Method of fuel enrichment and fuel improving agent

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: average size of particles of fuel improving agent is within range of 1-100 mcm. Invention is related to method of pozzolana production by heating of the target fossil fuels in furnace of fuel improving agent.

EFFECT: increasing combustion efficiency and decreasing carbon content in ash and in consequence in result of combustion useful material is obtained instead of waste.

16 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl

 

The technical field to which the present invention

The present invention relates to a method of improving the combustion of fossil fuels, in particular, to an improved method of burning coal, resulting in the formation of the ash by-product with low carbon content, as well as to the composition to improve fuel intended for use in the process.

The background to the present invention

During the combustion of coal as a by-product is formed ash. Fly ash usually catch in the pipes of thermal power plants, and non-volatile ash removed from the bottom of the furnace. In the United Kingdom in the year produced more than 1,000,000 tonnes of fly ash.

Worldwide, a large part of the ash produced by power plants running on coal, transported to landfills or stored in the slag dumps. In some countries introduced tax on the export of such wastes to landfills for disposal. In recent years, due to increased costs for the storage of waste in landfills, as well as costs associated with environmental protection, more and more interest attracts the problem beneficial use of ash.

A significant proportion of coal ash falls on the pozzolanic Povoa the nature of the component, this means that adding this component to the calcium hydroxide he exhibits cementitious properties. In principle, the fly ash can be used as a partial substitute for Portland cement in concrete mixtures. The production of Portland cement by itself is an energy-intensive process, which produces high levels of carbon dioxide, namely, approximately one ton of carbon dioxide per tonne of Portland cement. Thus, replacement of some part of Portland cement by-product, not finding any application could significantly reduce carbon emissions.

However, the ash containing a high percentage of unburned carbon, cannot be used as a substitute for Portland cement, as this ash in the concrete mix tends to absorb important cementing chemical additives. In this case, these supplements do not accomplish their purpose. As a pozzolan is desirable to use the ash with a carbon content of 7% or below.

For lowering the carbon content to ensure the possibility of using fly ash pozzolan, it is subjected to processing. As examples of such processing can be called post-combustion fly ash with the purpose of burning carbon to reduce its content, electrostatic separation of fly zo is s with the separation fraction with a low carbon content and chemical processing fly ash to minimize the harmful effects of carbon component by weakening its absorbent properties. All of these treatments require at least one additional stage of processing, which increases the overall cost of production of useful by-product and not a waste.

In Europe, the law requires that the plant has reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur (denoted as NOx and SOx, respectively). This led to the fact that power plants running on coal, equipped with burners with low NOx emissions. However, ensuring the reduction of NOx and SOx, these burners have a slightly lower efficiency of fuel combustion, which, in turn, can lead to high levels of carbon in the ash, usually around 20%, which makes the ash unwanted waste.

Patent PRC No. CN 1077482, CN 1396239 and CN 1396239 describes additives used fuel combustion. Such fuel additives include a number of metals and metal oxides, in specific proportions. All these additives are introduced into the fuel in excess of the standard quantities last, so the amount of fuel used is not reduced.

In addition, after the extraction of metals from ores formed millions of tons of slag.

It seems desirable that the creation of such improved method of burning coal, which provided a low carbon content in the resulting ash, which would make this ash is desirable and meets the requirements is to be the market a by-product, and not waste that must be eliminated with standards of environmental protection. In addition, it seems desirable that the creation of such improved method in which, without reducing, and preferably with the increase of the amount of generated energy and reducing carbon emissions would provide a decrease in the number of burned coal. In addition, it is desirable to find a use for slag by-products.

A brief description of the invention

One aspect of the invention provides a method of lowering the carbon content in the ash from the combustion of fuel, including the operation of the heating in the furnace carbon fuel in the presence of additive - improver fuel, these additive - improver fuel contains at least one metal oxide selected from the following group: iron oxide, calcium oxide, silicon dioxide, magnesium oxide and aluminum oxide, the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel is in the range of 1-100 microns.

Another aspect of the invention provides for the creation of additives - improver fuel containing at least one metal oxide selected from the following group: iron oxide, calcium oxide, silicon dioxide, magnesium oxide and aluminum oxide, while the CPE is the average particle size of the additive is improver fuel is in the range of 1-100 microns.

Another aspect of the invention provides a method of obtaining pozzolan, including operation of the heating in the furnace carbon fuel in the presence of additive - improver fuel, these additive - improver fuel contains at least one metal oxide selected from the following group: iron oxide, calcium oxide, silicon dioxide, magnesium oxide and aluminum oxide, the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel is in the range 1-100 μm, and the operation of extraction of ash from the furnace.

Another aspect of the invention provides a method of obtaining a binding composition, including the operation of the heating in the furnace carbon fuel in the presence of additive - improver fuel, these additive - improver fuel contains at least one metal oxide selected from the following group: iron oxide, calcium oxide, silicon dioxide, magnesium oxide and aluminum oxide, the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel is in the range 1-100 μm, the operation of extraction of ash from the furnace and mixing the ash with calcium hydroxide.

It seems preferable that the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel nah who was born within 1-80 μm. Is more preferable that the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel did not exceed 33 μm. Is even more preferable that the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel was in the range of 5-25 μm. Is even more preferable that the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel was in the range of 8-20 μm.

Usually for the introduction of a medium particle size in the above range additive - improver fuel is crushed.

Seems to be the preferred grinding additives - improver fuel by means of a fine grinding.

It seems preferable that the additive - improver fuel was replaced by the carbon fuel in an amount of from 2.5% to 33% by weight. Is more preferable that the additive - improver fuel was replaced by the carbon fuel in an amount of from 5% to 33% by weight. Is even more preferable that the additive - improver fuel was replaced by the carbon fuel in an amount of from 5% to 15% by mass.

Mentioned carbon fuel can be fossil fuels. It seems preferable to use as mentioned fossil fuels coal. It seems preferable to grind coal prior to introduction into the furnace.

One more and the aspect of the invention provides a method of increasing fuel efficiency in the process of combustion, including the operation of substitution of some part of the carbon of the fuel to be burned additive - improver fuel, these additive - improver fuel contains at least one metal oxide selected from the following group: iron oxide, calcium oxide, silicon dioxide, magnesium oxide and aluminum oxide.

It seems preferable that the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel was within 1-1-0 μm. Is more preferable that the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel was in the range of 1-80 μm. Is even more preferable that the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel was within 3-33 μm. Is even more preferable that the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel was in the range of 5-25 μm. Is even more preferable that the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel was in the range of 8-20 μm.

The method can include the operation of reducing the particle size of the additive - improver fuel to the introduction of particle size in the above range.

Preferable, the reduction in the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel with a thin grinding.

Ensuring the benefits of additive - improver top of the willow contains chemical elements, belonging to periods 3 and 4 (groups II-V) of the periodic system of elements Mendeleev.

Ensuring the benefits of additive - improver fuel contains oxides or other compounds of chemical elements belonging to periods 3 and 4 (groups II-V) of the periodic system of elements Mendeleev.

The invention provides additive - improver fuel, which is either mixed with the carbon fuel before it enters the combustion chamber, or injected into the combustion chamber together with the fuel. When heated, the additive - improver fuel releases free oxygen radicals. The presence of this additive - improver fuel improves the oxidation of the carbon fractions of coal, resulting in higher combustion efficiency and, thereby, lowering the carbon content in the ash, resulting in combustion instead of the waste of useful material. The use of this fuel additive also leads to a decrease emissions of NOx and SOx, and for the same carbon gains furnace requires less air, as added oxygen to improve combustion efficiency comes from additives - improver fuel, not from the additional air supply. Because the oxidation of the carbon fraction of the fuel increases, it also leads to reducing the need for solid top is willow to achieve the same energy output.

A brief description of the accompanying drawings

On the accompanying drawings illustrate preferred embodiments of the present invention.

Figure 1 shows a graph of the distribution of particle sizes of the additive - improver fuel after fine grinding using a roller mill.

Figure 2 presents a photograph of the additive - improver fuel after grinding and shows the particle size.

Figure 3 shows a graph illustrating the release of carbon monoxide (CO) incineration of various blends of bituminous coal with an additive - improver fuel.

Figure 4 shows a graph illustrating the release of carbon monoxide (CO) combustion mixture containing additive is an improver fuel in an amount of 5%, and coal in the amount of 95%.

Figure 5 shows a graph illustrating the release of carbon monoxide (CO) incineration of various blends of bituminous coal with an additive - improver fuel.

Figure 6 shows a graph illustrating the release of carbon monoxide (CO) combustion performance improvers fuel in its pure form compared to the release of carbon monoxide (CO) combustion of coal in a pure form.

Detailed description of preferred embodiments of the present invention

An improved method of combustion according th the alleged invention is associated with the introduction of additives - improver fuel to the main burner of the furnace for burning coal, for example, in a power plant running on coal. Additive - improver fuel get in the form of a mixture of metal oxides that are usually ash substance, which is a by-product in the smelting of metals, typically copper and Nickel. Ash substances contain excess oxygen in the form of metal oxides, and the authors of the present invention have found that the oxygen can be released into the burner when heated to a sufficient temperature. Additive - improver fuel may include oxides such as iron oxide, calcium oxide, silicon dioxide, magnesium oxide and aluminium oxide, which are listed in the following Table 1 along with other oxides. In the above-mentioned Table 1 presents the results of x-ray fluorescence analysis of two samples of the additive - improver fuel. Of those or other sources in certain quantities can be obtained at certain oxides. The composition of the ash may be different depending on the type of ore, from which the smelted metal, and from the origin of the ore. As can be seen in Table 1, in the composition of additives - improvers fuel dominated by oxides of iron and silicon.

the table 1.
X-ray fluorescence analysis of the composition of two additives - improvers fuel
ComponentContent in Sample 1 (%)Content in Sample 2 (%)
Fe (total content)50,250,1
CaO3,183,19
Si2O37,5938,98
MgO3,203,22
Al2O3to 5.575,72
P0,035being 0.036
Mn0,0540,053
S1,6101,400
K2O0,6800,690
V2O50,0180,018
0,3200,320
ZnO0.0800,080
PbO0,0010,001
Na2O0,6000,600
Note: Iron (Fe) contained mainly in the form of Fe2O3.

Additive - improver fuel usually contains chemical elements belonging to periods 3 and 4 (groups II-V) of the periodic system of elements Mendeleev, and their oxides. It seems preferable that the particles of the additive - improver fuel according to the present invention was subjected to grinding. This may destroy or deform the crystal lattice of chemical compounds present in the insertion tool, or create in these lattices voltage that can do part of these chemical compounds, the more oxygen is available for reaction with the carbon of coal. In addition, the grinding particles of the additive increases the total surface area of the additive, thereby increasing the reaction rate. Preferable, this method of reduction R is smera particles of the additive, as fine a grind. It seems preferable to fine grinding particles of the additive - improver fuel was produced using mills that provide fine powder of solid materials, for example, using a ball mill or roller mill described in the patent application in the UK GB0719426.9. Figure 1 graphically illustrates the distribution of particle sizes of the additive - improver fuel after passing through the mill. In this example, the average particle size is 18,74 microns.

To study the release of oxygen from the additive - improver fuel experiments were carried out. In different proportions combined with coal four composition additives - improver fuel (a, b, C and D). Compositions a and b were obtained from the ashes of air damping. The composition was derived from ash water quenching. The combustion of each mixture was analyzed and compared with the combustion of coal in a pure form. The composition And corresponds to the Sample 1 from Table 1, the composition corresponds to Sample 2 of Table 1, and the composition in the analysis corresponds to Sample 1, but since this sample was quenched with water, its structure differs from the structure of the hydrated air Composition A. the results of the analysis of the Composition D (American ore) presents in place following Table 2.

Table 2
Component (x-ray fluorescence analysis)The results (content in %)
Fe (total content)63,84
Fe2O3-
CaO1,11
Si2O4,53
MgO0,59
Al2O30,68
P0,012
P2O5-
Mn0,039
MnO-
S (combustion LECO)0,540
K2O0,540
V2O50,002
TiO20,047
BaO-
ZnO0,230
PbO0,020
Na2O0,090
Cr2O3-

For each mixture using transform infrared-spectroscopy Fourier recorded a release of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The results are presented in figure 3, figure 4 and figure 5. These results demonstrate that in the presence of additive - improver fuel, an increase in the formation of carbon monoxide (CO), which indicates that additives, oxygen is released.

At follow-burning additives education carbon monoxide (CO) was not observed (see Fig.6).

Power plants burning powdered coal, milled additive - improver fuel can podmahivat to the crushed coal before it enters the furnace. Alternatively, grind additive - improver fuel can be fed into the furnace separately from the coal.

In one of specific embodiments of the present invention prepared additive - improver fuel, which contained chemical elements belonging to periods 3 and 4 (groups II-V) of the periodic system of elements Mendeleev, together with their oxides and other compounds. These were, in particular, Takahisa elements, as silicon, iron and magnesium in the form of compounds such as Mg6(Si4O10)(HE), and Fe2O3. Composition comprising an additive - improver fuel, subjected to fine grinding to obtain particles, of which 85-90% had a size in the range of 10-40 μm, and 10-15% have a size in the range of 70-80 microns. These particles were introduced by adding to the air supplied under the layer of fuel (primary air)heated to a temperature of from 200°to 250°C. Subsequently, finely chopped additive - improver fuel injected jet in the powdered coal and mixed with the latter to obtain a homogeneous mixture, with additive - improver fuel was replaced coal by 6%. Then the mixture of coal and additives - improver fuel filed for flare combustion in the boiler furnace. Additive - improver fuel was applied to the base of the torch together with coal through the burner operating on pulverized coal, when it was her uniform distribution on the space of the zone of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel. When the additive is an improver fuel reached the base of the flame with a temperature from 300°C to 600°C, was observed a bright flash. As a result of introduction of the additive - improver fuel consumption ambient air decreased by 14%. The consumption of hydrocarbons is th fuel consumption decreased by 6%. Analysis of the gaseous combustion products showed a 14%decrease in the number of O2(atomic oxygen), a 5%decrease in the number of CO2(carbon dioxide), 20%reduction of CO (carbon monoxide), 20%reduction of NOx (nitrogen oxides) and 3%decrease in the number of SO2(sulphur dioxide). In the gaseous combustion products no methane. The temperature of the gaseous combustion products was below 15%.

In another specific embodiment of the present invention, coal is burned together with the additive - improver fuel boiler plant with grate furnace. Additive - improver fuel was a mixture of chemical elements belonging to periods 3 and 4 (groups II-V) of the periodic system of elements Mendeleev, and their compounds, in particular, iron oxides (FeO and/or Fe2O3), silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), calcium oxide (Cao), magnesium oxide (MgO) and manganese oxide (MnO). Additive - improver fuel was subjected to fine grinding to obtain particles with sizes in the range of 70-100 μm. Finely milled additive - improver fuel fed into the furnace separately from the fuel with its uniform distribution over a layer of coal, with volumetric substitution of fuel consumed in the boiler was 95%. From below through the grate was served hot (60°C) the air that has risen up through the layers of coal and additives - improver fuel. Analysis of the gaseous products of combustion carried out using a gas analyzer, showed a 20%decrease in the number 02(atomic oxygen), a 7%decrease in the number of CO2(carbon dioxide), 22%reduction of CO (carbon monoxide), 20%reduction of NOx (nitrogen oxides) and 4%decrease in the number of SO2(sulphur dioxide). In the gaseous combustion products no methane. The temperature of the gaseous combustion products was below 20%.

Additive - improver fuel in the furnace replaces a fraction of carbon-based fuels. For example, additive - improver fuel could replace 5% of the mass of fuel, giving a mixture containing 95% coal and 5% additive - improver fuel. Thereby reducing the amount of fuel used in the combustion, however, this process gives more energy. Due to the fact that use less carbon-based fuels, the carbon content in the ash is reduced, and decrease the carbon-containing emissions. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (SOx) also decreases as additional oxygen for complete combustion is supplied from the additive - improver fuel, and not by supplying additional the additional air.

1. A method of reducing the carbon content in the ash furnace, comprising a heating operation of fossil fuel in a furnace in the presence of additive - improver fuel, which is dominated by iron oxide and silica, the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel is in the range of 1-100 microns.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel is in the range 1-80 microns.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, in which the particle size of the additive - improver fuel is reduced by fine grinding.

4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, in which the share of replacement fuel additive - improver fuel is 2.5-33 wt.%.

5. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, in which the additive is an improver fuel additionally contains at least one oxide of metals selected from the following group: calcium oxide, dioxide, magnesium aluminum oxide.

6. The method according to claim 5, in which the fossil fuel is coal.

7. The method according to claim 6, in which prior to introduction into the furnace of the coal is subjected to grinding.

8. The composition of the additive - improver fuel, which is dominated by iron oxide and silica, the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel is in the range of 1-100 microns.

9. The composition of the additive - improver fuel of claim 8, in which the average particle size of the additive is in the of uchitelya fuel is in the range 1-80 microns.

10. The composition of the additive - improver fuel of claim 8 or 9, in which the particle size is reduced by fine grinding.

11. The method of producing pozzolan, including operation of the heating fossil fuel present in the furnace additives - improver fuel, which is dominated by iron oxide and silica, the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel is in the range 1-100 μm, and the operation of extraction of ash from the furnace.

12. A method of obtaining a binding composition, including the operation of the heating in the furnace of a fossil fuel in the presence of additive - improver fuel, which is dominated by iron oxide and silica, the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel is in the range 1-100 μm, and the operation of extraction of ash from the furnace and the operation of mixing the ash with calcium hydroxide.

13. The method of increasing fuel efficiency in the process of combustion, including the operation of substitution of some part of fossil fuel to be burned additive - improver fuel, which is dominated by iron oxide and silicon dioxide.

14. The method according to any of § § 11 to 13, in which the average particle size of the additive - improver fuel is in the range 1-80 microns.

15. The method according to any of § § 11-14, in which the particle size of the additive - improver that is Liwa is reduced by fine grinding.

16. The method according to any of § § 11 and 15, in which the share of replacement fuel additive - improver fuel is 2.5-33 wt.%.



 

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FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to plasma synthesis of nanomaterials. Fullerene mix is produced in carbon-helium plasma formed by arc discharge at barometric pressure in plasma chemical reactor chamber using one vertical and even number of identical horizontal electrodes. Note here that low-frequency modulation of arc discharge power is created by reducing voltage at low-frequency arc discharge to comply with acoustic resonance in plasma chemical reactor chamber.

EFFECT: content of fullerenes in carbon condensate increased by 3,4-4,4%.

2 dwg

FIELD: nanotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology and specifically to production of carbon nanotubes which are widely used in various scientific and engineering fields. Method of producing carbon nanotubes is realised via a chemical deposition technique by passing inert gas-diluted carbon-containing material in form of vapour over a heated catalyst in a reactor while continuously feeding the catalyst, continuously discharging the product and a looped back gas flow scheme, wherein the composition of the gas coming out of the rector is adjusted and then redirected into the reactor, using nitrogen or argon as the diluent gas. The method is realised by partially collecting the spent mixture or selective removal of hydrogen using membrane filters based on ultra-thin palladium layers. The apparatus for realising said method is in form of a tubular reactor, a quartz tube which revolves around a longitudinal axis, a feeder, a heating unit with a control system for controlling temperature in the active zone of the reactor, components of the mechanism for revolving the quartz tube, a unit for controlling speed thereof and rate of feeding the gas mixture, a mechanism for adjusting the inclination angle of the reactor in order to control the rate of passage of the catalyst, which is adapted to continuously feed the catalyst and output the obtained product and spent gases.

EFFECT: realisation of the invention provides high efficiency and low cost, enables to obtain an end product with more uniform properties and maximum characteristics.

11 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of obtaining catalysts for growing carbon nanotubes from gaseous phase. Described is method of obtaining metal oxide catalysts for growing carbon nanotubes from gaseous phase, which includes mixing crystalline hydrates of transition and non-transition metal nitrates, as well as, optionally, molybdenum compounds, citric acid, substituted alcohol, and thermal processing of obtained mixture, as substituted alcohol applied is monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, or their mixture, with molar ratio of aminogroups to nitrate groups being from 0.2 to 2.5.

EFFECT: increased output of carbon nanotubes.

1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of carbon nanofiller without disrupting structure thereof, and obtaining therefrom nanocomposites with uniform distribution of carbon nanofiller. The carbon nanofiller is treated in diluted sulphuric acid with concentration of 20-60% at temperature of 70-100°C for 0.5-2 hours.

EFFECT: invention enables to reduce hydrophobicity of carbon nanofiller and increase wettability thereof with aqueous-organic solvents.

1 dwg, 2 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: novel aminofullerenes, which are biocompatible with and enhance mechanical properties of plastic, have general formula , where X is a negative change (-), (-Cl), (-NO2), (-ONO2), (-H), a linear or branched alkyl (CmH2m+1; m=1-20), alkenyl (CmH2m-1 m=2-20) or alkynyl radical (CmH2m-3; m=2-20), O-R, S-R, where R is a hydrogen atom, or a linear or branched said alkyl, alkenyl or alkynyl radical, or -S(CH2)nCOOH, -S(CH2)nCOOR*, -S(CH2)nCONR1R2, where n=1-20. NR1R2 is selected from a group comprising residues: amine, aliphatic alcohols, ethers, thiols, acids and esters thereof or amides, wherein R*, R1, R2, R1 and R2 are the same as R.

EFFECT: aminofullerenes of said general formula are obtained by reacting chlorofullerene and an amine in the presence of a base.

2 cl, 11 dwg, 11 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of carbon-containing rock, i.e. schungite. Proposed method comprises crushing and sizing schungite to 0.1-10 mcm-particles and dispersing in water using 1-3 mm-grinding bodies with the ratio of grinding body weight, schungite weight and water weight making 3.0-7.0:0.5-1.5:5.0-8.0 for 1-2 hours. Then, obtained mass is filtered and dried in natural conditions.

EFFECT: multifunctional product consisting of filler and pigment with particle size of 0,01-1 mcm, specific surface of 100-130 m2/g and catalytic activity in ozone decomposition reactions of 2*1018-5*1018 molecule/g*s.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical engineering and specifically to synthesis of novel compounds through self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. The method for intercalation of fullerene C60 crystals with caesium is realised at temperature 650°C and pressure 10-5 Pa for 2 s while heating to reaction temperature at a rate of 350°C/s, and then cooling the reaction product to room temperature at a rate of 500°C/s.

EFFECT: intercalation of fullerene C60 crystals with caesium at a high heating rate without decomposition of fullerene.

1 dwg, 1 ex

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