Extrusion-type fuel briquette (brex)

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to usage of an extrusion-type briquette (BREX) produced by the method of stiff vacuum extrusion, including coal dressing wastes and, if required, coal siftings, a mineral binder and a concrete stone, as fuel for industrial furnaces and domestic ovens. BREX briquettes are characterised by the fact that size of materials included into a mixture for production of briquettes does not exceed 5 mm.

EFFECT: application of stiff vacuum extrusion makes it possible to produce BREX briquettes with sufficient strength and optimal dimensions for solid fuel, with minimum consumption of a binder.

3 cl

 

The invention relates to the technology of briquetting carbonaceous materials, and can be used in metallurgy, energy and utilities.

Known technical solution - briquettes produced from lignite coke used as a reducing agent in metallurgical processes and as a smokeless fuel for domestic and industrial furnaces. Briquettes coke is produced by mixing lignite char and solution of slaked lime, pressing the mixture, drying the briquettes and their impregnation with a solution of liquid glass (Patent RF №2376342, C10L 5/12 from 09.07.2008). The disadvantage of this technical solution is a multi-stage process and the presence of liquid glass briquettes containing alkali metals.

Known technical solution - briquettes from coal slimes and fine grades of coal, intended for use as fuel for combustion in domestic and industrial furnaces (RF Patent No. 2088636, C10L/32, C10B 57/08 from 16.09.1994 year). The briquette is obtained by mixing the slurry and/or coal with a binder, dosing mixture and packaging. The disadvantage of this technical solution is the complexity of the technology caused by the operation of packing the coal mixture in the packaging material. This increases the cost of the manufacturing process of bricks.

Know another technical solution is - briquettes produced from coal slurries and/or small classes of coal by mixing them with methyl-attainability, pressing the mixture, drying the briquettes and drawing on their surface hydrocarbon water-resistant coating. The briquettes are used as fuel for combustion in domestic and industrial furnaces (RF Patent No. 2059690, C10L 5/14, C10L from 5/32 11.01.1994 year). The disadvantage of this known technical solution is increased, the ignition temperature of the briquette, and a multi-stage and duration of the process of its manufacture.

Another known technical solution, which eliminates the disadvantages of the previous technical solutions briquette is used as fuel in industrial furnaces and residential furnaces and derived from coal slurry or coal screenings by mixing them with an aqueous solution of clay and dry alcohol, briquetting and deposition on the pellets coating from water and dried, the drying of the briquettes at a temperature of 100-150°C and natural drying at temperatures below 20°C (RF Patent No. 2337131, C10L 5/12, from 13.08.2007 year). The ignition temperature of such briquettes is reduced, but the main drawback of the multi - stage and complexity of the technological process of production.

Another known technical solution is the briquette-fuel for industrial furnaces and domestic furnaces, derived from the sm is si coal slurries coal, cement and lime by mixing the mixture with simultaneous selective crushing, agglomeration and thermal treatment at 120-150°C (RF Patent No. 2227803, C10L 5/06, C10L 5/10, C10L 5/12 from 04.11.2002 year). The disadvantage of this technical solution is also multiple and complexity of the technological process of manufacturing of briquettes, which increases their cost.

An object of the invention is to eliminate these disadvantages of the known technical solutions and ensuring receipt using the minimum amount of binder lump of solid fuel with sufficient strength and optimal sizes for use in industrial furnaces and residential furnaces.

The solution to this technical problem is achieved by the fact that as fuel for industrial furnaces and household furnaces used briquette extrusion (BREX)obtained by the method of the hard vacuum extrusion, including waste coal and, if necessary, the coal screenings, mineral binder and bentonite.

The solution to this technical problem is achieved by the fact that the particle size of the materials included in the mixture for the production Brex does not exceed 5 mm, weight Brex not exceed 0.3 kg, and the total content of mineral binders and bentonite does not exceed 3%.

Technology agglomeration of dispersed materials is Ecodom hard vacuum extrusion known. This technology, in particular, is widely used in the manufacture of bricks from the charge mixture on the basis of clay (YA Khavkin, R.Z. Berman. Brick plants of small capacity. Building materials. 2000, No. 4, p.18-19). Its essence lies in the preparation of wet charge mixture on the basis of clay, the continuous supply of the mixture in the extruder, removing the air from the mixture by vacuum and burst mixture under pressure through a single rectangular hole in filiere extruder section (40-50)×(60-80) mm, which continuously comes out thick plastic lumber. Raw bricks are produced by periodic instantaneous cutting beam emerging from the die, wire cutter on equal parts of length 160-200 mm Thus, the principle of this technology is continuous and provides the strength of raw bricks required for multi-layer stacking on pallets and transport in the furnace for hardening firing.

Laboratory studies have shown the possibility of applying the technology of pressing the stiff vacuum extrusion method for sintering waste coal and, if necessary, mixed with coal fines, mineral binder and bentonite.

When used in the extruder die with many of the holes are round, oval or other shape on the exit, you can get thick the plastic rods, the length of which is determined by their density and plasticity and shape and size of the Spinneret holes. The increase in bending moment arising under the influence of increasing the weight of the rods with the growth of their length at the die exit, the rods are cut.

The use of technology sintering method hard vacuum extrusion in relation to waste coal or coal screenings with the aim of obtaining extrusion briquettes (Brex) to use them as a cheap lump of fuel in industrial furnaces or household furnaces, having a given size and composition, to ensure its effective combustion, the applicant does not know..

The invention consists in the following. The application of the method and technology of hard vacuum extrusion process for sintering waste coal or, if necessary, mixed with coal fines mineral binder and bentonite ensures rods with thick (1.5 to 1.6 g/cm3and plastic structure, the length of which (150-200 mm) does not exclude their kostrena when unloading from the hopper.

In the process of laboratory and pilot-scale studies have identified new, including the unexpected, effects of hard vacuum extrusion process for sintering waste coal separately or as needed, with Messi with coal fines, mineral is the major binder and bentonite

Thus, the high plasticity of the rods, continuously coming out of the holes of the die, causes under the action of bending moment (because of the increasing mass of the rods), education in the upper layer of their bodies transverse microcracks, and then breaking the rod. During transportation and loading rods cracks in the body of the rods increases and there is their division with the formation of several Brex with ideal for solid fuel size (25-30)×(30-60) mm

Other new found during laboratory studies, the effect of hard vacuum extrusion process for sintering waste coal is the ability to generate strong brex without using a binder. This is due to the high density extrusion briquettes obtained through the degassing extruder and the presence in the waste clay components Angelica and siltstone, playing the role of ligaments, as well as the presence in the waste of surfactants used in the beneficiation of coal by flotation

Thus, applying the technology of briquetting method hard vacuum extrusion in relation to waste coal preparation, or, if necessary, their mixtures with coal fines, mineral binder and bentonite, provides the new effects, namely getting Brex optimal the CSO for solid fuel size and sufficient strength. These effects are a consequence of obtaining a dense and plastic patterns coming out of the holes of the die rods predetermined transverse size and shape and of a given length.

The ultimate particle size of components Brex (5 mm) due to optimal for industrial furnaces and household furnaces cross-sectional dimension of Brex (25-30 mm) and the corresponding size of the Spinneret holes. When larger particles of the material mixture to obtain Brex reduced their plasticity at the die exit and increases the power consumption for extrusion. Weight limits Brex is determined by its cross-sectional dimension, which should not exceed 25-30 mm to ensure complete fast burning brex.

The invention is illustrated by the following examples.. Brex received on technology hard vacuum extrusion process on a laboratory extruder of the following waste coal without the use and application of binding agents.

Example 1. Breksy received from waste coal preparation plants (moisture content 30%, ash content of 39.3%, and the volatile content of 31%, the calorific value 5,400 kcal/kg lower calorific value 3900 kcal/kg, the content of the class 50 MD - 80%) without the use of binding agents.

Example 2. Breksy received from the sludge formed in the process of coal mining hydraulic method (moisture content 20%, solinet the Yu 24%, the volatile content of 24%, the highest heat of combustion 6080 kcal/kg lower calorific value of 4,700 kcal/kg, the content of the class 50 MCR - 50%) without the use of binding agents.

Example 3. Breksy received from the mixture: 80% waste coal preparation plants (composition in Example 1), 18% coal screenings (ash 4.5%), volatile substances 9%, the highest heat of combustion 8500 kcal/kg lower calorific value 7900 kcal/kg, particle size of 100% less than 1 mm), 1.5% cement and 0.5% bentonite.

The result was the brex with the following quality characteristics:

Example noderange moisture 13.2%, ash content of 39.3%, and the volatile content of 31%, the highest heat of combustion 7960 kcal/kg lower calorific value 3928 kcal/kg, the crushing strength after aging for 48 hours - 3.3 MPa.

Example 2. The moisture content of 11%, ash content of 24%, a volatile content of 24%, the highest heat of combustion 8060 kcal/kg lower calorific value 5198 kcal/kg, the crushing strength after aging for 48 hours - 4.0 MPa.

Example 3. The moisture content of 10.3%, ash content of 34.2%, and the volatile content of 26.4%, the highest heat of combustion 9580 kcal/kg lower calorific value 790 kcal/kg, the crushing strength after aging for 48 hours - 4,7 MPa.

Received brex burned in boiler plant. The time of ignition was not more than 30 minutes. Burning brex was intense with the formation of the ESD flame around the furnace to the boiler front. By visual observation of smoke emissions from a stack of almost not mentioned.

Thus, the use of brex received by stiff vacuum extrusion method, for use as fuel in industrial furnaces and residential furnaces in accordance with the invention, provides increased efficiency of the above-mentioned plants due to more efficient combustion okuskovannogo fuel. Additional environmental effect of brex instead of small fractions of coal is the reduction of emissions polluting the atmosphere.

1. The use of pellet extrusion (Brex)obtained by the method of the hard vacuum extrusion, including waste coal and, if necessary, the coal screenings, mineral binder and bentonite, as fuel for industrial furnaces and home furnaces.

2. Application Brex according to claim 1, characterized in that the particle size of the materials included in the mixture for the production Brex does not exceed 5 mm, weight Brex not exceed 0.3 kg, and the total content of mineral binders and bentonite does not exceed 3%.

3. Application Brex according to claim 1, characterized in that as waste coal BREX includes sludge enrichment of coking coal.



 

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