Automotive brake system and method of braking

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry. Vehicle comprises set of wheels mounted at the frame. Every wheel is engaged with engine to drive the vehicle. Self-locking differential gear is supported by the frame. First and second half-axles are engaged with said self-locking differential gear. First half-axle supports first wheel of aforesaid set. Second half-axle supports second wheel of aforesaid set. Brake is engaged with self-locking differential gear. Said brake selectively applies braking force to said first and second wheels via one part of self-locking differential gear to reduce vehicle speed. When said brake is engaged, control unit selectively increases engagement of self-locking differential gear in response to difference in rpm of said first and second wheels exceeding the first preset rpm. Invention covers also the method of vehicle control.

EFFECT: better braking, minimised and well-centered vehicle weight.

15 cl, 18 dwg

 

The technical field

The present invention relates to a brake system and method of braking a vehicle.

The level of technology

Wheeled vehicles, such as cars, vehicles, three-wheeled vehicles and motorcycles, usually equipped with one or more brakes to slow or stop the vehicle. The driver of a vehicle may include brakes, powering the pedal, lever or other actuator, which is located on the vehicle within his reach. In the brake of one common type disc brake is used, the friction between the brake caliper and the brake disc to slow or stop the rotation of the vehicle wheels relative to the vehicle body. The resulting friction between the tyre and the ground creates a braking force acting on the vehicle to slow the vehicle.

It is often desirable to be able to minimize the distance traveled by a moving vehicle until it stops. To this end it is desirable to maximize the friction between each wheel and the ground during braking. It is known that the maximum available friction that can be generated by the tire to slip relative to the ground (kinetic friction), Myung is more than the maximum available friction that can be generated by the tire rolling without slipping relative to the ground (static friction). Thus, the braking characteristic is improved on most types of soil due to the increase of the braking torque on the wheels to the point where the braking force between the tire and the ground just a little not enough to cause slipping. One application of this principle is threshold braking, when the driver adjusts the braking to ensure the greatest possible braking torque before the tires start to slip. However, the effective threshold braking depends on the skills and experience of the driver and may be difficult for some types of soil. In addition, threshold braking is not possible to independently control the braking force on each wheel that may be needed when not all wheels are on the ground of the same type (for example, when some of the wheels are on dry pavement, and other wheels on ice), and some wheels may begin to slip before others reach their maximum braking effort.

One attempt to improve the braking characteristic is the use of anti-lock braking system. The control unit detects differences in speed between the wheels transport the funds to CSOs to determine slips if one or more of the tire relative to the ground. If a particular tire slips, the control unit decreases the braking torque to the appropriate wheel in an attempt to restore the static friction and maximize the braking force generated by the wheels. Anti-lock brake system essentially performs a threshold braking individually for each wheel. As a result, each wheel independently rotates at a speed that provides maximum braking force on its specific substrate, and, thus, contributes to the extent possible, the braking of the vehicle. An additional advantage of the abs brake system is that the vehicle can be controlled during braking, because the wheels are not locked and maintain some traction.

Although the anti-lock brake system (ABS) is now widely used in cars, its cost is often excessive in relation to the price of the vehicle. In addition, the components, in particular, the brakes on each wheel tend to increase and decentralization weight of the vehicle while reducing weight is an important qualifying factor design for all-terrain vehicles. In addition, separate brakes are unsprung weight, which can reduce ride quality. However,the applicability of the anti-lock brake system is limited to two wheels, connected by a solid axle or locked differential of some vehicles, because these two wheels can't rotate at different speeds when it will be needed in some conditions braking.

To minimize and centralize the weight of the vehicle, some vehicles equipped with single rear disc brake or part of a solid rear axle or drive shaft that goes from the engine to the rear differential. An example of such a device is described in U.S. patent No. 6491126, which is included here in its entirety as reference material.

Thus, there is a need in the brake system for a vehicle, which provides for varying the rotational speed of the wheels to which it is applied.

There is also a need in the way of braking the vehicle, which provides for varying the rotational speed of the wheels to which it is applied.

Brief description of the invention

The present invention is to eliminate at least part of the disadvantages of the known prior art.

Another objective of the present invention is to provide a brake system in which a single brake is applied to the two wheels to rotate at different speeds.

Another objective of the present invention is the creation that is mosney system, having a single brake, which exerts a braking torque to the two wheels through a limited-slip differential.

Another objective of the present invention is to provide a brake system having a single brake, which can simultaneously use different brake torques to the two wheels.

Another objective of the present invention is to provide a method for braking a vehicle in such a way that a single brake can make different brake torques to the two wheels.

According to one object of the invention, the set of vehicle containing frame. On the frame is a seat to accommodate one or more riders. The frame carries the engine and set of wheels. At least one of the sets of wheels is functionally connected with the engine for communicating the motion of the vehicle. The control device is usually in front of the seat and functionally connected to at least one of the sets of wheels for the vehicle control. A limited-slip differential is retained by the frame. The first axis and the second axis is functionally connected with a limited-slip differential. The first floor holds the first wheel from a variety of wheels. The second floor holds the second wheel from a variety of wheels. Brake functionally connect the eh with a limited-slip differential. Brake selectively exerts a braking torque to the first and second wheels through at least one part of the conventional prefilled auto-disable differential to reduce the speed of the vehicle.

According to another object, with a limited-slip differential is functionally connected to the shaft for the application of the output torque of the engine to a self-locking differential. The brake is functionally connected with a limited-slip differential across the shaft.

According to another object, the brake includes a brake disc mounted on the shaft and rotating with it. The brake caliper is held by the frame and work for the election of the friction clutch with the brake disk for the application of braking torque.

According to another object, at least one part of the brake is installed on at least one part of the conventional prefilled auto-disable differential.

According to another object, the control unit has an electrical connection with a limited-slip differential. When the brake is actuated, the control unit operates to selectively increase the degree of adhesion of conventional prefilled auto-disable differential in response to the difference between the rotational speeds of the first and second wheels is greater than the first predetermined difference.

According to another object, the selective increase in the degree of coupling of small carousels differential includes increased drive the degree of coupling of the coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable differential. The clutch is located in the working position between at least one part of a conventional prefilled auto-disable differential and one of the first and second axes.

According to another object, the first set difference is about 7 to about 9./minutes

According to another object, the shaft has a first part and a second part. At least one part of the brake is installed on the first part of the shaft. The second part of the shaft is connected with a limited-slip differential. The slip clutch functionally connects the first shaft part with the second part of the shaft so that the slip clutch in the working position is located between the brake and at least one part of a conventional prefilled auto-disable differential.

According to another object, the control unit has an electrical connection with the slip clutch. When the brake is actuated, the control unit operates to selectively reduce the degree of coupling of a clutch slip in response to slippage of at least one of the first and second wheels relative to the ground and the difference between the rotational speeds of the first and second wheels which is less than the second predetermined difference. The second set difference is less than the first given value.

According to another object, the second set difference is less than about 1./minutes

According to another object when the brake is actuated, the unit which the Board operates to selectively reduce the degree of coupling of a clutch slip in response to that the speed of rotation of the first and second wheels is less than the specified threshold speed, and the difference of the rotation speeds of the first and second wheels is less than the second predetermined difference. The second set difference is less than the first given value.

According to an additional object, the invention provides a receiving method of control of the vehicle. The vehicle contains the first wheel and the second wheel. A limited-slip differential is functionally connected with the first wheel and the second wheel and located between them. The brake is functionally connected with a limited-slip differential so that at least part of the conventional prefilled auto-disable differential in the working position is located between the brake and each of the first and second wheels. The method includes determining, given any action of the brake; determining the difference between the speed of rotation between the first wheel and the second wheel; if the brake is actuated, the increase in the degree of coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable differential in response to the fact that the difference between the speed of rotation greater than the first threshold value; and decreasing the speed of the vehicle.

According to another object, the method includes determining slip if the first and second wheels relative to the ground. When the brake is in action is e, the degree of coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable differential decreases in response to the fact that both of the first and second wheels have traction over the ground and the difference in speed is less than the second threshold value. The second threshold value is less than the first threshold value.

According to another object, determining whether the first and second wheel traction over the ground, includes comparing the vehicle speed with the speed of rotation of each of the first and second wheels.

According to another object, the vehicle contains at least one third wheel. Determining whether the first and second wheel traction over the ground, involves the comparison of the speed of rotation of at least one third wheel with rotation speeds of the first and second wheels.

According to another object, the vehicle also includes a shaft is functionally connected with a limited-slip differential for the application of the output torque of the engine to a self-locking differential. Determining whether the first and second wheel traction over the ground, involves the comparison of the speed of rotation of the shaft with the rotational speed of at least one of the first and second wheels.

According to another object, the vehicle also includes a slip clutch, in the working p is the position located between the brake and a limited-slip differential. When the brake is actuated, the pistons clutch clutch slip is reduced when at least one of the first and second wheels is slipping relative to the ground.

In the context of this application, the term "has traction"when used in connection with the wheel or tire, means that the wheel is rolling without slipping relative to the ground.

In the context of this application, the term "coupling"as used in connection with the clutch or differential refers to the condition in which the two components connected by a coupling or differential, rotate at the same speed. Thus, an increase in the degree of coupling of the differential causing it to work more like the work of a locked differential, through the restrictions of these two components is the same speed or less, the maximum difference of the rotation speed. Similarly, the decrease in the degree of coupling of the differential causing it to work more like an unlocked differential, allowing a greater difference in speed between the two components.

Each variant implementation of the present invention has at least one of the above problems and/or objects, but not necessarily has all. It should be understood that some of the objects of the present invention, which achieved an attempt to solve pointed to by the x above tasks, may not solve these problems and/or can solve other problems not mentioned here specifically.

Additional and/or alternative features, objects and advantages of embodiments of the present invention will become apparent from the following description, attached drawings and appended claims.

Brief description of drawings

For a better understanding of the present invention and its other objects and features are given the following description which should be read in conjunction with the attached drawings, on which:

Fig. 1 - type of vehicle in the future front left;

Fig. 2 is a schematic view of the configuration of a transmission of the vehicle shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is a schematic view of an alternative configuration of a transmission of the vehicle shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 4 is a vertical side view of the engine and the transmission, shown in Fig. 3;

Fig. 5 is a sectional view of the engine shown in Fig. 4, is made vertically through the shaft of the front wheel through the engine casing;

Fig. 6 is a partial section view of the engine shown in Fig. 4 showing the shaft of the front wheel passing over an oil pan of the engine and between the counterweights of the crankshaft;

Fig. 7 is a schematic side view of the transmission of Fig. 3;

Fig. 8 is a perspective view of the lower part of the transmission vesd the course with Fig. 1, showing the selector drive mechanism for two-wheel/four-wheel drive for selective connection of the transmission shaft of the front wheel in addition to the shaft of back actuator;

Fig. 9 is a schematic view of the configuration of alternative powertrain vehicle with Fig. 1, in which the transmission is located in front of the engine casing;

Fig. 10 is a sectional view of the alternative powertrain of the vehicle shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 11 is a perspective view left rear brake system according to the first variant embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 12 is a schematic view of the cross section of the brake system of Fig. 11;

Fig. 13 is a perspective view left rear brake system according to the second variant embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 14 is a schematic view of the cross section of the brake system shown in Fig. 13;

Fig. 15 is a perspective view left rear brake system according to the third variant embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 16 is a schematic view of the cross section of the brake system shown in Fig. 15;

Fig. 17 is a schematic view of the cross section of the brake system according to the fourth variant embodiment of the invention; and

Fig. 18 is a logic diagram showing the operation of the brake system according to a variant implementation of the present invention.

Detailed description of preferred embodiments of the invention

This is the invention described here, as used for the front wheels of the vehicle, however, it is envisaged that the invention can be used both for the front wheels of the vehicle, and for vehicles with different wheel configurations, such as three-wheeled vehicles.

In Fig. 1 shows a perspective view of the vehicle, indicated generally by the reference position 10, including the transmission 20, which may be applied a variant of implementation of the present invention. The vehicle 10 includes a frame 12 which includes a housing 13 and the internal combustion engine (not shown in Fig. 1) to supply power the vehicle. Frame 12 is also connected to the four wheels 14 with tires 15 small pressure, which are adapted for off-road conditions and driving on rough terrain. The vehicle 10 also includes a seat 18 horse boarding, installed on the frame 12 to accommodate the driver and, if necessary, one or more passengers. The vehicle 10 has a center of gravity, which passes through the Central longitudinal axis 8.

As shown in Fig. 1, the two front wheels 14 is suspended on the frame 12 by respective nodes of the front suspension (for example, through a system of double a-shaped lever suspension), while the two rear wheels 14 is suspended on the frame corresponding nodes rear suspension (for example, systems of odeski on the hard swinging the lever). The front and rear wheels 14 have a 10-12-inch rims, and each is equipped with a bus 15 small pressure, which is installed on the rim of each wheel and inflated to a pressure of not more than 2 kg/cm2(that is, not more than 196 kPa or 28 pounds per square inch).

As shown in Fig. 1, the vehicle 10 also includes a steering mechanism 16, which is held to rotate a frame 12, allowing the driver to steer the vehicle. The steering mechanism 16 includes a wheel connected to the steering column (not shown) to actuate the steering rods connected to left and right front wheels 14.

As is known in the art, the vehicle 10 is driven by an internal combustion engine, having a casing 30 of the engine, for example, four-stroke engine with a single overhead Cam shaft, the cylinders of which are arranged in a V-shaped or W-shaped configuration, although, as will be clear to experts in the field of technology, it is possible to replace the engines of other types and configurations. In the cylinders are pistons 31, reciprocating movement and connected to the crankshaft 34, as is also known in the art. The crankshaft 34 of the engine connected with the transmission 20, which transmits torque to the rear wheels 14 in the presence of actuator on at least DV the wheel, and possibly also transmits torque to the front wheels 14 for full drive.

In Fig. 2 schematically shows a layout of power and the transmission unit 20 according to a variant implementation of the present invention. It should be understood that the present invention is applicable to alternative powertrain configurations and is not limited to the application shown for the transmission 20. As described above, the transmission 20 is mechanically connected to the internal combustion engine. In the shown embodiment of the invention, the transmission 20 includes a separate transmission 40, which is removable connected to the rear part of the casing 30 of the engine. The transmission 40 is preferably connected to the casing 30 of the engine of threaded fastening means 70, for example, by bolts, to facilitate the Assembly and disassembly of the transmission 40.

As shown in Fig. 2, the engine and transmission 40 is functionally connected to the variator 22 having a strap 25, which connects the output 32 of the engine to the input 42 of the transmission. The output 32 of the engine includes a crankshaft 34, connected to the pistons 31 in the cylinders of the internal combustion engine and driven by them. The crankshaft 34 is installed drive pulley 36, which drives the corresponding driven pulley 46 by means of a belt 25. The driven pulley 46 is mounted on the input shaft 44, which transmits power the transmission 40. Transmission 40 has a gear (not shown, but known in the art) to reduce the angular velocity of the input shaft 44 to increase torque.

As shown in Fig. 2, the transmission 40 is functionally connected with the system 50 of the front wheel, and with the system 60 of the rear drive. System 50 of the front wheel includes a shaft 52 of the front wheel connected to the rear end of the transmission 40 (that is, with the front end of the intermediate shaft 84 of the transmission 40) and the front end with a front limited-slip differential 54. Work conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 54 will be described in more detail below. Front limited-slip differential 54 is connected with the left front axle 56 and the right front axle 58, which, in turn, is connected with the front wheels 14. Similarly, the rear actuator 60 includes a shaft 62 of the rear drive connected to the front end of the transmission 40 (that is, with the rear end of the intermediate shaft 84 of the transmission 40) and a rear end with a rear differential 64. Differential 64 is connected to the left rear axle 66 and the right rear axle 68 which, in turn, is connected with the rear wheels 14. Thus, the transmission 20 allows the driver to choose the drive on two wheels (that is, power is transmitted only to the shaft of the rear wheel drive)or AWD (that is, the power PE is udaetsya and to the shaft of the front wheel, and to the shaft rear drive). It is envisaged that instead of one or both of the leading shaft 52, 62 can be used drive chains.

To enable the driver to choose between drive modes on two wheels and four-wheel drive, transmission 40 may, if necessary, to enable the selector drive modes on two wheels and four-wheel drive, capable of selectively connect or disconnect the drive shaft between the front and rear drive. This allows the driver to switch between the drive on two wheels and four-wheel drive. The transmission 40 may also include a switch transmission that allows the driver to choose from a variety of drive modes for the vehicle, and the drive modes include the Parking mode, a neutral mode, and reverse mode forward course. In one embodiment of the invention, the drive modes include a mode of motion with high speed and mode of motion at a low speed. As will be clear to experts in the field of machinery, switch gear box may allow the selection of other drive modes, for example, three or more transmission forward. The switch itself gearbox is connected to the shift lever (not shown), which is easily accessible to the driver, thus allowing the driver action the SQL switch gear box, being in the driver's seat.

In Fig. 3 illustrates the General layout and the power node of the alternative transmission 20 in which the shaft 52 of the front wheel is articulated drive shaft having two intermediate shaft 52a, 53, cardan hinge 53a. As shown in Fig. 3, the first intermediate shaft 53 is connected to the rear end with the front end of the intermediate shaft 84 and is connected to the front end with the rear end of the second intermediate shaft 52a through universal joint 53a. Accordingly, the first intermediate shaft 53 passes through the casing 30 of the engine, while the second intermediate shaft 52a passes from the universal joint 53a, retreating from the casing 30 of the engine, and ends in the front differential 54. As will be clear to experts in the field of technology, the transmission 20 may be modified and may include additional intermediate shafts.

In Fig. 4 shows a vertical side view of the transmission 40, with the possibility of separation of attached fastening means 70 to the rear surface of the casing 30 of the engine. The engine and transmission 40 is functionally connected to the variator 22 driven by a belt that connects the drive pulley 36 on the crankshaft 34 to a driven pulley 46 on the input shaft 44 of the transmission 40. The drive pulley 36 and the driven pulley 46 provide a continuously variable gear ratio through the Ohm opening or closing the opposite tapered side surfaces of the one or more pulleys, as is known in the art. It should be understood that can be used an alternative configuration of the transmission 40.

As shown in Fig. 4, the intermediate shaft 84 is splined rear end 88 that protrudes from the rear of the transmission 40 for coupling with the corresponding slots on the front end of the shaft 62 in the rear of the drive.

As also shown in Fig. 4, the first intermediate shaft 53 of the shaft 52 of the front wheel passes through the casing 30 of the engine and backs away from the front side of the housing 30 of the engine, ending cardan hinge 53a. Universal joint 53a connects with the possibility of rotation of the first intermediate shaft 53 and the second intermediate shaft 52a of the shaft 52 of the front wheel. In another embodiment of the invention a single shaft 52 of the front wheel passes through the casing 30 of the engine to transmit torque from the transmission 40 to the front differential 54 and to the front wheels 14. As shown in Fig. 4, the shaft 52 of the front wheel (or the first intermediate shaft 53 in the preferred embodiment of the invention) passes through the lower part of the casing 30 of the engine crankshaft 34 and above the oil pan 37, as will be described and illustrated below.

In Fig. 5 shows a sectional view of the first intermediate shaft 53 of the shaft 52 of the front wheel, passing through the casing 30 of the engine. The first intermediate shaft 53 is Ala 52 of the front wheel passes through the lower part of the casing 30 of the engine. As shown in Fig. 6, the first intermediate shaft 53, preferably passes through the casing 30 of the engine below the crankshaft 34, but above the oil pan 37. Preferably, the shaft 52 of the front wheel (or the first intermediate shaft 53) should not be in contact with the oil contained in the oil pan 37. Drive shaft 52 may also be below the oil pan 37, and not above the oil level in the oil pan 37. In both structures the driving shaft 52 is not in contact with oil.

As shown in Fig. 6, the first intermediate shaft 53 passes between adjacent counterweights 35. As will be clear to experts in the field of technology, there shall be provided sufficient clearance between the first intermediate shaft 53 and the crank shaft 34 so that when the piston reaches the lower end point, the crankshaft 34 did not come in contact with the first intermediate shaft 53. Alternatively, if it does not harm the layout and weight distribution, the first intermediate shaft 53 can be carried out near the counterweights 35 and not between two adjacent counterweights 35.

In Fig. 7 shows a schematic side view of the transmission 20. As shown in Fig. 7, the engine has a V-shaped type having a casing 30 of the engine, has a pair of cylinders 30a. Each cylinder 30a contains a reciprocating piston 31 connected to the rod (or piston rod)31a to rotate the respective cranks on a common crankshaft 34, as is known in the field of internal combustion engines. The crankshaft 34 has two pairs of backing down balances 35 (as best shown in Fig. 6). Finally, as noted above, the drive pulley 36 is mounted on the crankshaft 34 to drive the driven pulley 46 through the variator 22 driven by a belt.

As shown in Fig. 7, the transmission 40 is attached to the rear lower part of the casing 30 of the engine using a set of threaded fasteners 70, for example, bolts or screws for easy Assembly and disassembly, that is, accelerates attaching the transmission 40 to the casing 30 of the engine and separation from him. Thanks to the detachable connection of the transmission 40 from the rear part of the casing 30 of the engine, the center of gravity of the transmission 20 is reduced, also optimizing mass centralization.

As shown in Fig. 7, the transmission 40 has a forward facing mounting flange 75 for attaching to the rear surface of the casing 30 of the engine. Mounting flange 75 includes many along the circumference of the holes, into which is inserted a threaded fastening means 70. The casing 30 of the engine has a lot along the circumference of the holes corresponding to the holes in the mounting flange 75. Holes in the casing 30 of the engine drilled and threaded in accordance with threaded fasteners 70. It should be noted that others consider facto the om design ensuring that there is sufficient clearance between the casing 30 of the engine and the transmission 40, to access all of the fastening means of a wrench or other such tool. If necessary, can be provided washers to minimize local stresses where the fastening means 70 are tightened with a very high point, as is known in the art. In addition, as is known in the art, can be applied adhesive for Threadlocking, such as Loctiteâ„¢, for further securing of the threaded connections to prevent loosening of threaded connections due to vibration of the engine.

As also shown in Fig. 7 and 8, the transmission 40 includes a lower gear 48 rigidly mounted on the intermediate shaft 84. The intermediate shaft 84 is held and rotated on a set of bearings 86 mounted in bearings bearings. The rear end of the intermediate shaft 84 provided with slots 88 for coupling with corresponding splines on the shaft 62 of the rear of the drive.

The front end of the intermediate shaft 84 is also provided with slots to selectively interlock with the connection of the actuator switch on the two-wheel/four-wheel drive, for example, by means of a splined coupling 82, which is provided along the axis for transmitting power to the first intermediate shaft 53. The first intermediate shaft 53, preferably passes through the hole in the mounting flange 75. First the tick shaft 53 passes through the casing 30 of the engine, passing between the counterweight 35. The first intermediate shaft 53 ends at the gimbal joint 53a for connection with the second intermediate shaft 52a.

As also shown in Fig. 7, the engine and transmission 40 includes an annular groove for receiving o-ring seals 87 for sealing the casing 30 of the engine and the transmission 40 points mate, where the first intermediate shaft 53, to prevent leakage of oil from the housing 30 of the engine or the transmission 40.

In Fig. 8 shows the selector mechanism 80 of the drive to two-wheel/four-wheel drive, which selectively moves along the axis of the splined sleeve 82 engages with the splined intermediate shaft 84 to connect the shafts 52, 62 of the front and rear actuators. The clutch 82 is moved by the rotation of the lever 92 around the hinge 94.

In Fig. 9 shows a schematic view of configuration showing another variant embodiment of the invention, in which the transmission 40 is located in front of the casing 30 of the engine (instead of rear positions, as in the previous embodiments of the invention). For example, the transmission 40 may be located to the rear of the casing 30 of the engine for reasons of layout and weight distribution. As shown in Fig. 9, the transmission 40 causes the intermediate shaft 84, which is connected with the shaft 52 of the front wheel, and with the shaft 62 of the rear drive. In this embodiment, implementation is tvline of the invention, the shaft 62 of the rear drive passes through the casing 30 of the engine for transmitting torque self-locking differential 64. Preferably, the transmission 40 is mounted on the front surface of the housing 30 of the engine. More preferably, the transmission 40 is fixed in the same manner as already described relative to the embodiments of the invention with the rear setup.

In Fig. 10 shows a schematic side view of a transmission according to another variant implementation of the present invention. This variant of the invention, such a variant embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 7, but differs from it in that the diameter of the secondary pulley 46 of the variator 22 is greater than the diameter of the drive pulley 36. Thus, the gear ratio between the drive pulley 36 and a driven pulley 46 is different from the gear ratio in the embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 7, resulting in other operating characteristics of the vehicle.

With reference to Fig. 11-15 will be described a braking system for the front wheels 14 of the vehicle 10 according to several variants of embodiment of the invention. Such components of brake systems, which are shown in many embodiments of the invention, assigned similar reference position with other first digits. Some components that are similar or common to more than one variant of the invention, will not be described in detail relative to the tion of each variant embodiment of the invention.

In Fig. 11 and 12 show the brake system 100 for the front wheels 14 (best seen in Fig. 9) all-terrain vehicle 10 according to the first variant embodiment of the invention. It should be understood that the brake system 100 in an alternative embodiment, can be applied to the rear wheels 14 of the vehicle 10, or for any pair of wheels of a vehicle of any other type. Brake 102 contains the brake disk 104, mounted on the shaft 52 of the front wheel between the transmission 40 and a limited-slip differential 54. The caliper 106 brake mounted on the frame 12 by means of the housing flange 107 conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 54, selectively generates a friction clutch disk 104 in a known manner, when the driver actuates the actuator 186 brakes of the vehicle 10. The frictional grip between the support plate 106 and the disk 104 slows the rotation shaft 52 of the front wheel, which exerts a braking torque to the front wheels 14 through a limited-slip differential 54 and the corresponding front shafts 56, 58. A limited-slip differential 54 is a conventional limited-slip differential-type couplings and calibrated so that it allows the maximum difference of rotation speed between the left and right front wheels 14, and the difference, preferably, is between 7 and 9.minutes it is Envisaged that in an alternative embodiment, m is can be used any other suitable type of conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 54. Also provides that a mechanical or electronic slip clutch (not shown), similar to the clutch 384 slip shown in Fig. 14, can be applied to the shaft 52 of the front wheel. Thus, it should be understood that a single brake 102 is capable of applying a braking torque to both front wheels 14 through the shaft 52 of the front wheel and through a limited-slip differential 54. As will be described in more detail below, a limited-slip differential 54 may be used in combination with single brake 102 to the distribution of brake torque between the left and right front wheels 14 on the basis of the current thrust of each wheel, thereby improving the braking characteristic of the vehicle 10. However, some of the advantages of conventional anti-lock brake system can be obtained using fewer components and lower cost than conventional anti-lock brake system with separate brake for each front wheel 14. In addition, a single brake 102 and other components of the brake system 100 can be located near the Central longitudinal axis 8 of the vehicle 10. As a result, the mass of the vehicle 10 can be centralized, and the total mass and unsprung mass of the vehicle 10 can be reduced. The operation of the brake system 100 for braking the vehicle 10 will be described is as detail later.

In Fig. 13 and 14 shows the brake system 200 for the front wheels 14 according to the second variant embodiment of the invention. Brake system 200 is similar to the brake system 100 shown in Fig. 11 and 12, except that a limited-slip differential 254 is a limited-slip differential with electronic control. Block 270 has electrical connection with the actuator 272, which may change the degree of coupling of the coupling 274 in cambiocorsa differential 254 and, thus, to adjust the difference of rotation speed between the left and right front wheels 14. Unit 270 controls can cause the action of conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 254 as an open differential (fully recipiency), a locked differential (fully coupled) or differential with any intermediate degree of coupling. Block 270 has an electrical connection to the sensors 276, 278 speed of the wheel which can be connected to the wheels 14, the front half shafts 56, 58 or any other suitable component, from which the block 270 receives control signals indicative of the rotation speed of the front wheels 14. Block 270 control has an additional electrical connection to the sensor 280 speed of the vehicle from which the block 270 receives control signals indicative of the speed is viginia of the vehicle 10. Block 270 control has an additional electrical connection to the sensor 282 brake, which is connected to the drive brakes of the vehicle 10 or a part of the brake system 200, from which the block 270 receives control signals indicating whether the actuator 286 brakes powered. Brake 202 can be controlled mechanically, or it can be controlled unit 270 controls. The operation of the brake system 200 for braking the vehicle 10 will be described in detail later.

In Fig. 15 and 16 shows the brake system 300 for front wheel 14 according to the third variant embodiment of the invention. Brake system is similar to the brake system 200, shown in Fig. 13 and 14, but with the addition of the coupling 384 slip with electronic control on the shaft 352 of the front wheel and in a working position located between the first part of the drive shaft 390 352, which is the brake 302, and the second part 392 driving shaft 352 which is connected with a limited-slip differential 354. In this arrangement, the support plate 306 brakes installed on the frame 12 directly, and not through the housing conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 354. Clutch 384 slip may be any suitable coupling, which is adapted to transfer torque below a threshold level of torque and slippage when exerting torque exceeding a threshold value. Clutch 38 slip, preferably, it is a slip clutch with electronic control, and in this case, the threshold level of torque is variable and adjustable unit 370 controls. Clutch 384 slip usually fully coupled during operation of the vehicle 10 in order to fully convey and the output torque of the engine and the braking torque of the brake 302 to the front wheels 14 through the shaft 352 of the front wheel. Clutch 384 slip may be partially raceplane during certain braking conditions for full modulation of the braking torque applied to the front wheels 14 by the brake 302, as will be described in detail below. The operation of the brake system 300 for braking the vehicle 10 will be described in detail below.

In Fig. 17 shows the brake system 400 for front wheel 14 according to the fourth variant embodiment of the invention. In this embodiment of the invention the brake disc 404 is installed on the housing 486 conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 454. This arrangement provides for the drive of a conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 454 belt or chain 452, functionally connected to the output 32 of the engine. Brake 402 in the working position is located between the belt or chain 452 and gears 488 conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 454, and, as such, the inclusion of brake 402 exerts a braking torque to both front wheels is 14 via a limited-slip differential 454. Each brake 402 and the clutch 474 can be mechanical, as described with regard to the variant embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 11 and 12, or may be managed by block 470 management. The operation of the brake system 400 for braking the vehicle 10 will be described in detail later.

In Fig. 18 shows a logical diagram of the operation of the brake system according to a variant implementation of the present invention. Work will be described first with reference to the brake system 100 having a mechanical limited-slip differential 54, and then relative to the brake system 300, having a limited-slip differential 354 with electronic control. It should be understood that the brake system 200 and 400 operate in a similar way, and their work will not be described separately.

The operation of the brake system 100 will now be described, starting with step 500.

At step 505 is determined, is whether the brake 102 into action. If the brake 102 is actuated, the system proceeds to step 510. If the brake 102 is not driven, the system returns to step 505, and a limited-slip differential 54 preferably operates in the usual manner until the actuator 186 brakes are not put into action. It is envisaged that the step 505 may be performed by default by configuring conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 54 so that the step 510 is performed the Xia, at least, whenever the brake 102 is driven, for example, a limited-slip differential 54 may be configured in such a way that he always did step 510, regardless of is the brake 102 into action.

At step 510 a limited-slip differential 54 determines whether the difference of rotation speed between the left and right front wheels 14 below the lower threshold speed. The lower threshold speed may be small, for example below about 1./minutes, while the difference between the rotation speed is below the lower threshold value may indicate either that the front wheel 14 reaches similar values traction regardless of the degree of coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 54, or a limited-slip differential 54 is effectively fully connected or blocked state. In the first case, the degree of coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 54 is irrelevant to the braking performance. In the latter case, it is possible to improve the braking characteristics, reducing the degree of coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 54. In any of these cases, it is unlikely that improving the braking performance can be obtained by increasing the degree of adhesion of conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 54. This step can be performed by default by about the offered work conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 54, namely, that a limited-slip differential 54 will not create an increased degree of coupling in the absence of sufficient difference in speed between the two front wheels 14. If the difference between the rotation speed is below the lower threshold, the process continues to step 515. If the difference in speed is not below the lower threshold, the process continues at step 530.

At step 515 a limited-slip differential 54 determines if the front wheels 14 of the rod relative to the ground, which moves the vehicle 10. If both of the front wheels 14 has an inclination relative to the ground, it indicates that both of the front wheel 14 can be used to create a braking force. Improved braking characteristics can potentially be obtained by providing the rotation of the front wheels 14 at different speeds, thus enabling self-locking differential gear 54 to distribute the braking torque to the front wheels 14 with a maximum thrust available for each wheel. One sign that the wheel slip may be that both of the front wheels 14 are rotated at a slow speed or not rotated at all. If one or both of the front wheels 14 slip, and the slip clutch is present, the process continues at step 520. If one or both and the front wheels 14 slip, and the slip clutch is not present, the process returns to step 505. If both front wheels 14 has an inclination, the process continues at step 525. It should be understood that in the absence of clutch slip, this configuration produces the same braking force as a conventional solid axle, when the lower threshold value at step 510 enough to a limited-slip differential 54 was effectively blocked.

At step 520, the degree of coupling clutch slip is reduced in response to the slipping of the front wheels 14, is detected at step 515. The slip caused by the brake 102, creating such a large braking torque that the bus cannot support static friction relative to the ground regardless of how torque distributed between the front wheels 14 a limited-slip differential 54. The reduction of the clutch in the slip clutch reduces the amount of braking torque transmitted from the brake 102 to a self-locking differential 54. As a result, a limited-slip differential 54 has a smaller braking torque for distribution between the two front wheels 14, potentially allowing a self-locking differential gear 54 to allocate each front wheel 14 proper amount of torque for braking without skidding on the ground. The process returns to step 505. If the clutch as the program is not provided on the shaft of the front wheel, stage 520 is eliminated, and the process returns from step 515 to step 505. In this configuration, the braking characteristic of the vehicle 10 cannot be further improved limited-slip differential 54 under current conditions braking.

At step 525, in response to the determination at step 515 that the two front wheels 14 are thrust relative to the ground, the degree of coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 54 is reduced. It is envisaged that this may be the result of normal operation, the conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 54 because of the torque applied to each front wheel 14 soil. As a result, the front wheel 14 can rotate at different speeds, so that each front wheel 14 may be accompanied by increased braking torque without causing slippage of the front wheels 14, thus providing increased traction and improved braking and controllability with respect to the usual locked differential or continuous axis. The process returns to step 505.

At step 530, in response to the difference between the rotational speeds of the front wheels 14, which is greater than the low threshold value (step 510), the difference of the rotation speeds is compared with the upper threshold value. The upper threshold corresponds to a maximum difference of rotation speeds allowed by the configuration small carousels differential 54. As such, the comparison may be performed by default, a limited-slip differential 54 with an increasing degree of coupling, when the difference in speed of rotation increases. The upper threshold value can be adjusted through calibration of the force of the bias acting on the clutch 174, or otherwise calibrate conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 54, if you are using another type of conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 54, as will be clear to experts in the given field of technology. The upper threshold value, preferably, is between 7 and 9.minutes, but can be higher or lower depending on ride quality. Increasing the upper threshold usually is easier to execute turns on solid and homogeneous surfaces such as concrete or paved roads, while decreasing the upper threshold value usually provides the best braking performance on rough or uneven terrain on which different wheels of the vehicle may experience different levels of thrust. If the difference between the rotational speeds greater than the upper threshold, indicating that one front wheel 14 slips, the process continues to step 535. If the difference of the rotation speeds less than the upper threshold, indicating that both wheels have traction, the process in which rotates to step 505. The difference in rotational speeds between the lower threshold and the upper threshold value indicates that both of the front wheels 14 roll without slipping with different speeds corresponding to the desired braking conditions. It should be understood that this situation provides superior brake performance compared with a conventional vehicle with a locked differential, or one in which the front wheel 14 can slide relative to the ground, or one front wheel 14 can provide less than maximum braking effort, the other the maximum amount of friction available between each front wheel 14 and the ground on which it is located.

At step 535, in response to the difference.minutes above the upper threshold, the degree of coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 54 is increased. The objective of increasing the degree of coupling is to transmit additional braking torque to the wheel that is not slipping, to improve the braking performance of the vehicle 10. The process then returns to step 505.

Now with reference to Fig. 18 will be described the operation of the brake system 300 from step 500.

At step 505 block 370 management determines is in the action of the brake 302 based on the signal received from the sensor 382 brakes. Unit 370 controls the deposits may also determine the extent to which actuates the brake 302, which is indicative of the speed deceleration specified by the driver. If the brake 302 is actuated, the process continues from step 505 to step 510. If the brake 302 is not driven, the process returns to step 505, and a limited-slip differential 354 preferably acts as a conventional limited-slip differential, while the block 370, the control waits for further signal.

At step 510 unit 370 receives control signals from sensors 276, 278 wheel speed indicating the difference in rotation speed between the left and right front wheels 14. It is envisaged that the unit 370 controls can get or separate the signals from each sensor 276, 278 wheel speed indicating the rotation speed of each front wheel 14, or one signal indicating the difference between the respective rotational speeds. Block 370, the control determines whether the difference between the rotational speeds below the lower threshold speed. The lower threshold speed may be small, for example, below about 1./minutes, when the difference is below the lower threshold would indicate that either the front wheel 14 reaches the same magnitude of thrust regardless of the degree of coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 354, or a limited-slip differential 354 effectively is fully with Alanna or blocked state. In the first case, the degree of coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 354 is irrelevant to the braking performance. In the latter case, it is possible to improve the braking characteristics, reducing the degree of coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 354. In any of these cases, it is unlikely that improving the braking performance can be obtained by increasing the degree of adhesion of conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 354, and the process continues at step 515. If the difference is not below the lower threshold, the process proceeds to step 530.

At step 515, block 370 control determines slip if both of the front wheels 14 relative to the ground, which moves the vehicle 10. If both of the front wheels 14 has an inclination relative to the ground, this indicates that both of the front wheel 14 can be used to create a braking force. Improved braking characteristics can potentially be obtained by allowing rotation of the front wheels 14 at different speeds, thus enabling self-locking differential 354 to distribute the braking torque of the front wheels 14 according to the maximum thrust available for each wheel. Determining slip if the front wheels 14 may be made from any suitable signal or signals received from the underwater or more sensors of the vehicle 10. One indication that both wheels slip, it may be that both of the front wheels 14 are rotated at a low speed or not rotated at all. One indication of the fact that one of the front wheels 14 have a craving can be a great force applied by the ground to not slipping front wheel 14, which tends rotation of the front wheels 14 at different speeds. For example, block 370 management can compare the current speed of rotation of each or both of the front wheels 14 with the estimated speed. Design speed may be the speed of rotation of one or both of the rear wheels 14, or the speed of rotation of the shaft 52. Design speed alternative may be the current speed of the vehicle 10 determined by any suitable means, independent of the current speed of the front wheels 14, such as a global positioning system (not shown). Design speed alternative can be expected rotation speed of the front wheels 14, calculated on the basis of the vehicle speed or the front wheels to the braking and duration of application of the braking torque. This calculation can be used, the degree of actuation of the brake 302, as determined in step 505, the summed duration of application of the braking torque. In any of the quiet cases, the speed of the front wheels 14 below design speed may indicate slippage of the wheels relative to the ground. It should be understood that in the absence of clutch slip this configuration creates the same braking force as a conventional solid axle, when the lower threshold value at the step 510 is quite small, and limited-slip differential 354 effectively blocked.

At step 520, the degree of coupling clutch slip is reduced in response to the slipping of the front wheels 14 is detected at step 515. The slip caused by the brake 302 that creates such a large braking torque that the bus cannot support static friction relative to the ground, regardless of how torque distributed between the front wheels 14 a limited-slip differential 354. The reduction coupling clutch slip reduces the amount of braking torque transmitted from the brake 302 to a self-locking differential gear 354. As a result, a limited-slip differential 354 has a smaller torque for distribution between the two front wheels 14, potentially allowing both front wheels 14 to brake without skidding on the ground. The process returns to step 505. If the slip clutch is not provided on the shaft of the front wheel, step 520 is eliminated, and the process returns to step 505. In this configuration, the braking characteristic of the vehicle 10 cannot be further improved limited-slip differential 354.

At step 525 the response to the indication, that at least one front wheel 14 does not slide relative to the soil, the degree of coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable 354 differential decreases. As a result, the front wheel 14 can rotate at different speeds so that both front wheels 14 can roll without slipping at different speeds, thus producing increased traction and improved braking and controllability with respect to the usual locked differential or continuous axis. The process returns to step 505.

At step 530, in response to the difference between the rotational speeds of the front wheels 14, which is greater than the low threshold value (step 510), the difference of the rotation speeds is compared with the upper threshold value. The upper threshold corresponds to a maximum difference of rotation speeds allowed by the configuration of the conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 354. As such, the comparison may be performed by default, a limited-slip differential 354, increasing its degree of coupling, when the difference in speed of rotation increases. The upper threshold value can be adjusted through calibration of the force of the bias acting on the clutch 374, or otherwise calibrate conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 354, if you are using another type of conventional prefilled auto-disable differential 354, as will be ponat the specialists in this field of technology. The upper threshold value, preferably, is from about 7 to about 9./minutes, but can be higher or lower depending on ride quality. Increasing the upper threshold value usually provides for easier execution turns on solid and homogeneous surfaces such as concrete or paved roads, while decreasing the upper threshold value usually provides the best braking performance on rough or uneven terrain on which different wheels of the vehicle may experience different levels of thrust. If the difference between the rotational speeds greater than the upper threshold, indicating that one front wheel 14 slips, the process continues to step 535. If the difference of the rotation speeds less than the upper threshold, indicating that both wheels have traction, the process returns to step 505. The difference in rotational speeds between the lower threshold and the upper threshold value indicates that both of the front wheels 14 roll without slipping with different speeds corresponding to the desired braking situation. It should be understood that this situation provides superior brake performance compared with a conventional vehicle with a locked differential, or one in which the front wheel 14 can slide relative is on the ground, or one front wheel 14 can provide less than the maximum braking force, due to the different maximum friction available between each front wheel 14 and the ground on which it is located.

At step 535 in response to the difference.minutes above the upper threshold, the degree of coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable 354 differential increases. The objective of increasing the degree of coupling is to transmit more torque to the wheel that is not slipping, to improve the braking performance of the vehicle 10. The process then returns to step 505.

It should be understood that the above apparatus and method provide improved braking performance and manageability compared with conventional locked differential in at least some circumstances, also provide the vehicle 10 with improved mass centralization, reduced weight and reduced unsprung weight.

Modifications and improvements to the above described embodiments of the present invention may be obvious to a person skilled in the art. The foregoing description should be considered as illustrative and not restricting. Scope of the present invention, therefore, limited to the amount included is ormula of the invention.

1. The vehicle, which contains:
frame;
the seat on the frame to accommodate one or more riders;
the engine mounted on the frame;
many of the wheels mounted on the frame, and at least one of the sets of wheels is functionally connected with the engine for communicating the motion of the vehicle;
steering device, usually located in front of the seat and functionally connected to at least one of the sets of wheels for the vehicle control;
a limited-slip differential, mounted on the frame;
the shaft is functionally connected with a limited-slip differential for the application of the output torque of the engine to a self-locking differential;
the first axis and the second axis is functionally connected to a limited-slip differential,
the first floor holds the first wheel from a variety of wheels and the second axis holds the second wheel from a variety of wheels;
the brake is functionally coupled with a limited-slip differential across the shaft, and the brake includes a brake disc mounted on the shaft and rotating together with him, and selectively exerts a braking torque to the first and second wheels through at least one part of the conventional prefilled auto-disable differential to decrease speed TRANS is Ortego means; and
a control unit having an electrical connection with a limited-slip differential;
moreover, when the brake is actuated, the control unit operates to selectively increase the degree of adhesion of conventional prefilled auto-disable differential in response to the difference between the rotational speeds of the first and second wheels is greater than the first predetermined difference.

2. Vehicle of claim 1, wherein the brake further comprises a brake caliper held by the frame and working for the election of the friction clutch with the brake disk for the application of braking torque.

3. The vehicle according to claim 1, in which at least one part of the brake is installed at least on one part of the conventional prefilled auto-disable differential.

4. The vehicle according to claim 1, in which a selective increase in the degree of coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable differential includes increased drive the degree of coupling of the coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable differential, and clutch in the working position is located between at least one part of a conventional prefilled auto-disable differential and one of the first and second axes.

5. The vehicle according to claim 1, in which first defined the difference is from 7 to 9 rpm

6. Vehicle of claim 1, wherein: the shaft has a first part and a second part;
at least one h is the efficiency of the brakes installed on the first part of the shaft, and the second part of the shaft is connected with a limited-slip differential; and the vehicle further comprises a slip clutch, functionally connecting the first portion of the shaft with the second part of the shaft so that the slip clutch in the working position is located between the brake and at least one part of a conventional prefilled auto-disable differential.

7. The vehicle according to claim 6, in which:
the control unit has an electrical connection with the slip clutch; and when the brake is actuated, the control unit operates to selectively reduce the degree of coupling of a clutch slip in response to slippage of at least one of the first and second wheels relative to the ground, and the difference between the rotational speeds of the first and second wheels is less than the second predetermined difference,
the second set difference is less than the first given value.

8. The vehicle according to claim 7, in which the second set difference is less than 1 rpm

9. The vehicle according to claim 6, in which:
when the brake is actuated, the control unit operates to selectively reduce the degree of coupling of a clutch slip in response to the fact that the speed of rotation of the first and second wheels is less than the predetermined threshold speed, and the difference of the rotation speeds of the first and second wheels is less in the second set difference
the second set difference is less than the first given value.

10. The method of controlling a vehicle, comprising:
the first wheel and the second wheel;
a limited-slip differential, functionally connected with the first wheel and the second wheel and located between them; and
the brake is functionally coupled with a limited-slip differential so that at least part of the conventional prefilled auto-disable differential in the working position is located between the brake and each of the first and second wheels,
the method includes:
determining, given any action of the brake;
determining the difference between the speed of rotation between the first wheel and the second wheel;
if the brake is actuated, the increase in the degree of coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable differential in response to the fact that the difference between the speed of rotation greater than the first threshold value; and
reducing the speed of the vehicle.

11. The method according to claim 10, further comprising determining slip if the first and second wheels relative to the ground; and, if the brake is actuated, reducing the degree of coupling conventional prefilled auto-disable differential in response to the fact that both of the first and second wheels have traction over the ground, and the difference in speed is less than the second threshold value, and the second clause is horn-value is less than the first threshold value.

12. The method according to claim 11, wherein determining whether the first and second wheel traction over the ground, includes comparing the vehicle speed with the speed of rotation of each of the first and second wheels.

13. The method according to claim 11, wherein the vehicle includes at least one third wheel; and
determining whether the first and second wheel traction over the ground, involves the comparison of the speed of rotation of at least one third wheel with rotation speeds of the first and second wheels.

14. The method according to claim 11, wherein the vehicle further comprises a shaft, functionally coupled with a limited-slip differential for the application of the output torque of the engine to a self-locking differential; and
determining whether the first and second wheel traction over the ground, involves the comparison of the speed of rotation of the shaft with the rotational speed of at least one of the first and second wheels.

15. The method according to claim 11, wherein the vehicle further comprises a slip clutch, in the working position located between the brake and a limited-slip differential;
the method further includes, if the brake is actuated, reducing the degree of coupling clutch slip, when at least one of the first the second wheel is slipping relative to the ground.



 

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