Method and system for determining position of signal transmitter from signal arrival time

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: method and system for determining the position of a signal transmitter from the signal arrival time employ separate processing of a signal received by multiple antennae and receiving channels, waiting for characteristic points of the received signal, measuring the time of arrival of characteristic points of the received signal, summation with accumulation to determine the average arithmetic of measured values of the time of arrival of characteristic points of the received signal and calculating the position of the signal transmitter using the average arithmetic of the measured values of the time of arrival of the characteristic points of the received signal as the time of arrival of the signal.

EFFECT: high accuracy and longer range for determining position of a signal transmitter.

3 cl, 4 dwg

 

The technical field

The invention relates to the field of radio communications and, in particular, to the field of radio frequency identification. In many cases it is necessary to define the location of the object associated with the signal transmitter. Methods for determining location using the value of the distance traveled by the signal, time of arrival of the signal, is well known to specialists. In these methods, the location of the transmitter signal is determined by the arrival time of the signal in several spatially separated points.

The level of technology

In the tracking system for items at the request of the U.S. US 6150921 And used method for determining the location of the transmitter signal arrival time of the signal through the measurement time maximum response when the correlation signal processing. This method provides high accuracy and range location, but difficult to implement.

In the location system adapted for conditions of multipath propagation of radio waves, U.S. patent US RE 36791 E used method of determining the location of the transmitter signal arrival time of the signal through the time dimension of the leading edge of the signal, which, because of the lag of the reflected rays, is due only to the direct beam. This method for locating a transmitter and a receiver is and the useful signal is used insignificant part of the energy of one element of the signal, uspevaya to do direct beam prior to joining front of the reflected rays. Improving the accuracy of the positioning in conditions of multipath propagation of radio waves at the price of reducing the range of the positioning.

Closest to the present invention is a device, system and method for determining the location of RFID tags according to the application WO 2007041153 A1. In the device, and the system uses a method of determining the location of the transmitter signal arrival time of the signal through the time dimension of the characteristic points on the interval of one element of the signal. Through the time dimension the same specific points on the interval of the subsequent element of the signal is determined new location of the transmitter signal. In this way, for each location of the transmitter signal useful uses the energy of one element of the signal that does not provide the desired accuracy and range location.

The system for determining the location of the radio frequency identification tag according to the application WO 2007041153 A1 includes multiple antennas, multiple receive paths, each receiving path is associated with one of the multiple antennas for processing a signal received through a corresponding antenna, the circuit time measurement of characteristic points of the signal, soedinenie is with each of the receive paths, scheme of calculating the location of the transmitter signal on the time of arrival of the signal.

Disclosure of inventions

In the method of determining the location of the transmitter signal on the time of arrival of the signal in accordance with the present invention the location of the transmitter signal is calculated by the arrival time of the signal through 1) measurement of cyclic time characteristic points on the interval element signal for many elements of the signal, 2) computing the average of the measurement results, and 3) use the arithmetic mean as the time of arrival of the signal. In this method for determining the location of the transmitter signal useful uses a significant proportion of the total energy of the signal, which improves accuracy and increases the range of positioning a simpler implementation compared with the method using correlation signal processing.

The system for determining the location of the transmitter signal on the time of arrival of the signal in accordance with the present invention includes multiple antennas, multiple receive paths, each receiving path is associated with one of the multiple antennas for processing a signal received through a corresponding antenna, the circuit for measuring time that is connected with each of the receive paths, or multiple schemas measured the time separately connected each with one of the multiple receive paths, for measuring time characteristic points of the signal and the scheme of calculating the location of the transmitter signal on the time of arrival of the signal, and differs from the closest of the known systems for determining the location in time of arrival of the signal that contains one diagram summation with the accumulation of the measurement results for each measurement time of characteristic points of the signal, with each scheme summation with the accumulation of the results of measurements on the input are connected separately to one of the schemes of the time dimension of the characteristic points of the signal, and the output is connected with the scheme of calculating the location of the transmitter signal arrival time signal.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 shows an example embodiment of the invention a system for determining the location of the transmitter signal on the time of arrival of the signal.

Figure 2 shows the structural diagram of the reader, uniting one of the recurring part of the system determine the location of the transmitter signal on the time of arrival of the signal in one embodiment of the invention.

Figure 3 shows the structural diagram of the controller that combines not duplicate parts of the system determine the location of the transmitter signal on the time of arrival of the signal is La in one embodiment of the invention.

Figure 4 shows the block diagram of the process in one embodiment of the method of determining the location of the transmitter signal on the time of arrival of the signal.

The implementation of the invention

In the description of the embodiments of the invention set forth numerous specific details. However, it should be understood that variations of the invention may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known circuits, structures and techniques have not been shown in detail so as not to hinder the understanding of this description.

The phrase "option exercise", "the embodiment", "one implementation", "different ways of implementation" and others show that the option(s) for carrying out the invention is described, therefore, may include private characteristics, structure, or characteristic, but not every option includes a private signs, patterns or characteristics. In addition, some options may have some, all or none of the signs described in other embodiments.

In the description and the claims used the terms "connected" and "connected", and their derivatives. It should be understood that these terms are used as synonyms of each other. In some cases, preference is given to the term "connected"to show that two or more elements which can be in direct contact with each other. The term "associated" is used to show that two or more elements cooperate or interact with each other, but they may or may not be in direct contact.

Within this document the term "signal transmitter" may refer to any source signal with digital modulation, such as: radio frequency identification tag, the radio station, the mobile communication terminal, etc. containing an electronic circuit for generating and digital modulation of the carrier frequency signal and an antenna.

Various embodiments of the invention can be implemented in one or any other combination of hardware, firmware and software. The invention may also be implemented as instructions contained in the product, or on the machine carriers of information that can be read and executed by one or more processors to perform the operations described herein. Machine storage media may include any mechanism for storing, transmitting and/or receiving information in a form readable by a machine (e.g. computer). Machine storage media may include such media, and not only them as permanent memory, RAM, magnetic disk, optical media, flash memory. Native media can so is e to include material medium, through which electrical, optical, acoustical and other forms of distributed signals carrying instructions can be, for example, antennas, fiber optic, communication interfaces, and other.

In some embodiments of the invention, spatially separated parts of the system determine the location of the transmitter signal on the time of arrival of the signal can be connected by wired interfaces with balanced or coaxial lines, and in other embodiments of the invention, via radio interfaces.

Some embodiments of the invention may relate to the determination of the location of the transmitter signal by receiving the signal through multiple antennas and receive paths by measuring the time of arrival of a signal, using the time difference of arrival to calculate the mutual differences in the distance between the signal transmitter and the respective antennas and the triangulation of differences in distance to calculate the position of the signal transmitter relative to known reference points. Other embodiments of the invention may relate to the determination of the location of the transmitter signal, combined with the foster tract response signal by receiving the signal through multiple antennas and receive paths, the transmission of the response signal is fishing and receive their adoptive tract response signals, using the arrival time of the signal and the arrival time of the response signals for calculating the distance between the signal transmitter and the respective antennas, and calculating the location of the signal transmitter relative to known reference points by the method of triangulation arcs.

Figure 1 shows an example of positioning the system positioning the object with the attached signal transmitter, a radio frequency identification tag in accordance with the embodiment of the invention. The system includes structural units of readers 1, 2, 3 and 4, each containing one of the recurring functional parts of the system, and a controller 5 that contains distinct functional parts of the system. All structural units of the system are connected by segments of the electric cable 6. In some embodiments, the controller 5 is connected to each individual reader cut the electric cable 6, some of these options separate segments of the electric cable 6 are of the same length to make the same delay is passed through them the synchronization signal. In other embodiments, the structural units are connected by segments of the electric cable 6 one after another, as the lights in the garland. In variants with different length of electrical cable from the controller to different readers, can be used according to CNAE technology, compensating different delay of the synchronization signal.

In the example in figure 1 shows four of the reader 1, 2, 3 and 4 with built-in antennas, located approximately orthogonal directions from the area in which the radio frequency identification tag is expected to be located, although other options may use other placements readers and another of their number. Figure 1 also shows the radio frequency identification tag 7 attached to the object 8. Identifying the presence and location of radio frequency identification tag 7, the system can determine the presence and location of the object 8.

When the signal is transmitted radio frequency identification tag 7, the time at which the signal is received by different readers may be somewhat different, due to different propagation time of the signal to the antennas of the reader. Different time distribution, in turn, may be due to the difference in distance between the label and the respective antennas. The difference between reception time and therefore can be used to calculate the reciprocal of the difference in distance between the label and each receiving antenna. Using the technique of triangulation, this difference in distance can be used to calculate the location of the radio frequency identification label in relation to conventions at the different receiving antennas, provided that the mutual distance and the mutual direction of each antenna from the other antennas is known.

Using methods based on comparison of the difference of the distances (not distance) from famous landmarks, the surface location of the radio frequency identification tag 7 can be uniquely identified by the two readers 1, 2, the location of the line lying on the surface with three readers 1, 2, 3 and the position of a point on this line is using the four readers 1, 2, 3 and 4. Thus, four of the reader can be used to uniquely identify the location of the label as a point in 3-dimensional space, with respect to the four readers (antennas readers). Although this configuration is shown in figure 1, other options may use three or even two reader to uniquely identify the location of radio frequency identification tags on the surface or on line, respectively, if this is enough to solve applied problems. On the other hand, more than four readers can be used if the location should be determined with greater accuracy, since additional information may be used to reduce some of the inaccuracies caused by such factors as a large antenna size, deviation lying is neither etc.

Figure 2 shows the structural diagram of the reader, and figure 3 - block diagram of the controller illustrating the distribution of structural units of the functional parts of the system positioning in the embodiment of the invention. In the part of the reader is enabled by repeating the functional part of the system, such as: antenna 9, the receive path 10, the measuring circuit 11 and the circuit summation stacked 12, cascaded in the order listed. Non-recurring functional part of the system, the scheme of calculating the location 13, in this embodiment of the invention is included in the controller. For communication to multiple summation schemes stacked 12 with the scheme of calculating the location 13 is used, the data line 14 in the electric power cable 6. For interfacing with the data line 14 schemes summation with the accumulation of 12 in the part of the reader is enabled transmitter serial interface 15, and for interfacing with the data line 14 schemes calculate the position 13 in the controller is enabled, the receiver of the serial interface 16.

In the described embodiment of the invention uses separate measurement time 11 for each of the receive paths 10 in each reader. For synchronization of time scales circuits measurement of time used in isoamsa common synchronization source 17, which, in this embodiment of the invention is included in the controller. Communication synchronization source 17 with the circuit time measurement 11 is carried out in synchronization line 18 in the electric power cable 6.

To enable positioning of multiple radio frequency identification tags, labels differ by their IDs allocated by the reader from the received signals of labels data extractor 19, connected at the input to the output of a receive path 10, and the output to the input of the transmitter of the serial interface 15. Data about the time of arrival of the signal from the label and the data ID of the same label are transmitted by the transmitter of the serial interface 15 to the data line 14 to the controller, where those and other data are allocated from the serial signal to the data line 14 receiver serial interface 16 and delivered to the scheme of calculating the location 13.

When receiving a signal from the label via the antenna 9 and the receive path 10 to the measuring circuit 11, it begins to identify the characteristic points on the intervals of signal elements, for example, the fronts of the two-sided limited output signal of the detector. The function of the measurement time can be counter-timer and schematic capture its state. Counters-timers with the scheme to which that part of the peripheral modules in many microcontrollers. The clock frequency of the counter-timer and the number of bits are selected so that the duration of the period of the counter-timer coincided with the duration of the signal elements of the label. The same period or a multiple of the greater must be the signal synchronization source 17. The source signal synchronization adjusts the phase of clock cycles of the counter-timer and phase States of the counter-timer.

The captured state of the counter-timer reflect the measured time values of the characteristic points of the signal elements in a circular time scale with period equal to the duration of the element signal. If during signal transmission, the position of the label is not changed, the result of measurements could be obtained the same values of cyclic time characteristic points of the signal elements. However, due to the impact of many factors and, first of all, noise reception path, cycle time characteristic point of the element signal is a random variable and its values obtained in different dimensions may differ from each other.

From theory of errors is known that the most probable value of a random variable is the arithmetic average of measured values of a random variable. Thus the variance of the arithmetic mean is less than the variance of the random variable N times, where N is the number of values Sluch Inoi value, involved in the calculation of the arithmetic mean. For this application the objective of this means that it is always possible to reduce the RMS error of estimating the time of arrival of the signal, and thus to increase the accuracy of determining the location of the transmitter signal, if you increase the number of signal elements in which the measured characteristic time points, and averaging the measurements.

The operation of averaging the results of measurements performed by the method of summing stacked 12. If the number of signal elements N, for which the measured characteristic time point and summed up the results of measurements is equal to 2 to the power m, where m is an integer, then the accumulated scheme summation with the accumulation of the number, after discarding a certain number of least significant bits can be used as estimate the time of arrival of the signal.

Arriving at the diagram, calculate the location of the 13 estimates the time of arrival of the signal of the same labels from different readers are used to calculate the mutual time difference of arrival. These differences show how much closer or farther each antenna of the reader was from the transmitter signal (i.e., labels). The time difference translated into a difference of distances by multiplying by the speed of signal propagation in air. The label position is calculated by the solutions of the triangulation system of equations with substitution of the known coordinates of the reference points and the difference of the distance of the label from the reference point.

Below is a description of the process that implements the method of determining the location of the transmitter signal on the time of arrival of the signal, in accordance with the flowchart in figure 4. The process is described on the assumption that the signal from one transmitter, but a similar process can be followed for acquisitions of signals from multiple transmitters, using currently known, or that may be developed, methods of processing signals from multiple transmitters.

In step 20, the signal transmitter can be received by multiple antennas and the respective receiving paths. The following steps are performed with respect to those outputs of receive paths, on which the signal is detected. Steps 21, 22, 23 and 24 are looping a certain number of times during the time of signal reception.

At step 21 it is expected the appearance of characteristic points in the received signal at the outputs of the respective receive paths. In step 22 is the time dimension of the characteristic points of the signal at the outputs of the respective receive paths. In step 23 measured by the most recent execution of step 23 time values of the characteristic points of the signal at the outputs of the respective receive paths are added to the previously accumulated sum of the measured time values of the characteristic points of the signal for all before eastwoodiae cycles since the beginning of reception of a signal to determine the arithmetic mean of the measured time values of the characteristic points of the signal. It is assumed that before the start of the reception signal accumulated sum to zero. In step 24 checks the number of cycles of summirovanii made since the beginning of the reception signal and, if the number of cycles of summirovanii equal to a predetermined number N, go to step 25, otherwise returns to step 21. The predetermined number N, it is advisable to select equal to two in degree m, where m is an integer.

In step 25 computes the location of the transmitter signal using the estimated arrival time of the signal through different antennas and reception paths, which are used accumulated during N cycles of the sum of the measured time values of the characteristic points of the signal after discarding a certain number of least significant bits and taking into account the discreteness of time corresponding to the youngest of the remaining digits.

The ability to accurately and distant location of the signal transmitter as described with a simple implementation can be used in various fields of human activity. The task of RFID location tags and associated objects in real-time relevant for automated production facilities, warehouses, stores. The application of similar systems to track the movement of miners, cornerboy is, rescue workers, firefighters and maintenance personnel subway, long tunnels, indoor hazardous industries, etc. will improve the security of their work. The advantage of this technology is the ability to determine the location of any transmitter modulated signal, even if this feature wasn't included in its development. The described method can determine the location of analogue or digital radio stations and subscriber terminals cellular networks.

1. The system for determining the location of the transmitter signal on the time of arrival of a signal that includes multiple antennas, multiple receive paths, each receiving path connected to one of the multiple antennas for processing a signal received through a corresponding antenna, the allocation of specific points on the interval of elements of the received signal and measure the time of occurrence of the characteristic points of the signal connected to each of the receive paths, or more allocation patterns of characteristic points at intervals of elements of the received signal and measure the time of occurrence of the characteristic points of the signal, each of which is connected with one of the multiple receive paths, as well as the scheme of calculating the location of the transmitter signal arrival time signal, characterized in that VK is uchet one method of summing with the accumulation of the measurement results for each scheme the selection of characteristic points at intervals of elements of the received signal and measure the time of occurrence of the characteristic points of the signal, at the entrance of each summation with the accumulation of the results of measurements connected to the output of one of the schemes the selection of characteristic points at intervals of elements of the received signal and measure the time of occurrence of the characteristic points of the signal, and the output of each summing with the accumulation of the results of measurements associated with the schema for computing the location of the transmitter signal on the time of arrival of the signal.

2. The method of determining the location of the transmitter signal on the time of arrival of a signal that includes a transmitted signal through multiple antennas and receive paths, separate processing of the signal received by each antenna, for determining the characteristic points of the received signal, measuring the time of occurrence of the characteristic points of the received signal, and calculating the location of the transmitter signal on the time of arrival of the signal, characterized in that it includes the measurement of cyclical time of the appearance of the characteristic points on the interval element signal for the set of signal elements, the definition of the arithmetic mean of the measured values of the cyclic time of the appearance of the characteristic points of a received signal and uses the arithmetic mean of the measured values of the cyclic time of the appearance of the characteristic points received signal as the time of arrival of the signal at vyseleniyanapomnim transmitter signal time of arrival of the signal.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that when determining the arithmetic mean of the measured values of the time of occurrence of characteristic points of the received signal uses only the measured values of the time of appearance of the characteristic points of the received signal, which is received on the clock intervals of the signal with the unique characteristic point.



 

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