Method of activating coal particles in vertical axially symmetrical annular chamber

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of activating coal particles in a vertical axially symmetrical annular chamber by batchwise loading of the area under the hearth with size-fractioned particles, heating, removing moisture and volatile substances, as well as cooling with organised ascending-descending annular circulatory movement of particles with heated and cooled flue gases and steam, fed from the side of the roof cover by axial vertically descending streams, removal during activation and release into the furnace of a heat-producing apparatus of gaseous activation products, batchwise unloading of activated cooled particles from the area under the hearth, characterised by that circulation of particles in the ascending-descending annular stream is carried out by axial vertically descending streams of heated flue gases at the first, then a mixture of heated flue gases and steam and at the end cooled flue gases, fed into the annular chamber. The volume of the loaded portions of coal particles Vy=(0.1-0.7)VK the volume of the annular chamber, m3; the speed of the medium in the ascending branch of the circulation annular stream wn=(0.1-0.6)w0 the speed of the axial vertically descending stream of flue gases and steam, m/s; and content of oxygen in the fed axial vertically descending streams maintained at O2=(0.04-0.16).

EFFECT: maximum removal of volatile substances from coal particles with minimum burning of coke residue, providing maximum sorption activity of the obtained product.

1 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of industrial heat-power engineering and can be used in the production of activated carbon.

There is a method of activated powdered charcoal with nefrackzionirovannam size particles by continuous input and heating by a gas torch, separation and combustion of light and heavy fractions of volatiles in the reactor presuposes layer countercurrent torch-heater and gaseous combustion products, the jets of air and steam, the subsequent cooling pronounced cooling of the finished product (X. Chinle, E. Bader. Active carbons and their industrial applications. Chemistry, L., 1984, p.50-53).

The disadvantage of this method is the large consumption of gas for heating and loss of heat in the process of activation of coal, including an activated material in the burn-in fine dust fractions.

The known method of heating, separation and burning of volatile substances powdered coal in inverter reactors enter through the ceiling and lateral pipes of the source material, air, jets of steam and inert gas ballasting zone response and slow down the burning process (UL Marshak. Combustion device with a vertical cyclone furnaces. Energy, M, 1966, p.20-130).

The disadvantage of this method is the large gas flow and loss of heat, including vigorelle small what reklami coal.

There is a method of activating fractionated by particle size of the powdered coal by entering into the reactor source material vertically slotted threads mixed with products of combustion and heating co vertically slotted gas torches (RF patent No. 2306484; F23C 1/12 dated 13.06.2006,; B. I. No. 26, 2007).

When activating fractionated according to particle size using the method in the absence of detail is significantly reduced burning coke fundamentals of coal. However, there is still lack - overrun gas for heating and significant loss of heat process is activated.

There is a method of activating fractionated by particle size of the powdered coal by entering them vertically slotted threads mixed with products of combustion and heating co vertically slotted gas torches in the horizontal chamber flare heaters, separation and combustion of light and heavy fractions of volatile substances in the interaction with gaseous combustion products, air and vapor in the inverter reactors, cooling air in a fluidized bed with simultaneous removal of surface heat exchanger (X. Chinle, E. Bader. Active carbons and their industrial applications. Chemistry, L., 1984, s-179, RIS).

The disadvantage of this method is the significant gas flow and loss of heat process activerow the deposits.

There is a method of activated carbon particles in a vertical axisymmetric annular chamber by batch loading narodowego plot pre-fractionated by size particles, the heat output of moisture and volatile substances, as well as cooling in an organized lifting and lowering ring circulation of particles heated and cooled flue gases and steam introduced from the ceiling axial vertical standpipe flows, diversion in the process of activation and discharge into the furnace of the district heating installation gaseous products enable portions unloading activated cooled particles from narodowego plot (Heat power engineering and heat engineering. The Handbook. Book 4. Industrial power engineering and heat engineering. Under the General editorship of V.A. Grigoriev and V. M. Zorin, M.: Energoatomizdat, 1983, s-204, RIS, table-2.91).

The disadvantage of this method is a significant cost of gas, air and heat losses.

There is a method of activated carbon particles in a vertical axisymmetric annular chamber by batch loading narodowego plot pre-fractionated by size particles, the heat output of moisture and volatile substances, as well as cooling in an organized lifting and lowering ring circulation the movement of heated particles and chlazenymi flue gases and steam, input from the ceiling axial vertical standpipe flows, diversion in the process of activation and discharge into the furnace of the district heating installation gaseous products enable portions unloading activated cooled particles from narodowego plot (dual-zone model aerodynamics, teplomassoobmennyh processes and combustion in nadsloevom space of the furnace and boiler with circulating fluidized bed / B.B. the rokhman // Teploenergetika, No. 9, 2005, p.35-43). The method includes the circulation removed from the furnace of the coal particles with the return on foreign pipeline in lifting a layer of gas-air mixture with fresh particles.

The disadvantage of this method is the large loss of material and heat with continuously blown and abhirami fine particles made from a layer of hot gases.

The closest known method of activated carbon particles in a vertical axisymmetric annular chamber by batch loading narodowego plot pre-fractionated by size particles, the heat output of moisture and volatile substances, as well as cooling in an organized lifting and lowering motion of particles heated and cooled flue gases and steam introduced from the ceiling axial vertical standpipe flows, diversion in the process activerow the Oia and discharged into the furnace of the district heating installation gaseous products of activation, portions unloading activated cooled particles from narodowego plot (B.A. Gondorf. Technique of high pressure chemistry. Hosni chemical literature, M-L., 1952, s-102).

The method, implemented in the apparatus of periodic action, particularly in the cells of autoclave type with reference to the existing district heating equipment more economical in comparison with the methods implemented in the apparatus of continuous operation. The disadvantage of this method is the low quality of the finished absorbent product, reduced sorption activity.

The technical problem of the invention is to achieve maximum removal of volatiles from the coal particles with minimal burning of the coke residue, providing maximum sorption activity of the manufactured product.

To solve the challenges in implementing the method of the activated carbon particles in a vertical axisymmetric annular chamber by batch loading narodowego plot pre-fractionated by size particles, the heat output of moisture and volatile substances, as well as cooling in an organized lifting and lowering ring circulation of particles heated and cooled flue gases and steam introduced from the ceiling axial vertical standpipe flows otodo is in the process of activation and discharge into the furnace of the district heating installation gaseous products of activation, portions unloading activated cooled particles from narodowego plot, according to the invention, the circulation of particles in lifting and lowering the annular flow organise introduced into the annular chamber axial vertical standpipe flows initially heated flue gases, the mixture is heated flue gas and steam, at the end of the cooled flue gases, the volume of the loaded portions of the coal particles is Vy=(0,1-0,7)Vtothe volume of the annular chamber, m3the speed environment in lifting the branches circulating annular flow is wp=(0.1 to 0.6)w0speed axial vertically descending stream of flue gas and steam, m/s, and that the proportion of oxygen in the input axial vertical standpipe flows support at the level Of2=(is 0.04-0.16).

Heating of the particles, the withdrawal from them of moisture and volatile substances in the circulating lifting and lowering the annular stream organized in the beginning of the heated flue gases, and then the mixture is heated flue gas and steam, as well as subsequent cooling of the particles in the circulating lifting and lowering the annular flow, organized by the flue gases to maintain the indicated ranges of Vy=(0,1-0,7)Vto; wp=(0.1 to 0.6)w0;2=(is 0.04-0.16) provide the most favorable conditions enable the minimization of the residual content of volatile substances and bharatarsabha residue, that improves the quality of an activated product, its sorption activity and solve the task of the invention. Exception in any of these conditions or reject any of the parameters Vy, wpAbout2at least 1% more or less entails a sharp abrupt increase of the residual content of volatile substances in the final product, or the proportion of Amhara coke residue with increasing consumption of coolant flow and their own needs in the process of activation, and therefore the claimed ranges of the parameters Vy=(0,1-0,7)Vto; wp=(0.1 to 0.6)w0;2=(is 0.04-0.16) are optimal.

The proposed method is implemented in the installation illustrated in the drawings.

Figure 1 shows a diagram of the camera activated carbon particles of periodic action, a longitudinal section during the loading of the source material; figure 2 - the same cell during the activation of the coal particles; 3 - the same camera during the unloading of the finished absorbent product; figure 4 - scheme of EnergoData generating steam, in particular, for paroturbostroeniya, with somovaelena equipment and Luggage activated carbon particles periodic operation; figure 5 is a section a - a in figure 4; figure 6 - a view B figure 4.

Luggage activate 1 of the coal particles 2 with a vertical axis is Imperii k in figure 1, 2, 3 includes a vertical cylindrical wall 3, ceiling and deck slabs 4 and 5, respectively, built from the ceiling 4 along the axis k of the cylindrical pipe 6 to enter the flue gases 7 and para 8, pipe 9 for batch backfill (flow) of the coal particles 2 of the original physico-chemical composition, the nozzle 10 for withdrawal of gaseous products 11 activate filter 12 and purging 13; nozzles 6, 9, 10 are equipped with gas-tight valves 14, 15, 16, respectively; the camera 1 has an external cooling jacket 17, repeating vertical profiles 3 wall, ceiling and deck slabs 4, 5; shirt 17 equipped with nozzles 18, 19 with gas-tight valves 20, 21 to enter and discharge of the cooling agent 22, respectively; between the jacket 17 and the elements 3, 4, 5 of the camera 1 is performed gap 23 for circulation of the cooling agent 22; outer lower part of the jacket 17 is equipped with a sealing system 24 and unloading of absorbent material, in particular in the form of padlocking device 25. For doing repair work provided by the upper detachable sealing system 26. The space between the vertical cylindrical wall 3 and the cylindrical pipe 6 forms an annular cavity 27 volume Vtouploaded on figure 1 initial material volume Vyserving as working in processactionevent in figure 2.

When the camera 1 is implemented by the claimed method of the activated carbon particles 2. Before activation according to figure 1, 4 camera 1 seal sealing systems 24, 26. The pipe 9 enter the initial batch of pre-fractionated by particle size of 2, after which the pipe 9 overlap-tight shut-off valve 15; then according to figure 2, 4, 5, 6 open gas-tight valve 14 and the pipe 6 into the chamber 1 serves hot flue gases 7 and 8 pairs; the pipe 18 into the gap 23 between the jacket 17 and the elements 3, 4, 5 of the camera 1 after the opening of the valve 20 serves cooled flue gases 22; for the withdrawal of gaseous products 11 of the camera 1 open the valve 16 in the pipe 10, and for the flue gases 22 from the gap 23 to open the valve 21 in the pipe 19. Axial vertical standpipe flow 28 is heated flue gases 7 forms an annular space chamber 1 lifting and lowering circulating movement of a multiphase environment from gas 7 pair 8, the activated particles 29 with the formation of the lifting and lowering of the branches 30 and 31 recirculating annular flow 32; excess gaseous products 11 discharged through the pipe 10 with the filter 12 and valve 16; when the clogging of the filter 12 is implemented by its blowing performed during operation or shutdown of the camera 1; the discharge of exhaust flue 11 is carried out in a furnace 33 of the district heating installation, in private the tee, according to figure 4, 5, 6 boiler 34; there through the pipe 19 with the valve 21 deduce exhaust smoke grooves of the gap 23 between the jacket 17 and the elements 3, 4, 5 of the camera 1. At the end of the activation block valves 14, 16, 20 to the nozzles 6, 10, 18, 19 and, according to figure 3, 4, produce the depressurization chamber 1 through node 24 and tilting hearth slabs 5 by means of the mechanism 25.

For conducting the process of activation is made of regime map, linking the initial physico-chemical characteristics of the particles with their size, temperature and time of activation, the composition of the activated agent. Common to all types of activated particles is declared a new feature of the method: after the initial venting hot flue gases 7 make the transition to the purge mixture is heated flue gases 7 and a pair of 8 with the last one on the same pipe 6, and after a certain time period start blowing the cooled flue gases 22, feeding them through the pipe 6; when this support is constantly open valve 16 to the discharge pipe 10. Activating and cooling is performed with the volume of the loaded portions of the coal particles, laid in repose in under 5 camera 1, Vy=(0,1-0,7)Vtothe volume of the annular chamber 1, m3the speed environment in lifting the branches 30 circulating annular flow 32 Rav is and w p=(0.1 to 0.6)w0speed axial vertical standpipe flow 28 of the flue gases and steam, m/s, and that the proportion of oxygen in the input axis vertically lowering the threads 28 of the support at the level Of2=(is 0.04-0.16). The activated portion of the coal particles is removed from the camera 1 using padlocking device 26 after shut-off valves 14, 16, 20, 21 on the nozzle 6, 10, 18, 19. The ratio of the geometric characteristics of the camera 1 and the annular cavity 27 in the application materials are not considered, are the subject of another invention.

Heating of the initial particles 2, the output from them of moisture and volatile substances in the circulating lifting and lowering the annular flow 32 arranged at the beginning of the heated flue gases 7, and then the mixture is heated flue gases 7 and para 8 and subsequent cooling of the particles in the circulating lifting and lowering the annular flow 32, arrange the cooled flue gases 22 maintaining the indicated ranges of Vy=(0,1-0,7)Vto; wp=(0.1 to 0.6)w0; O2=(is 0.04-0.16) provide the most favorable conditions enable the minimization of the residual content of volatile substances and Amhara coke residue, which increases the quality of the activated product 25, sorption activity and solve the task of the invention. Exception in any of these conditions or reject lubog the parameter V y, wpAbout2at least 1% more or less entails a sharp abrupt increase of the residual content of volatile substances in the final product, or the proportion of Amhara coke residue with increasing consumption of coolant flow and their own needs in the process of activation, and therefore the claimed ranges of the parameters Vy=(0,1-0,7)Vto; wp=(0.1 to 0.6)w0;2=(is 0.04-0.16) are optimal.

Implementation of the proposed method is possible in the camera 1 in another construction, in particular, with ceiling and deck beams 4, 5, made in the form of hemispheres. In addition, the camera 1 can be made of the water-cooled feed in pipe 18 and the discharge through the pipe 19 of the water. The work of such a camera similar to the camera 1 to 1, 2, 3 with the implementation of the method according to figure 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in full.

Practical application of the method associated with combustion installations of various types and purposes, including boiler 34 figure 4, 5, 6. Camera 1 according to figure 4, 5, 6 are installed in the boiler shop of the plant before the boiler 34 cm 33 for flaring of gas and coal dust. Furnace 33 is equipped with burners 35, with the channels 36 and 37 to enter the gas 38 and dusty 39 mixtures, respectively. To enter gas 40 use the nozzles 41, mounted in the channels 36. Pyleva the stuffy mixture 39 is directed into the channels 37 of the mills 42, where traditional modes of bins 43 feeders 44 serves lump fuel and air 45. The heat of the burning fuel in the furnace 33 is passed the resulting products of combustion 46 and from the shielding pipe 47 and the heater 48, is placed in the duct 49 of the boiler 34 to heat the water 50 and get a pair of 8 in the superheater 51. Last go in the turboelectric generator (figure 4, 5, 6 not shown) to generate electricity. Part of the heat of the combustion products 46 transmit streams of air 45 from the fan 52 in the heater 53. The combustion products 46 is removed from boiler 34 through gazosilikatny installation 54. 55 in the pipe (figure 2, 3, 4 not shown) and into the atmosphere. The camera 1 is placed in a series of mills 42. When the camera 1 hopper 43 load pre-fractionated by size (1-2 mm, 2-3 mm, 3-4 mm, 5-6 mm, etc.) particles of coal 2. This eliminates unnecessary time consumption for the process, Abgar smaller particles (in comparison, for example, with nefrackzionirovannam-activated material size 0-6 mm). When the process is activated, the boiler 34 is switched to the mode of the steam generation 8 combustion gas 40. Gas 40 and 45 air injected into the combustion chamber 33 through the channels 36 and nozzle 41. Channels 37 free download dusty threads 39. Mill 42 is disabled. Include in the work of the fan 56 cooled flue g is the call 22 and moved in front of the camera 1 burner mixing device 57. Detailed design of the latter is not discussed, is the subject of another application for the invention. The device 57 is combusted gas 40 in the presence of air 45 from the heater 52, the flue gas 22 from the fan 56, a pair of 8 from the boiler 34. Depending on the specified parameters regime maps at the output of the device 57 before the valve 14 through the pipe 6 into the chamber 1 receives hot flue gases 7 depending on the type and properties of the coal to a temperature of 900-1300 K, the mixture of flue gases 7 and a pair of 8 in different ratios at a temperature of 800-1200 To also depending on the type and properties of the coal, and the cooled flue gases with a temperature of 400-600 K. the same temperature 400-600 To flue gases 22 from the fan 56 are received in the cooling chamber 1 to the nozzle 18 in the jacket 17.

Keeping time periods purging with different composition and temperature of gases and gas mixture are subject to regime maps developed for each type of coal and its individual physico-chemical composition. For particle sizes up to 6 mm from coals with high volatile content (>40%), heating and activation take a few seconds. For the same particles of coal with low volatile content (<20%) heating processes and enable longer - up to several tens of seconds. The cooling of the coke residue (activerow is the R particles) more long-term, to several tens of minutes. Unloading activated product 58 produce portions, in particular, roaming the shop cart 59. The technology, using the apparatus of periodic action is not designed for mass production of the finished product, usually closes on its implementation in their own needs. In boiler plants and CHP activated on the proposed method, the coal used in the systems of water treatment and effluent recycling with significant cost savings in comparison with option of purchase from a third party. Reasonable and not burdensome for staff and basic equipment CHP portioned meals a day unloading the raw material may be 0.1-1.6 t in the above fractions of particles of 1-2 mm, 2-3 mm, etc.

The method of activation of coal particles in a vertical axisymmetric annular chamber by batch loading narodowego plot pre-fractionated by size particles, the heat output of moisture and volatile substances, as well as cooling in an organized lifting and lowering ring circulation of particles heated and cooled flue gases and steam introduced from the ceiling axial vertical standpipe flows, diversion in the process of activation and discharge to the district heating furnace mouth of the shutdown of the gaseous products of activation, portions unloading activated cooled particles from narodowego section, characterized in that the circulation of particles in lifting and lowering the annular flow organise introduced into the annular chamber axial vertical standpipe flows initially heated flue gases, the mixture is heated flue gas and steam, at the end of the cooled flue gases, the volume of the loaded portions of the coal particles is Vy=(0,1-0,7)Vtothe volume of the annular chamber, m3the speed environment in lifting the branches circulating annular flow is wp=(0.1 to 0.6)w0speed axial vertically descending stream of flue gas and steam, m/s, and that the proportion of oxygen in the input axial vertical standpipe flows supported at the level of O2=(0.04 to 0.16).



 

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