plate of the friction pads with one locking nail;

figures 33a, 33b and 33c respectively a top view and cross section of a metal support pads without friction element and a partial section of the base plate of the friction pads with three fixing nails;

figures 34a, 34b and 34C, respectively a top view and cross section of a metal support pads without friction element and a partial section of the base plate of the friction pad with two fixing nails.

As can be seen from the figures, the friction pad disc brake corresponding to the present invention, includes a base plate 1, on one side of the fixed element made in the form of a dovetail is 2, mounted on the holder (not shown) of the pad in accordance with European standards (rules UIC), and on the other side with nails/rivets fixed several plates 3 of the sintered material, is welded or soldered to the metal supports 4 (figures 1-10).

Depending on the scope of pads number of pads 3 on the right or the left block can be equal to four or five.

If there are four pads 3 area of each friction lining 3 is equal to from 30 to 38 cm2and with five plates from 27 to 30 cm2.

In particular, four pads 3 to be installed in the brakes of trains moving at speeds up to 200 km/h, while the outer diameter of the brake disc is equal to 640 mm (size of the pads 38 cm2or up to 610 mm (size of the pads 30 cm2) (figures 1-5).

Five plates 3 to be installed in the brakes of trains moving at speeds over 200 km/h (square pads 30 cm2) (figures 6-10).

The contact surface of each of the pads 3 with the broken disk is limited; in particular, the shapes of the plates have the shape of circular sectors.

Each plate 3 is connected with the metal support 4 by welding/brazing (figure 17-31).

Plates 3 are fixed to the plate 1 by means of nails/rivets and spaced to match the following conditions:

- the median is cragnotti each of the pads 3 circle touches the circle passing through the center of the pads 3, and the center of the circle coincides with the center of the disk;

the center of mass of the total friction surface lies on the axis of the element made in the form of a swallow's tail, the position of which relative to the center of the disk is determined by the rules of the UIC (international Union of Railways);

- lining 3 spaced out enough for even wear of the disk.

In the present invention between the pads 3 and the support plate 1 (which is always extremely necessary) no elastic metal elements; instead, the cover plate 3 made of a powder mixture X, inserted one or two prismatic element 5 made of a powder mixture of Y that is different from the mixture X;

thus, the physical properties of prismatic elements 5 are different from the physical properties of the rest of the lining, in particular, the elements 5 are characterized by a different coefficient of thermal expansion and greater compressibility.

Usually the friction pads of disc brakes perform by sintering mixtures containing copper powder (70%), iron powder (35 %) and other powders, for example, graphite, chromium and molybdenum powders, which are present in small quantities.

The coefficient of thermal expansion of copper is significantly higher than the coefficient of thermal expansion of iron, so prismatic what ways contain less iron, than the rest of the pads. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the powder mixture X is generally equal to about 1.110-5C-1and powder mixture Y is 1.510-5C-1above.

As is known, the percentage of iron powder in a mixture also affects the compressibility after sintering.

In accordance with the present invention a mixture of Y contains less iron powder than a mixture of X, which consists of the plate 3, so the compressibility of the mixture Y is approximately 25 % greater than the compressibility of the mixture X.

Due to the greater thermal expansion and greater compressibility of prismatic elements 5 all pads 3 are in contact when braking with disc, Pets thermal deformation of the base plate 1.

Depending on the application pads the sum of the friction surfaces of the prismatic elements 5 ranges from 19% to 26% of the total surface of the friction lining 3. In particular, the brakes of trains moving at speeds up to 200 km/h should be used for the friction surface with the following relationship:

- intercity train : 19%,

- TSR : 20%,

- AGC : 25%.

In brakes of trains moving at speeds over 200 km/h should be used for the friction surface with the following relationship:

- ETR 460-500 : 20%,

- TGV AND AGV : 26%.

Cross-section (parallel to the surface friction) prismatic element 5, insert the built in pad 3, may be limited broken (for example, a rectangle, a trapezoid, a Pentagon, a hexagon, and so on) or circle.

The height of the prismatic element 5 is equal to the height of the pads 3, and items inserted in the plate and oriented so that their axis is perpendicular to the middle of the circle passing through the center of the plates; in addition, the elements must be sufficiently spaced and symmetrical relative to the center of the overlay.

Alternatively can be provided by the cover plate 3 is made of two materials X and Y with the above properties, these materials are mixed with the formation of three or five sections made of different materials and alternating along the circumference (figure 17-31).

The surface of the friction material Y ranges from 18% to 26% of the total surface of the pads depending on the design of solutions and applications overlays.

In this case its own axis sectors of material Y 6 perpendicular to the middle of the circle that passes through the center of the pads 3. All sectors of material X have the same area. Of the five sectors of the two is made from a material Y6.

When there are three sectors in the sector of material Y is located in the middle of the pads symmetrically her.

If the pads corresponding to the present invention, rayed the tsya strong vibrations, the cover plate 3 made of material X is inserted prismatic elements 5 of a material Y:

- one or two prismatic element is inserted in the pad brakes AGC and TSR (figures 1-3);

- one or two prismatic element is inserted in the pad brakes TGV and AGV (figures 6-8).

The sectors of material Y have between the pads 3 made of material X in the following cases:

- one or two prismatic element inserted in the brake pads intercity trains (figures 4-5);

- one or two prismatic element inserted into the linings of the brakes of trains

ETR 460-500 (figures 9-10).

Four/five plates 3 brake pads rigidly fixed on the base plate 1 by rivets or nails.

The base plate 1 and the metal supports are welded or soldered to the sintered linings, roll out/are stamped on half of thickness to obtain flat surfaces that limit the contact area of the base plate 1 and the metal support 4 of the plates 3, which improves the dissipation of thermal energy generated by braking, the air circulation.

Depending on the application pads there are three possible ways of fixing sintered pads 3 on the base plate 1.

In accordance with the first variant (figures 1-5) each plate is equipped with a rivet/nail located with regard to the center of the lining (Fig. 17-21). On the contact surfaces of the base plate 1 and cover 3 is provided with four protrusions 7 and the four holes 8 (rolling/stamping on half the thickness of the base plate 1 metal support pads that prevent rotation of the plates 3, due to the different peripheral speeds of its slip and reduce the pulse applied to the rivets/nails (figures 32A and 32b).

In accordance with a second embodiment (figures 6-10) there are two nail/rivet located on the median circumference surface of the circular sector (overlay 3), and the circle passes through the center of the pads and nails/rivets are at equal distance from the center (figures 22-26).

In accordance with a third variant of each plate 3 is equipped with three nails/rivets, one of which is located in the center of the pads 3 and the other two are in the middle of the circle passing through the center, with two nails/rivets are equidistant from the centre (figures 27-31).

The choice between one, two or three nails/rivets depends on the intensity of working vibrations and train type:

- AGC, TSR: 3 nails/rivets for each of the pads;

long distance, TGV and AGV: 2 nail/rivet for each of the pads;

- ETR460 - 500: one nail/rivet for each overlay.

The present invention is described in relation to certain preferred variantov run; it is obvious that the invention may be modified without departure from the scope defined by the attached claims.

1. Friction pad of the sintered material, designed for disk brakes of railway carriages, containing the support plate, the connecting member, provided with a holder block, which is located under the support plate, and the number of pads of friction material located above the support plate, and each plate contains at least one insert, and the cover and insert are made from different powder mixtures, characterized in that the at least one insert has a higher coefficient of thermal expansion and a higher compressibility compared with the specified overlay, the surface occupied by at least one insert is from 19% to 26% of the total area of one finger.

2. Pad according to claim 1, characterized in that each left or right block contains 4 or 5 plates of sintered material, while pads are mirror-symmetric.

3. Pad according to claim 1, characterized in that in the presence of 4 pads each pad covers an area from 30 to 38 cm2.

4. Pad according to claim 1, characterized in that in the presence of 5 pads each pad covers the area from 27 to 30 cm2.

5. Pad according to claim 1, characterized in, mo the contact surface of each of the pads from the brake disc limited broken, in particular, a circular sector.

6. Pad according to claim 1, characterized in that the pads are connected to the support plate with nails/rivets.

7. Pad according to claim 1, characterized in that the plates are located so that:
- median circumference of each of the pads concerns of a circle whose center coincides with the center of the disk, while the circle passes through the center of the specified lining;
the center of mass of the total friction surface lies on the axis of the element made in the form of a swallow's tail, the position of which relative to the center of the disk is determined by the rules of the international Union of Railways;
- posted pads for even wear of the disk.

8. Pad according to claim 1, characterized in that the at least one insert has a height equal to the height of the overlay.

9. Pad according to claim 1, characterized in that each plate contains at least one insert.

10. Pad according to claim 1, characterized in that each insert is completely surrounded by the material of the lining or material inserts and pads are interspersed.

11. Pad according to claim 1, characterized in that the percentage of iron in the powder mixture comprising the at least one insert, less the percentage of iron in a powder mixture, which consists of the overlay.

12. Pad according to claim 1, characterized in that the coefficient of thermal expanded what I sintered material layer is, basically, 1,110-5C-1and thermal expansion coefficient of the sintered material paste mainly of 1.510-5C-1.

13. Pad according to claim 1, characterized in that the cross section of the lining limited polyline or circle.

14. Pad according to claim 1, characterized in that the lining is fixed on a plate with one, two or three nails/rivets.

15. Pad according to claim 1, characterized in that the element for connection with the holder pads made in the form of a dovetail, which is connected to the support plate by means of nails or weld.

16. Pad according to any one of claims 1 to 15, characterized in that the contact surface of the base plate and support plates are made by rolling/stamping half the thickness.



 

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