Railway vehicle braking clamp

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to railway transport, namely, to railway vehicle braking clamps. Braking clamp comprises composite friction element, steel wire carcass, solid iron insert electrochemically coated with bronze alloy, arranged at clamp center and inserted into said composite friction element. Steel wire carcass represents two closed frames inserted in said composite friction element of clamp rear side, along clamp edges. Inner parts of two closed frames are overlapped and bent outward from clap rear side to make ear for cotter pin. Clamp rear side has steel gauze or perforated tin inserted in composite friction element. Iron insert with bronze alloy at its top idle part has the slot at its rear with inserted composite friction element with cotter pin ear and supports arranged in symmetry on insert both sides. Insert top idle part is inserted in steel carcass and clamped therein. All metal part of the clamp stay indirect contact.

EFFECT: higher reliability, longer life.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to brake devices, namely to the brake pads for rail vehicles.

The prior art commercially produced at present cast iron monolithic brake pads, for example, produced according to GOST 1205-73 "Pads cast-iron brake for cars and tenders Railways. Design and basic dimensions and composition brake blocks for railway cars. Composite brake blocks for railway wagons are made of two types:

with a metal frame made of a steel strip with a U-shaped ledge and welded to reinforcing plate;

- wire mesh-wire frame.

(B.A. Shiryaev. Production of brake pads made of composite materials for railroad cars. M, Chemistry, 1982, p.8-14).

Known block of a rail vehicle on the author's certificate of the USSR No. 518403 (IPC VN 7/02, 1976), consisting of friction material and metal frame. Metal frame is tylenol made in the form shrunk in the friction material on the perimeter pads two closed frames, the inner part which are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet to pass the checks. Tylenol equipped with a metal mesh is th or perforated sheet, shrunk in the friction material. This frame is received at the serial production name mesh-wire, because it consists of wire and mesh frames. Moreover, according to the specifications on these pads Pets exposure of Telnice mesh-wire frame to 50% of the area.

The main significant external and constructive difference of composite pads with mesh wire frame of composite pads with steel metal frame is that the Central boss these pads are made of a composite material with internal reinforcement, which increases the elastic properties of the pad and, as a consequence, vibration pads and prevents separation of the composite material from the frame and the destruction of the skeleton in place a U-shaped ledge.

Metal frame made of a steel strip with a U-shaped ledge and welded to reinforcing plate and mesh-wire frame do not leave your items in contact with the wheel area of the pad.

During the operation of composite brake blocks can occur separate defects, including: thermal cracks on the surface of the rolling wheels, the wear of the rolling surface of the wheels, reducing braking efficiency of the brake pads in contact with water in the friction zone (rain, snow), as well as the presence of the AI coal or peat dust and leaves on the surface of the rail.

Known technical solution is used for the same purpose as the claimed, and has shared with him the essential features: "composite friction material" and "wire frame", made in the form shrunk in the friction material rear pads on the perimeter pads, two closed frames, the inner part which are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet for passing checks", "Central boss with a hole for the pin and two side lugs made from a friction composite material", "Telnic equipped with a metal mesh or perforated sheet metal, plated in friction material.

The prior art composite block containing one or more solid inserts designed to reduce the aforementioned disadvantages of composite pads.

Known brake Shoe (copyright certificate of the USSR No. 159186 (20f.1, IPC V h, 1963).

Brake Shoe is intended mainly for railway rolling stock, with solid inserts on the friction surface side, characterized in that to increase the effectiveness of interactions pads with the wheel rim, a pair of rigid inserts are symmetrical about the horizontal axis of the pad, cover her frequent friction is across the width.

The inserts are held by friction forces arising between them and the friction material pads.

The design of these pads do not provide the required reliability, as with long-term and emergency braking is an intensive heat transfer from the zone of friction on the surface of solid inserts, inserts have a higher thermal conductivity, so that the temperature of the composite material on the surfaces which are in contact with solid inserts, increases dramatically and there is a thermal destruction of the organic materials included in a composite block including a binder, in this connection, the fastening inserts weakened, and they fail to fulfill its purpose and can fall out of the block.

These pads do not reduce the inherent composite pads uneven wear due to damage to the wheelset due to the formation of thermal cracks, floaters, and a fat, increased wear of the wheel surface. Data pads have a metal frame, so that when the vibrations generated in the brake node during operation, there may be cases not only the loss of hard insertions of the pads due to the weakening their attachment with frictional material, but also separation of the friction composition career is the second part of the pad from the metal frame, and also crack and break metal frame.

Solid insert and the metal frame are not in contact with each other.

The essential features most similar analogue: "solid insert overlying the strip across its width and the friction part are shared with the essential features of the claimed pads.

Known brake pad, mainly railway vehicle according to the patent of Russian Federation №2188347 from 27.08.2002. Brake pad contains a metal wire frame and a friction part, consisting of fixed thereto three inserts. The Central part is made of cast iron and provided with a hole for the pin, and the other two inserts made of composite material and are located on both edges of a solid insert.

This brake pad can improve the braking performance and increase the service life of the wheels, however, has insufficient strength and service life. thermal conductivity of cast iron 25÷30 times greater than thermal conductivity of a composite material, and the heat resistance of the composite material is insufficient. At the joints of cast-iron insert with composite inserts, on the surface they are in contact during operation there is a gradual fading of the composite material, resulting in brake pad loses the desired rigidity and long-term operating the operation can be divided into three parts, United only wire frame.

Separation pads in operation for three inserts, United only wire frame is particularly causes a negative feature of this design pads, namely the contact inserts with each other in a vertical plane throughout the cross section of the pad that facilitates the rapid development of a single vertical crack and break pads.

Steel wire frame embedded in the friction material and is in direct contact with the cast iron insert that goes into the working area of the brake pads.

Known technical solution is used for the same purpose as the claimed, and has shared with him the essential features: metal wire frame", "mounted thereon a friction part", "solid insert, composite friction material.

The closest analogue is a brake pad of a rail vehicle according to the patent of Russian Federation №2340805 from 20.07.2007. Brake pad contains a composite friction element, the wire frame, solid box, located in the Central part of the pad and pressed into composite friction element. The wire frame represents shrunk in the composite friction element back side pads, PE is imetro pads, two closed frames. The inner part two closed frames are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet to pass the checks. Pad from the back side contains a steel mesh or perforated sheet metal, plated in composite friction element. The insert in the upper outside part has a groove on its rear side, pressed friction composite material with a hole for the passage of checks and console symmetrically located along the length of the insert on each side. The upper outside portion of the insert is inserted into the wire frame and pinched it. Achieved an increase in strength and structural safety pads, increasing their service life.

However, this composite brake pads with a combined frame have drawbacks. As all metal parts pads connected: steel mesh or perforated sheet is in contact with a wire frame and solid inserts that they form at least a bipolar electrode, one pole of which faces the back surface of the pad, and the other pole is in the area of frictional contact. During storage and, particularly, during the operation of the entire surface of the composite brake pads is under the influence of corrosive environment. In spring and summer p is the period over which the surface is irrigated by rain and wet condensate, and in autumn and winter is covered with a solid crust of ice and snow, that is, the entire surface of the pad in contact with the electrolyte. Moreover, if the back surface of the pad is exposed only electrochemical corrosion due to the impact of natural precipitation, the working portion is the joint influence of electrochemical corrosion and high-temperature gas corrosion.

High-temperature gas corrosion caused by oxidation of a solid insert oxygen, hydrogen, generated by thermal decomposition of the binder, hydrogen sulfide due to the interaction of hydrogen and unbound sulfur contained in the friction material. In addition, the hydrogen sulfide upon contact with water to form sulfurous acid, which also has an adverse effect on the surface of the solid insert.

Some of the components of the friction element, particularly chrysotile asbestos, also contribute to corrosion degradation of metals in contact with him.

As a result of corrosion is rust on all metal structural members pads. The strength of the contact friction polymeric material and metal structural elements pads covered with corrosion products, decreases and can lead to violation of the integrity of the pad.

The objective of the decision is of which directed the inventive brake pad, is to minimize the harmful effects of corrosion of metal parts pads, increasing the reliability of structures pads, increasing its service life.

The task proposed to solve using the brake pads of a rail vehicle, is presented in figure 1 and contains:

- composite friction element (POS.1);

- the wire frame (position 2), which is plated in composite friction material rear pads on the perimeter pads, two closed frames, the inner part which are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet to pass cheques;

metal mesh or perforated sheet (pos.4), plated in composite friction element;

- solid insert (3) with the tab (position 9) and the slope of the solid insert (pos.10), covered by electrochemical method bronze alloy, located in the Central part of the pad and having in the upper outside part of the groove (pos.7), the notch (pos.8) and four console (pos.11). The groove is located on the back side of the insert and pressed frictional material with a drilled hole in it to pass the checks. Four console symmetrically arranged two on each side of the insert along its length. The length of the insert in place consoles Bo is the more length of the Central boss (5), but less than the distance between the side bosses (pos.6). The notch is located on one side along the length of the two sides across the width and height so that the back surface of the insert is in the same plane with the surface of the mesh or perforated sheet at the rear surface of the Central boss, and the crushing force exceeds the weight of the insert.

Significant feature of the inventive pads "solid insert, covered with bronze alloy is distinctive from significant characteristic is the closest equivalent.

Solid inserts can be made of special cast iron, such as ductile or malleable, by casting the required form, with subsequent machining of the surface.

Solid inserts after machining the surface is subjected to etching in concentrated hydrochloric acid, washing in water, prior rovaniemen from alkaline electrolytes, the coating thickness of 3÷5 µm, leaching and electrochemical directly coated bronze alloy from the sulfuric acid electrolyte with the antioxidant content of tin from 4 to 11% of the mass, the thickness of the coating 15÷25 microns.

Electrochemical coating cast iron insert bronze alloy allows an 8-fold increase adhesion of the friction material to the cast iron after vulcanization pads. Br is Novoe floor during operation block is sintered in the presence of strong reducing agents such for example, as hydrogen and an oxide of carbon (carbon monoxide), formed by thermal decomposition of the binder during braking. The resulting sintered material (cermet) has an intermediate coefficient of thermal conductivity between the metal and polymer composite material, and thereby prevents premature destruction of the surface of the pad, which is high temperature frictional contact with the surface of the wheel. In addition, as a result of high temperature and pressure in the area of frictional contact is created pressure mode in which the formation of ORGANOTIN compounds from the fragments of the polymeric binder and tin, part of the bronze. ORGANOTIN compounds have thermal conductivity greater than the rate of polymer brake pads 2÷2.5 times. Finally, tin, getting on the surface of the wheel, with its subsequent segregation at grain boundaries of the iron matrix, will contribute to the strengthening of the wheel material. Use instead of bronze brass is not acceptable as zinc, which is part brass, leads to embrittlement of the grain boundaries of the matrix of iron and its destruction.

Thus, a bronze coating deposited electrochemically on a cast iron insert:

- protects the t atmospheric, high temperature gas and electrochemical corrosion;

- is a buffer in the way of distribution of heat flow in cast iron insert and polymer composite block;

- prevents the absorption of metal surfaces in the area of frictional contact;

- significantly improves the adhesion of iron to polymer composite weight pads after vulcanization;

- prevents embrittlement of the grain boundaries of the matrix of the iron wheels of steel and its premature failure.

Brake pad railway vehicle containing composite friction element, steel wire frame, solid cast iron insert, located in the Central part of the pad and pressed into composite friction element, steel wire frame represents shrunk in the composite friction element back side pads on the perimeter pads, two closed frames, inner parts of the two closed frames are mutually overlapped and bent out the rear of the pads, forming an eyelet to pass checks, the pad from the back side contains a steel mesh or perforated sheet metal, plated in composite friction element, a cast iron insert in the upper outside part has a groove with her backside pressed friction composition is traditional material with a hole for the passage of checks and console symmetrically located along the length of the insert on each side of the upper outside portion of the insert is inserted into the wire frame and clamped therein, all metal pads are in direct contact, characterized in that all the cast iron insert is covered with a layer of bronze, caused by electrochemical method, and pressed into frictional material.



 

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