Method of making fuel briquettes

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of making fuel briquettes involves grinding combustible solid components, mixing with binder, pressing and drying the briquettes. The method is characterised by that the combustible solid components used are recycled ballistit-type gun powder or non-recoverable wastes from powder production, ground on a modernised disk mill to particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm, and activated charcoal screenings, ground on a double-roll crusher to particle size of less than 4.0 mm, and mixed in 8.0-10.0% aqueous solution of polyacrylamide binder or a sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose in a continuous or periodic action mixing device with horizontal mixers, followed by pressing into fuel briquettes on a shaft pelleting press; the formed briquettes are dried with air on a three-section belt drier at temperature 100…105°C for 3 hours, cooled and then dry-cured for three days.

EFFECT: wider raw material base for making fuel briquettes, environmentally safe recycling of discarded gun powder, ballistit wastes and activated charcoal screenings not suitable for use as an adsorbent, high energy output and calorific capacity of the fuel briquettes.

1 dwg, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to environmentally safe production of fuel briquettes intended for use in industry, boilers, household use, furnaces railway cars, for household needs, etc. a Method of manufacturing fuel briquettes consists of mixing solid components utilized crushed gunpowder artillery ballistic type or irretrievable waste powder production and screenings of wood activated carbon in water-gel binder, briquetting fuel mass, drying and Provence briquettes.

There is a method of producing fuel briquettes patent RU 2147029, IPC C10L 5/12, 5/14, 5/16, 5/40, including metering and mixing the crushed solid fuel with a binder, briquetting the mixture under pressures up to 120 MPa and shutter briquettes at ambient temperature for 0.5 to 40 hours of Crushed solid fuel use from the group of vegetable waste and/or coal and/or coke breeze, slate waste of animals and birds. As a binder used lignosulfonate, molasses, tall oil pitch, or mixtures thereof, additional binder from the group comprising synthetic wax, paraffin wax, or paraffin GAC and as another additional binder use or cement, or clay, or sludge from on isdi wastewater.

The disadvantage of this method of producing fuel briquettes is low productivity due to the complexity of the compositions of the powdered solid fuel and a binder, complicating their preparation, dosing and mixing.

A known method of manufacturing a solid fuel patent RU 2043392 IPC C10L 5/14, C10L 9/10, 1995, which includes a mixture of powdered charcoal, sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose and potassium nitrate in aqueous solution, the extract mixture before formation at 60-80°C for 90-150 min, followed by molding into briquettes and convective drying at a temperature of from 80 to 120°C for at least 9 hours. The main disadvantage of the proposed method is the duration of the manufacturing process at relatively high temperatures, which requires a large amount of heat and energy. However, observe temperature regimes processing, otherwise the briquettes are obtained with low mechanical strength and unstable combustion.

The closest analogue of the invention is a method of making fuel briquettes patent RU 2055859, IPC C10L 5/14, C10L 11 /04 from 10.03.1996, selected by the authors for the prototype, including a mixture of shredded wood waste with a binder on the basis of nitrocellulose in an organic solvent, the binder used otrb is subjected to powder in the amount of 10-50 wt.% by weight of wood waste at a mass ratio of powder and solvent is from 1:10 to 1:5, before pressing effect the Stripping of the solvent mixture and compressing the mixture are in the matrix at 18-28°C and 40-100 MPa or screw press at T=85-95°C and 10-50 MPa, the Stripping of the solvent are heating the mixture to 60°C or by stirring the mixture with a 4-5-fold volume of water at 85-95°C.

The main disadvantage of this method is an environmental hazard due to use of large quantities of volatile solvents acetone, ethyl acetate, camphor to get EcoObraz binders nitrocellulose - spent gunpowder, the duration of the process of preparation of the components to the mixture - preparation laquer-like binding a certain concentration, mixing the binder with wood particles, distillation of the solvent in the drying chamber of the mass at a temperature of 60-85°C, large energy consumption for drying the pulp before pressing briquettes to achieve a certain humidity. This requires strict temperature control: the temperature decrease leads to an increase in time production and preservation of residual solvent in the volume of the briquette, and it is dangerous when burning briquettes in enclosed spaces, or, in the case of higher temperatures, dramatically increases the risk of ignition of vapors of volatile solvents in the drying chamber.

The technical task of the present image the program was to develop a method of making fuel briquettes using as flammable solids removed from the weapons utilized gunpowder artillery ballistic type or permanent waste powder production and screenings wood activated type, unfit for the intended use as adsorbents for environmentally safe disposal, as well as expanding the resource base for the production of fuel briquettes.

The technical result of the invention was the development of a method of manufacturing fuel briquettes, comprising a mixture of comminuted combustible solid components utilized gunpowder artillery ballistic type or irretrievable waste powder produce crushed to particle sizes of 0.5-1.0 mm on the upgraded disk mill and screenings of activated charcoal, crushed on a twin roll mill to particle sizes of less than 4.0 mm, 8,0-10,0% aqueous-gel binder solution of polyacrylamide or the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose in a mixer of a continuous or periodic operation with horizontal agitators, pressing briquettes on a roller press granulator, drying briquettes on the three belt drier air with a temperature of 100...105°C for 3 h, cooled and provalu during the day.

The invention is presented in figure 1.

Crushing screening of activated carbon is carried out on double-roll crusher reef roll 4 mm Shredding recyclable artillery is gunpowder or irretrievable waste powder production to particle sizes of 0.5-1.0 mm is carried out on the upgraded disk mill, providing particles of the required size. The proposed fractional composition of the combustible components ensures their uniform distribution over the volume of the briquette.

Preparation of the binder is to obtain water-gel solution of polyacrylamide or the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose 8-10%concentration in the mixer with a vertical stirrer at a temperature of 20-30°C. the proposed concentration of water-gel binder provides the necessary viscosity of the composition during mixing and the strength of adhesion of the particles of the solid components in the pressing and drying.

Comminuted combustible solid components screw feeder, water-gel binder solution using a pump-dispenser for viscous-flowing liquids are fed into the mixer, equipped with horizontal agitators for mixing and homogeneous. For mixing the fuel mass can be used continuously operating mixer type mixer-granulator, or DNS, or mixers periodic operation, equipped with horizontal agitators.

The mixture from the mixer through the hopper is fed to the compression roller press granulator, in which the molded briquettes. The formed briquettes are dried for 3 h in a triple belt dryer air temperature 100 is 105°C, supplied through the inlet duct using the blower fan. The exhaust air through the filter-adsorbers emitted into the atmosphere.

After drying the briquettes on the scraper conveyor are directed to a cooling phase and proverki within days at room temperature, then the briquettes are Packed into transport containers with a weight of 3, 5, 10 kg

Received on the proposed method briquettes have high mechanical strength in compression from 3.5 to 4.5 MPa. The process of burning fuel briquettes and heat lasts up to 6-7 hours

Examples of practical implementation of the method.

Example 1: Manufacture of prototypes of fuel briquettes under laboratory conditions.

Produced a prototype fuel mass 100,0,

In a laboratory tank with vertical agitator with a volume of 0.2 l prepared 8,0%aqueous-gel binder solution of polyacrylamide, took a portion of the solution of the binder weight of 40 g and loaded in a laboratory mixer with a volume of 0.5 l with horizontal z-shaped agitators.

A portion of the shredded recyclable artillery ballistic powder with particle size 0.5-1.0 mm weight 20 g were introduced into a mixer and stirred for 15 min, then brought out a portion of the weight 76 g of crushed wood activated carbon particles to 4.0 mm and was stirred for 45 min zapolucheniya homogeneous mixture. The resulting mixture was loaded into a press pass pressing with matrix a diameter of 42 mm and molded briquettes at a pressure 60,0-70,0 MPa. The temperature of the fuel mass during the mixing and compaction was 20-22°C. the Extruded pellets were dried in a ventilated drying Cabinet in a stream of hot air with a temperature of 102-104°C for 3 hours, the Samples were cooled and provaljalis during the day. The briquettes have turned out dense, with a rough surface, mechanically strong: strength of the briquettes during compression was 4.0 to 4.2 MPa.

Example 2: Production of prototypes of fuel briquettes in a laboratory mixer of the type CIS-5 with a horizontal auger mixers.

Produced a prototype fuel mass 1000,0,

In laboratory tanks with a volume of 1.0 l prepared 10%aqueous gel solution of sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose, took a portion 500g

Shredded waste powder production with particle sizes of 0.5-1.0 mm took in the amount of 100.0 g, powdered activated charcoal with a particle size up to 4 mm took in the number of 850.0,

All sample introduced into the mixer and stirred for 30 min, followed by mass from the mixer came into the hopper laboratory press with a diameter of the forming sleeve 35 mm. Pressure was in the range of 90-110 MPa, the temperature of the pressing 24-25°C. the Extruded br the chum salmon was dried and pravalivai modes, shown in Example 1.

Experienced briquettes mechanically strong, the compressive strength of 3.8-4.0 MPa.

The development of the technology for manufacture of briquettes was carried out on the equipment of pilot production of JSC "Sorbent", made an experimental batch of fuel briquettes weighing 100 kg Calorific value of briquettes was evaluated by burning them in ovens, water boilers for heating greenhouses, positive results were obtained. Plans to release an experimental batch of fuel briquettes in the amount of 2000 kg

Developed fuel briquettes can replace traditional fuels (wood, coal, liquefied natural gas)used in industry, for heating residential buildings, boilers, household use, furnaces rail cars, etc.

The claimed invention allows for environmentally safe disposal of shooting with weapons gunpowder artillery ballistic type, discards the powder production and screenings of activated charcoal, to expand the raw material base for the production of fuel briquettes.

Method of making fuel briquettes, comprising grinding combustible components, mixing with a binder, pressing and drying of the briquettes, characterized in that as a combustible solid components use recyclable gunpowder artillery ballistic the IPA or discards powder production crushed on the upgraded disk mill to a particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm, and screenings of activated charcoal, crushed on a twin roll mill to particle sizes of less than 4.0 mm, and mix them into 8,0-10,0% aqueous solution of the binder polyacrylamide or the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose in a mixer of a continuous or periodic operation with horizontal agitators, then pressed into briquettes on a roller press-granulator, the formed briquettes are subjected to the drying air on the three belt dryer at a temperature of 100...105º for 3 h, then cooled and provalivajut during the day.



 

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