Jersey fabric and clothing of lower layer with improved thermal protective properties made from it

FIELD: textiles, paper.

SUBSTANCE: fabrics are composed of mixed yarn made from a uniform combination of staple fibers of nylon and cotton. Such fabrics comprise the weight ratio of cotton to nylon, which is in the range of from about 55:45 to about 85:15, and these fabrics also have a mass that is in the range from about 3 to about 8 ounces/square yard. The jersey fabric of this type has the specified combination of good thermal protective properties provided.

EFFECT: high level of uniformity of mixing of staple fibers with very useful properties of abrasion resistance, bursting strength and drying time.

40 cl, 1 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates

The present invention relates to knitted fabrics and clothing of the lower layer is made of such fabrics. Such fabrics made from designs based onknitted fabric includes yarns, obtained from the selected homogeneous mixtures of cellulose and cotton staple fibers. Such knitted fabrics exhibit a very desirable combination of structural and thermal properties, making such fabrics are especially useful for creating clothing of the lower layer is suitable to provide secondary protection against the threat of flash fire or electric arc.

The level of technology

Protective clothing has a special design and functional requirements to it because of the wide diversity of activities of the user, and a wide variety of threats related to the environment, which adjoins the user. Protective clothing should show good resistance to tear, wear and tear during the term of service when working outdoors and in the field, as well as the transfer of humidity and breathability to reduce heat stress and comfort in a hot climate and the activities that require high energy costs. In addition, the fabric used in protective clothing to which GNA be designed to provide the user a wide range of movements, so that the user carried out a range of activities, and should provide some protection from the environment for a user against a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, the fabric must be able to colouring for aesthetic purposes for the majority of protective clothing and for the purpose of concealment, for military, tactical and law enforcement applications. Finally, in applications where there is a risk of thermal hazard protective clothing, such as the lower layers, which are next to the skin of the user must provide secondary protection and insulation against contact with fire, flame and heat, which can occur with the user. In the present description, the bottom layer of clothing includes t-shirts, pants, shorts, top and bottom underwear, Balaclava, socks, pads, gloves, torso shirts, sets of garments and inner lining for clothing or other layers of clothing. The clothing of the lower layer is assumed to provide protection, secondary to the primary thermal protection protective clothing or other protective layers of clothing, and a critical requirement for such a service the lower layer will lie in the fact that the fabric from which made such clothing should not rapidly deteriorate, subject to shrinkage, the water is sterile, drain drops or stick when it comes into contact with elevated temperatures, as a result, causing serious damage to the skin of the user. In the present description, the terms "melt" and "drain drops should be in accordance with definitions provided for each of them in NFPA 1975 Standard, Sections 3.3.16 and 3.3.6, respectively. Accordingly, "to melt" is intended to mean the reaction of materials to heat, manifested by softening fibrous polymer, which causes it to flow or drip drops; and "drain drops" should mean to flow or fall in drops or blobs.

Protective clothing, such as that intended for commercial use of the service, historically created from a variety of materials including cotton, rayon, Lyocell fiber, acetate, acrylic, nylon, polyester, wool and silk; a variety of fire-resistant materials and combinations of such fibrous materials. The lower layers and inner lining, as a rule, are usually made of knitted fabrics. The lower layers and inner lining, made of one or more types of staple fibers and manufactured in the form of knitted fabrics generally have well-balanced properties. One of the types in the combination of fibers or fabrics can have the desired properties and/or disadvantages to the e different from other combinations of types of fibers and fabrics. Relatively woven materials, a mixture of nylon and cotton are known in the military outerwear in connection with high strength and abrasion resistance with longer duration of use, increasing, thus, the wear life in combat and exercises (see, for example, U.S. patent No. 6805957 and published PCT application WO/2006/088538).

Regarding applications in the clothing of the lower layer, the use of cellulose staple fibers in the knitted fabric can provide good characteristics of flexibility, breathability and characteristics of touch, along with some desirable thermal properties. The use of synthetic fibers such as nylon staple fiber, knitted fabrics can improve the strength, durability and moisture distribution in these tissues. However, the use of synthetic fibers such as polypropylene, polyester and nylon creates a potential danger when they come into contact with the threat of high temperatures, as they can cause serious damage to the skin when they are in molten form. In light of the special requirements for fabrics to be used in protective clothing, such as clothes of the lower layer, it would be desirable to identify appropriate types of fibers and fiber blends that could and what to use in specific types of tissues, which are particularly suitable for such lower layers.

The invention

Found that the knitted fabric, demonstrating effective thermal properties, including the absence of melting or dripping droplets can be obtained when the fabric consists of a homogeneous mixture of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers.

Such fabric can be used to obtain specific benefits provide protection against severe heat events for the user's clothing made from this fabric. The present invention in one aspect includes a thermal protective knit fabric containing yarn obtained from a homogeneous mixture of cellulose and cotton staple fibers, where such fabric does not show signs of melting or dripping drops when examined in accordance with at least one of NFPA 1975 (Section 8.3), ASTM D-6413-1999 or NFPA 2112 (Section 8.2). In one of the embodiments the present invention may include a thermal protective knit fabric, notshowing signs of melting, dripping drops or stickiness when it is examined in accordance with NFPA 1975 (Section 8.3).

The fabric of the present invention may contain mixed cellulosic and nylon staple yarn, which is characterized by a mass ratio of cellulose to nylon indicated in the Anna yarn, in the range of about 55:45 to about 85:15.

Fabric of the present invention can exhibit high level of homogeneity of the mixture of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers. In a specific embodiment, the present invention may include a thermal protective knit fabric containing homogeneously mixed yarn of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers. Appropriate homogeneous mixing of these yarns may include: volumetric, mechanical mixing staple fibres before combing; volumetric mechanical mixing staple fibres before and during screening or at least two passes of the tape machine when mixed staple fibers after screening and before spinning yarn.

One of the fabrics of the present invention may contain a yarn having the ratio of the cellulose to the nylon yarn is from about 60:40 to about 70:30. Specific embodiments of the fabrics of the present invention include fabrics having a weight of from about 3 to about 8 oz/quart and a thickness of from about 0,030 0,015 to inches. Fabric of the present invention can include a single yarn having a count cotton from about 5 to about 60.

The use of nylon staple fiber with high tensile strength can with what rikusentai to produce a fabric with exceptional wear resistance, as measured by resistance to abrasion and tensile bursting. Fabric of the present invention can also include tissue associated many individual yarns or woven from multifilament yarn, where many types of yarn or woven complex thread contain, at least, the first yarn made from a blend of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers in respect of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers is from about 55:45 to about 85:15, and at least a second yarn comprising nylon thread, provided that such nylon filament thread is more than 15 wt.% of the total content of the cellulose and nylon in the fabric; and the ratio of cellulosic and nylon staple in the first homogeneous blended yarn is regulated so that the content of nylon thread plus staple the cloth in the cloth does not exceed 45 wt.% with respect to the total content of the cellulose and nylon fabric.

The fabric of the present invention may include aramid staple fiber, with aramid staple fiber replaces part nylon or cellulose staple fibers into a homogeneous mixture.

Nylon staple fiber suitable for use in the fabrics of the present invention include nylon 6 and/or nylon 6,6, including, for example, fibers with a tensile strength of at least 3.0 grams is on the denier.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 is a photograph of a fabric according to the present invention with the mass ratio of cotton to nylon 60:40 after exposure to study thermal stability (six hours exposure at 260°C) in accordance with NFPA 1975 (Section 8.3) Standard.

Detailed description of the invention

Certain types of yarn, made of homogeneous mixtures of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers, can fit in obtaining tissues, especially suitable for making clothes, having unexpectedly useful combination of properties not previously observed in the manufacture of clothing.

As used herein, the term "NYCO" must relate to the kinds of yarn consisting of a blend of nylon and cotton fibers. As used herein, the cellulose fiber is obtained from the linear long-chain polymeric polysaccharide composed of related units of beta glucose. They include naturally occurring fibers, such as cotton, flax, hemp, jute, ramie and synthetically derived fibers such as viscose (regenerated cellulose), FR (flame retardant) viscose, acetate (cellulose acetate), triacetate (cellulose triacetate), bamboo, Lyocell - they are all generic terms, well known in this field, for fibers, poluchennije cellulose. Examples of cellulose fibers are listed in published patent application U.S. 2005/0025962(A1), which is incorporated herein by reference, as if she had cited in its entirety. In certain embodiments of the implementation of the yarns and fabrics of the present invention, the percentage of the mass of cellulose fibers exceeds the percentage mass nylon fiber.

A homogeneous mixture of nylon and cellulosic staple fibers can be used to obtain a yarn which, in turn, can be used to obtain a knitted fabric of the present invention. In one of the embodiments of the present invention, the range of linear density nylon staple and cotton staple fibers may be from about 0.90 to about 6.0 and from about to 0.72 to about 2,34 denier per filament (dpf), respectively; and the range of the length of the staple fiber, nylon, and cotton staple fibers may be from about 1.0 to about 5.0, and from about 0.125 to about 2.5 inches (about to 2.54 to about 12.7 and from about 0.32 to about 6,35 cm), respectively. In one of the embodiments of the present invention nylon staple fiber may exhibit some degree of texturing or tortuosity.

When mixed nylon staple fiber is and cellulose staple portages with the formation of the yarn, suitable for knitted fabric in accordance with one embodiments of the present invention, nylon staple fiber with high tensile strength can be used essentially for matching characteristics of elongation under load (elastic modulus) nylon and cellulose fibers. This implies that when the elongation of cellulose with which they blend, nylon fiber should have the same load bearing capacity as compared with cellulose fiber, or superior ability. If nylon fiber exhibits a higher elasticity than the cellulose fiber in the lengthening of the characteristic strength cellulose fiber at break, cellulose fiber will be broken before the nylon will take any significant share of the load. By matching characteristics of the elastic modulus of cellulose and nylon fibers, thus, it is possible to provide the yarn and fabric, derived from it, with improved strength and wear resistance. Methods of obtaining nylon fibers with high tensile strength, which is suitable for mixing with other staple fibers, such as cotton, as well as getting yarn and fabrics made from such mixtures are described in U.S. patent No. 3044250; 3188790; 3321448; and 3459845, Hebeler et al in U.S. patent No. 5011645, Thompson, Jr. All of these U.S. patents are incorporated herein as references.

Nylon staple fiber with high tensile strength that can be used in accordance with the present invention, can be obtained from nylon yarn, high crystallinity and high orientation of the crystal. These yarn with high tensile strength can be formed by pulling them essentially to the maximum working relationships stretching and exposure to heat treatment under tension pull. Such filament and staple fiber obtained from them, commercially obtained using methods similar to those described in the above patents Hebeler et al and Thompson, Jr., and similar methods of production, which is processed by thread rather than harness fiber. Matching nylon polymers are linear polyamides, such as polyhexamethylenediamine (nylon 6,6) and polycaproamide (nylon 6). Kristallizuetsya polyamide copolymers are also suitable for use when there is 85% or more components, nylon 6,6 or nylon 6. In one of the embodiments of the present invention used nylon is a staple fiber of nylon 6,6. The tensile strength of nylon 6,6 which may be in the range of T =, at least, 5,0, for example, from 6.5 to 7.0 grams per denier (gpd). Such high tensile strength can be achieved through the use of high ratio extrusion, as described in the above patents Hebeler et al and Thompson, Jr., and comparable to the strengths of the gap within 3 to 4 gpd for standard yarn of nylon 6,6.

Nylon and cellulosic staple fiber can be mixed and practice in the form of yarn, from which you can link fabric of the present invention. Yarn can be spun using widely known methods of spinning short and long staple fibers, including ring spinning, jet spinning in the air or vortex spinning, pneumomechanical spinning and worsted hardware or spinning wool. Fabrics can be couple of yarns described herein, using conventional values for the hinge bars and hinge series for knitting machines. For example, the fabric can economically be produced on a conventional circular knitting machines. Blended yarn used in this way are those that provide tissue related of them that have a mass ratio of the cellulose fiber to nylon, which is in the range from about 55:45 to about 85:15. In one of specific embodiments the mass ratio of cellulose to nylon in three is otegem the canvas in this document is in the range from about 60:40 to about 70:30.

The desired ratio of cellulose to the nylon fabric in this document can be provided through the use of a single yarn having the above characteristic relations cellulose:nylon. For example, can be used per single yarn count cotton from about 5 to about 60. Alternatively, it may be multi-line or spun yarn, where, for example, slitting or spun yarn contains at least the first yarn made from a blend of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers in respect of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers is from about 55:45 to about 70:30, and at least a second yarn, manufactured, at least about 60%, and up to 100% cellulosic staple fibers. The relative amount of each type of fiber in the fabric on this document can be determined using ASTM D-629.

Nylon thread can be included in the knitted fabric of the present invention for the purpose of improving the tensile strength and the wear resistance of the knitted fabric of the present invention. To qualify for this benefit without attenuation characteristics of the tissue of the absence of melting/dripping drops of fabric required ratio of cellulose to nylon fabrics must be carefully monitored. Such control can be achieved through the your use of the yarn, where the yarn contains at least a first yarn made from a homogeneous mixture of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers in the ratio of cotton to nylon from about 55:45 to about 85:15, and at least a second yarn comprising nylon thread, provided that (a) such nylon thread does not exceed 15 wt.% of the total content of the cellulose and nylonin tissue and (b) the ratio of cellulose content to nylon thread plus staple yarn for fabric does not exceed 45 wt.% with respect to the total content of the cellulose and nylon fabric. In one of the embodiments of the present invention nylon complex thread may contain nylon 6 and/or nylon 6,6 having a tensile strength of at least 3.0 grams per denier.

Knitted fabric of the present invention may also contain another type of yarn obtained from other types of fibers, either in the form of staple fibers or in the form of threads. These additional types of yarn may be incorporated either in the direction of the hinge bars or in the direction of the stitch rows, and may be present to such an extent that they do not impair the functional properties desired for the fabric. Such additional types of yarn may be a yarn having an elastomeric, flame retardant, antimicrobial and/or antistatic performance.

the blended pulp and nylon yarn, used to obtain a knitted fabric of the present invention, other fibers, for example, natural fibers such as wool or silk, can replace part of the cellulose fibers.

Inherently flame retardant fibres can replace the part or cellulose fibers, or nylon staple fiber. Inherently flame retardant fibers can be selected from the group consisting of aramid fibers, meta-aramids, para-aramids, fluoropolymers and copolymers, chlortrimeton, polybenzimidazole, polyimides, polyamideimides, partially oxidized polyacrylonitriles, novoloid, poly(p-phenylene) sulfide, combustible viscose fibers, polyvinylchloride homopolymers and their copolymers, polyetherketones, polyketones, polyetherimides, polylactide, melamine fibers, or combinations thereof. One example of a commercial inherently flame retardant staple fiber, which may be included in the yarn of the present invention, is a meta-aramid fiber under the trade name NOMEX®, available from E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. In one of the embodiments of the present invention the fabric of the present invention may contain reinforced yarn consisting of continuous filamentary fire-resistant core (e.g., NOMEX®), wrapped staple blend of nylon/cotton type described the data in this document. Other commercially available meta-aramid fiber, which can be used include CONEX® and APYEIL®, manufactured by Teijin, Ltd. and Unitika Ltd., respectively. Examples of commercially available para-aramids, which can be used include KEVLAR® from E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company and TWARON® from Teijin Ltd. Can also be used in other fire-resistant fibers.

Suitable for use antimicrobial yarn, which may be included in the knitted fabric of the present invention, as expected, is a yarn thus treated to slow the growth of microbes, such as bacteria, mould and fungi. Can be used a variety of antimicrobial compounds both organic and inorganic.

Organic antimicrobial compound for use in textiles include, but are not limited to, triclosan, Quaternary ammonium compounds, ring diammonium, chitosans and N-aluminiumoxide. Organic compounds depend on the antimicrobial agent, which must vydeliajutsia or migrate from the interior of the fiber to the surface, antimicrobial effectiveness is determined by the rate of migration to the surface.

Inorganic antimicrobial compounds are also available for use in the textile is. These connections depend on the dissociation of the metal from the complex to which it is linked in the polymer. The inclusion of metals such as silver, copper, mercury and zinc in fiber and yarn, and fabrics made from them, is well known for imparting antimicrobial functional properties. Silver, as a rule, represents a safe and effective antimicrobial metal and is widely used. Its inclusion in the fibers by means of numerous methods well-known. For example, Japan patent No. 3-136649 describes antibacterial material in which ions Ag+in AgNO3cross stitched with polyacrylonitrile. The Japan patent No. 54-151669 describes fiber, processed uniformly covering it with a solution containing a compound of copper and silver. U.S. patent No. 4525410 describes fiber, which is filled with particles of a particular zeolite, having a bactericidal metal ion. U.S. patent No. 5180402 describes the dyed synthetic fiber containing substituted silver zeolite and essentially water-insoluble compound of copper. Synthetic fibre is obtained by including substituted silver zeolite monolayer or in the polymerization mixture before the completion of the polymerization at the stage of obtaining polymer for fiber. Commercially available complexes of silver and zeolite sold currently Milliken Chemical as ALPASAN and Agion Technologies as AGION®. U.S. patent No. 5897673 describes fibers with fine metal particles contained in them. U.S. patent No. 6979491 describes antimicrobial yarn with silver particles of nano stuck to it, and it shows the efficiency for a wide range of bacteria, fungi and viruses. The above examples of antimicrobial agents, as implied, are illustrations of additives that can be included in the knitted fabric of the present invention and/or in the yarn or in certain classes of the constituent fibers that make up this yarn. These examples are assumed not to be limiting, and, as expected, other additives, providing the same antimicrobial functions, but is not considered explicitly, would also be suitable for use.

Suitable for use antistatic yarn, which may be included in the knitted fabric of the present invention, as is, is a yarn which includes electrically conductive elements, thereby giving antistatic properties. Conductive yarn that can be used, can have the design of the core/sheath, where either the core or the shell is a conductive element, a two-component yarn consisting of conductive and reproved the existing fibers (either in the form of staple fibers, either in the form of threads), and fiber (or staple, or in the form of threads or yarn coated. Often selected conductive element is a carbon. U.S. patent No. 4085182 describes a method of producing filaments of the type of sheath/core, in which the thread has a conductive core. Sometimes it is desirable to twist one or more conductive threads with a non-conductive threads to create a support for the conductive thread. Such a twisted complex thread known as reinforced yarn. The publication of French patent No. 2466517, apparently, shows the joint extrusion of conductive threads with a non-conductive threads. Inserting a conductive yarn in a non-conductive yarn is known. Spun and pre-wound conductive thread can be combined with one or more just spun non-conductive threads for obtaining three-dimensional continuous multifilament yarn, which is anti-static. Examples are U.S. patent No. 4612150 and U.S. patent No. 4997712. U.S. patent No. 5308563 describes a method of obtaining a conductive core yarn, which includes stages of spinning from a melt of a non-conductive nylon yarn with the formation of the first set of threads, allocating at least one of the threads in the second set of threads, the delivery of the second set of threads in a method of coating using sufoziya for applying spending is increased and the reunification of the first and second set with the formation of the core yarn. These examples are assumed not to be limiting, and it is expected that other types of conductive yarn, not considered in an explicit form, can also be suitable for use.

An example of a class of fibers that exhibit both antimicrobial and antistatic properties, is an X-Static®, available from Noble Biomaterials, Inc. This material has a layer of silver that is associated with the surface of textile fibers, such as nylon. Fiber type core-shell, in which core represents a carbon, and the sheath is a nylon will also impart anti-static properties and can likewise be included in the knitted fabric of the present invention.

The corresponding elastomeric yarn for inclusion in the knitted fabric of the present invention includes elastane fiber under the trade name LYCRA®and available from INVISTA. As used herein, the elastomeric yarn mean yarn consisting of staple or continuous fibers, which has a tensile elongation greater than 100%, regardless of any torsion, and which, when stretched and released, reduced quickly and force essentially to its original length.

The present invention includes a tissue located within the dry matter at the Erno 3 to 8 oz/quart (from about 10.2 to 27.2 cm/sq. m). For shirting fabric corresponding dry weight may be in the range of from about 3 to 6 oz/quart (from about 10.2 to 20.4 g/sq.m) and may be in the range in thickness from approximately 0,015 to 0,030 inch (from about 0.038 to 0,076 cm). Dry mass of tissue can be determined using the procedures of ASTM D-3776. The thickness of the tissue can be determined using the procedures of ASTM D-1777.

Knitted fabric of the present invention is constructed from a yarn which consists of a homogeneous mixture of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers. The achievement of a combination of thermal properties, the inventive fabric, described in this document depends on adequate levels of blending. In one embodiment, the implementation of the yarn, characterized fairly homogeneous mixtures of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers can be obtained by bulk mechanical mixing of staple fibres by using well-known methods before combing and spinning yarn or via bulk mechanical mixing of staple fibers to comb out, and during it, but before spinning yarn.

In another embodiment, a fairly well-mixed yarn can be obtained by mixing staple fibres by using a mix tape machine after the division of the nogo-scraping cellulosic and nylon staple fibers, respectively. In this way the yarn a lot of tips as cellulosic and nylon comb fiber ribbon pulled through consecutive sets of calender or intermediate calender rolls. When staple fibers in each fibrous tape accelerated in each set of the intermediate calender rolls, the individual fibers are captured and separated from the individual source ends and merged into a new common end. This extraction and re-unification of individual staple fibers results in separate elongated cord thread, where the constituent staple fibers are somewhat randomized. The level of mixing achieved thus lower than the level obtained using volumetric mechanical mixing of staple fibers, but the homogeneity of the mixture corresponding to the achievement of the combination of thermal properties of the inventive fabric may be achieved by using multiple passes through the tape machine. Thus, the first pass may combine four pulp and four nylon cord thread in one elongated cord thread, while the second pass can combine eight mixed cord yarns after the first pass in additional elongated and mixed one cardownie.

As used herein, a homogeneous mixture of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers will refer to such staple fibers, mixed with bulk mechanical method or screening, or screening and during it, or to cellulosic and nylon staple fibers, which, after separate screening, but before spinning yarn, are subjected to two or more passages for mixing on a tape machine.

Surface treatment or surround processing can also be applied to a knitted cloth of the present invention. This surface treatment or surround processing can be switched to such an extent that it does not degrade the functional characteristics desired for the fabric; for example, chemical additives, such as softeners, water-repellent agents or chemicals to remove stains should be hydrophilic in nature, if the objective is to maintain or improve the characteristics of the distribution of humidity. This additional surface treatment or surround processing can add different functional properties and can be a treatment with antimicrobial, anti-static, chemical resistance, resistance to wrinkling, flame retardant, stain removal, gazettelive, mA is ottalkivayusche, water-repellentability absorptionmoisture, repel humidity, efficient drying and/or hydrophobic performance.

Knitted fabric of the present invention can be obtained so that it had a combination of thermal properties. Such properties can be quantitatively determined using a number of different research procedures, as provided in various standard research ASTM and NFPA described below.

As nylon 6,6 and polyester are equivalent to the melting temperature of 260 degrees C. However, fibers of nylon 6,6 requires 1.38 times more heat energy than polyester fiber for reaction start melting. The molecular structure of polymers, such as polyester, is destroyed when exposed to high temperatures. When the molecular structure becomes smaller, the polymer complex of the polyester melts, flows and flows rapidly drops. This is shown for 100% polyester fabrics and blends of fibers containing polyester. When the polyester is uniformly mixed with cotton, the resulting mass is melted and adheres to the surfaces that are in direct contact. 100% nylon fabric is also to melt, to flow drops and stick.

In the course of various methods of thermal studies of the composition of fabrics is really hard is to retenu demonstrate an unexpected thermal behavior, as shown by visual observation, when this composite fabric structure from a homogeneous mixture of nylon and cotton and the resulting mass have the appearance without melting". Though without wanting to be limited to any particular theory, it is assumed that the nylon fibers absorb thermal energy when exhibited to high temperatures. The molecular structure of the nylon polymer may increase molecular weight and form cross-links. The reaction of cross-linking at high temperatures may cause the nylon fibers to harden and to form gels. When they are uniformly mixed or are in close contact, nylon fibers can form gels and can form carbon soot around the cellulose fibers. The pulp fibers may char and carbondisulfide inside nylon carbon black and can form a completely new structure that is not destroyed quickly, not shrinks, does not melt or does not stick to the skin, it is dressed.

Thermal energy is absorbed during the gel formation, charring and carbonization. Embodiments of the present invention include fabrics, not showing signs of molten behavior and demonstrating good thermal insulation, as measured by ASTM research NFPA. In this embodiment, the tissue during thermal studies should not show molten drops, as it would be seen or fabrics made from 100%or mostly from melting thermoplastic fibers such as nylon or polyester.

thermal protective knit fabric according to the present invention, for example, may exhibit certain characteristics thermal protective performance (TPP), when they are examined in accordance with NFPA 2112 (Section 8.2). In one of the embodiments the fabric according to the present invention can demonstrate the value of the efficiency coefficient of the tissue (FFF)of at least 2.0 (cal/cm2)/(g/quart) (0,59 (cal/cm2)/(g/m)), when examined in accordance with thermal operating characteristics, as cited in NFPA 2112 (Section 8.2), with gasket ¼ inch (0,64 cm),and can demonstrate the value of the efficiency coefficient of the tissue (FFF)of at least 1.0 (cal/cm2)/(oz/quart) (0,29 (cal/cm2)/(g/m)), when examined in accordance with thermal protective performance, as cited in NFPA 2112 (Section 8.2) without gaskets.

thermal protective fabric according to the present invention can demonstrate the absence of melting and dripping drops and easy separation of the layers when they are examined for thermal stability, as cited in NFPA 197 (Section 8.3). Tissues that exhibit no melting or dripping drops when are exposed to flame or heat, are particularly desirable for use in garments such as t-shirts, because this feature reduces the likelihood or severity of burns that can occur from molten materials.

thermal protective knit fabric according to the present invention may exhibit certain characteristics thermal shrinkage when it is examined in accordance with NFPA 1975 (Section 8.2). In particular, the fabric may exhibit a thermal shrinkage of less than 10% as in the direction ofhinge bars, and in the direction ofbuttonhole rows. In one embodiment, the heat shrinkage of less than 8%. In another embodiment, thermal shrinkage of less than 6%.

In one embodiment, the implementation of the knitted fabric of the present invention can be obtained so that it will have certain additional functional properties related to their use in protective clothing, such as t-shirts. Such additional functional properties can also be characterized and quantitatively determined using several different testing procedures, as privadas the various additional standard ASTM research, or in other studies, also described below. For example, embodiments of the present invention may exhibit certain desirable characteristics of resistance to abrasion, tensile bursting and distribution of moisture (e.g., drying time, vertical and surface absorption and absorption capacity).

The design of the knitted fabric for clothing of the lower layer can be adjusted to achieve certain levels of performance and comfort. In one of the embodiments the ratio of cotton/nylon supported in the design of the knitted fabric within the recommended range so as to maintain its desired properties thermal stability. Some of the structural parameters that can be adjusted for comfort and performance, include the desired weight fabric, yarn count, the length of the loop, the loop type, the number of hinge bars and looped rows per inch and a fill factor, and the like. Factors affecting comfort, include transport properties of humidity, that is the air permeability and the rate of moisture vapor transmission (MVTR), vertical absorption,surface absorption time absorption, stability, tensile and dimensional stability, just to name a few factors.

Relative resistance to abrasion, knitted fabric according to the present invention may exhibit certain properties of resistance to abrasion, when examined in accordance with ASTM D-4966 using the abrasion tester Martindale. In particular, fabrics herein may exhibit resistance to abrasion of Martindale more than about 100,000 cycles. In certain embodiments of the implementation of the present invention can be demonstrated resistance to abrasion of Martindale, which is more about than 300000 cycles.

Relative strength burst knitted fabric of the present invention may exhibit certain values of the tensile bursting, when examined in accordance with ASTM D-3787. Fabric of the present invention can demonstrate the value of the punching shear strength of at least about 60 pounds, for example, from about 70 to about 130 pounds (about 24 kg, for example, from about 28 to about 52 kg).

Regarding the drying time, the knitted fabric of the present invention may exhibit certain performance characteristics of drying, when it is examined in accordance with the procedure of the study drying efficiency, the following. In particular, the knitted fabric in this document may show the 30-minute values) drying efficiency, at least about 70%, for example, from about 80% to 90%.

About the time of moisture absorption, the knitted fabric of the present invention may exhibit certain performance characteristics of absorption, when examined in accordance with the procedures of the study the absorption of humidity contained in this document. The time necessary knitted cloth to absorb the moisture, is an indicator of how quickly knitted fabric will absorb the sweat on the skin. In particular, knitted fabric herein may exhibit absorption times less than 15 seconds, more preferably less than 5 seconds.

Relative surface area, which absorbs humidity, knitted fabric according to the present invention may exhibit certain performance characteristics of absorption, when examined in accordance with the procedures of the study of surface absorption given in this document. The surface area of absorption is an indicator of the area in which knitted fabric distributes moisture to evaporate. In particular, knitted fabric herein may exhibit a surface area of absorption greater than 2.5 square inches, more preferably, bol is Shui, than 4 square inches (greater than that of 16.05 square centimeter, more preferably greater than 25,7 square centimeter).

Relative to the height of the vertical absorption, which penetrates the humidity, knitted fabric according to the present invention may exhibit certain performance characteristics of absorption, when examined in accordance with the procedures of the study vertical absorption given in this document. The time required to achieve a specific height vertical absorption is a measure of the speed with which the knitted fabric distributes the moisture on the fabric surface for evaporation. In particular, knitted fabric herein may exhibit the maximum height of the vertical absorption of 6 inches within 30 minutes, more preferably, about 10 minutes.

When using fabric according to the present invention clothes from warp knitted fabric or fabric weft knitting can be made from such structures as smooth mating, mating with rocker loops, mating with press weaves, fangovyh knit Terry knit (with high loops or partial stretching of loops), the knitted fabric is made to interlock machines, reverse knit knitted jacquard fabric, square the sky knit wertelecki knitted fabric, Milan ribbed or knitted fabric made on a Raschel machines. Such fabric, related from blended yarns containing nylon (and preferably, made of nylon with high tensile strength) staple fiber and additional cellulosic staple fiber can provide characteristics attributed cellulose fibers, without negative effects resulting from the inclusion of nylon staple fibers. When this tissue contains relatively high amounts of cellulose compared to nylon, as provided herein, such fabric may have unexpectedly desirable combination of properties of the distribution of moisture, resistance to abrasion and thermal properties that make such fabrics are particularly suitable for use in such clothing like t-shirts.

Methods of research

The methods of research used to determine various compositional, structural and functional characteristics and features of the knitted fabric of the present invention, are as follows: when the research methods ASTM or NFPA identified in this document by numeric notation, a formal description of each such investigation, as provided by American Society for Testing amd Materials or the National Fire Prtection Association, is incorporated herein by reference.

Studies of the structure/composition

A) Weight of fabric - ASTM D-3776

Weight or dry weight of the knitted fabric are determined by weighing samples of known area and calculate mass or dry mass in terms ounce/quart(g/sq.m) in accordance with the procedures of this standard method of study.

B) the thickness of the fabric - ASTM D-1777

The thickness of the fabric are determined by measuring the distance from one surface of the fabric to the opposite surface of the tissue using the tissue sample with a standard limiting the pressure in accordance with the procedures of this standard method of study.

C) the Ratio of fibers in the mixture - ASTM D-629

This method of research covers a procedure for determining the composition of a mixture of fibers for mixtures of several types of fibers, including cotton and nylon.

Functional studies (mechanical and thermal properties)

A) abrasion Resistance - ASTM D-4966

The present study involves the use of "Martindale Abrasion Tester". This device is designed to obtain a controlled magnitude multidirectional friction between the surface fabric and crossbred wool abrasive cloth at a relatively low pressure to tissue destruction or until until you happen not what iamlive change color or appearance.

(B) punching shear Strength - ASTM D-3787

This study measures the force required to penetrate a knitted fabric. The sample material is clamped above the diaphragm, which inflates up until the specimen is not pressed. The punching shear strength is the pressure at which the fabric is pressed. The punching shear strength is a measure of how easily through the knitted fabric can penetrate solid round object. Higher tensile bursting indicates a fabric that is more resistant to bursting.

C) the efficiency of the drying

To determine the drying time, air samples are weighed using a laboratory scale with an accuracy of 0.001 g Sample of tissue is removed from the weighing pan, and a single drop of water is placed on a Cup of scales and weighed. Then a sample of tissue is placed on a Cup of scales on top of the water and in contact with her. After two minutes of wet sample of tissue is weighed to obtain the wet weight, and re-weighing again after a two-minute intervals for a total time of study in thirty minutes. If scales are supplied with the hood, doors, hood hold open during the whole study. In conclusion, from the study calculates the overall efficiency of drying as a percentage of the water that leaves the humid is the first sample after the drying time of 30 minutes.

D) the Study of the absorption of humidity - modified AATCC 79-2000

Absorption is a measure of the tendency of the fabric to absorb water. The prescribed amount of water from the measuring pipette is placed on the fabric with a fixed height, fabric, mounted on the Hoop, with the wrong side of the fabric looks on the outside. AATCC 79 modify through the use of a fixed volume of water, 0.2 ml (0.2 cm3), and height dripping 5 cm (approximately 2 inches). A drop is defined as the absorbed when there is no observable spills or Shine on the surface of the fabric. The time required to absorb drops, is celebrated as the time of absorption (seconds). The time of absorption is an indicator of the ability of the fabric to absorb sweat.

E) the Study of surface absorption - modified AATCC 79-2000

The area in which the fabric can distribute water, is a measure of the area available for evaporation and drying. An additional dimension is obtained using the modified study absorption AATCC 79-2000 described above in functional analysis (D), and is defined as the surface area of absorption. After water is absorbed by the cloth and start applying water reaches 1 minute, measure the nominal wet area (major axis × minor axis) and register it as the surface area of the EAP is tawania (in square inches (square centimeters)). The area of the surface absorption is a measure of the square, on which the fabric may distribute the humidity, and the area available for evaporation.

F) investigation of the vertical absorption

Investigation of the vertical absorption is used to determine the height of the absorption time and the absorption at a specified height for evaluating the performance of the moisture distribution, which can be expected from clothing made from the examined tissue, it can demonstrate during the presence of different levels of physical activity and environmental conditions. Fabric condition before the study, in accordance with a modified version of ASTM D1776 at 21°C and 65% relative humidity for at least 16 hours. The sample of fabric 1×9 inch (2,54×22, 86 cm) with a large size corresponding to the direction of Wales series, suspended and hung vertically with the latch. The free end of the specimen tissue is weighed by placing in distilled water, so 2.5 inches (6.35 centimeters) fabric is immersed for one hour. At specified intervals of time the height of the water that enters the sample of tissue is measured and recorded. The overall height of the absorption is measured as the maximum height that can be reached within one hour. The investigated water between measurements of the samples was poured, and n is new, pure chemical glass with fresh distilled water is used for each new sample.

(G) investigation of the vertical burning ASTM D-6413-1999

The present study determines whether the fabric may ignite and continue to burn after being exposed to ignition source and is used to determine whether the fabric ignited. Method study provides criteria on how should be the study by specifying sample size, number of tests, types of flame, and the like. The fabric is placed in a holder that is suspended vertically above the burning fuel with a high content of methane, for 12 seconds. Measurements undertaken as part of this study, include the value for the time when the fabric continues to burn after removal of the flame source (after flame in seconds); the length of time when the fabric continues to smolder after extinguishing the flame (subsequent decay in seconds); the length of the tissue that is damaged (length oropendola in inches (centimeters); and the observation of the properties of melting and dripping drops.

H) thermal protective performance (TPP) - NFPA 2112 (Section 8.2)

This study measures the amount of thermal protection fabric can provide to someone in her clothes, in the event of an outbreak plamenac TPP is defined as the energy required to cause the onset of burn of second degree in human tissue, when the person wearing the fabric. In the study of TPP combined radiant and convective heat source is directed to the section of the investigated sample of tissue that is installed in a horizontal position, at a given heat flux (typically, 2 cal/cm2/sec). The study measures the transferred heat energy from the source through the specimen using a calorimeter with copper bar. The study TPP can strip ¼ inch(0,64 cm) or without gaskets between the fabric and the calorimeter with copper bar. The final study is characterized by time (TPP)is required to achieve the retelling of skin burns second degree, by using a simplified model developed by Stoll & Chianta, "Transactions of the New York Academy Science, 1971, 33 p 649. The value attributed to the sample in this study, referred to as assessment of TPP, is calculated by multiplying the applied heat flux at the end of the study, it represents the total heat energy that can withstand the specimen before it is expected burn of second degree. Higher estimates TPP mean better performance isolation.

I) Thermal shrinkage - NFPA 1975 (Section 8.2)

A study of thermal shrinkage research is the duty to regulate, as a clothing material will react when it is exposed to high temperatures and will wear essentially take or whether it can stick to the skin, it's dressed. Samples of tissue are placed in an oven and hung with metal hooks at the top. They are exposed to temperature survey of 500°F (260°C) for 5 minutes. Immediately after exposure, the specimen removed from the furnace and examined for signs of melting, dripping drops, separation, or ignition. The percentage change in size in width and length for each specimen is calculated and the results expressed as the mean value for the three specimens in each direction. Thermal shrinkage is more than 10 percent may contribute to the severity of the burn due to the increase of heat transfer, restricted movement of the body, or breaks open the fabric.

J) Thermal stability NFPA 1975 (Section 8.3)

Samples of fabric folded in half; is clamped between two glass plates with some cargo on top and placed in an oven at 500°F (260°C) for six hours. After six hours of exposure of the fabric, folded between glass plates, removed from the oven and allow them to cool. Then the cloth is removed from the glass plates and see the destruction, melting and softening of the material. These studies assess how m is a material predetermined service responds to intense heat, which may occur during bursts of flame, and whether the clothes to stick to the skin, it's dressed. NFPA 1975 (Section 8.3) requires that the layers of the tissue sample was not stuck to each other or to the glass, and the fabric does not show any signs of melting or ignition.

K) high Temperature automatic home washing of knitted and woven material - modified AATCC 135-2000

The real way to modify the study of performance properties, which depend on the characteristics of the surface of the fabric, and it is designed to remove residual detergents that are settled artificially in the laboratory. Modification of AATCC 135-2000 (table I (1, V, Aiii)), which use include: (i) using less detergent to reduce the residual deposition of detergent; (ii) a separate Laundry without detergent, ballast of similar type material, sample fabric before washing, periodically, and before final washing to remove residual chemicals; and (iii) implementation of the final wash without detergent/acid/water softeners. Each sample knitted fabric is placed in a standard washing machine and wash for normal machine cycle using water temperature 140°F and AATCC Standard Detergent 124, rinse with water at 105°F (40 is the radius Celsius) and placed in a standard drying after the final spin cycle. The configuration drying are drying at the average temperature during the setting of the constant pressure. Perform six cycles of washing and drying, the sixth wash without detergent. All studies of the distribution of humidity (moisture absorbing surface absorption, vertical absorption and drying) is performed with the use of this procedure.

EXAMPLES

The following examples illustrate but do not limit the present invention. Particularly advantageous features of the present invention can be seen in comparison with the comparative examples, which do not possess the distinctive characteristics of the present invention.

Fabric is knitted using conventional knitting designs, as shown below, and then subjected to various studies and evaluate thermal performance. Such fabric was prepared as follows:

Yarn 30s/1 (count cotton 30, single) are obtained for three different relations of a homogeneous mixture of nylon/cotton staple fibers, nominally 50/50, 40/60 and 30/70, using the usual method of spinning yarn. (Count cotton is a standard numbering system yarn and is based on a unit length of 840 yards (767,8 meters), and the yarn count equal to the number of 840-Yanovich (767,8-meter) coils, it is possible to obtain a mass of one pound (four hundred grams). In this system, the higher the number, the finer the yarn. Hank is a continuous filament yarn in the form of a compressed ball. It is wound on a bobbin, the circumference of which is usually 45-60 inches (101-152 centimeters). The yarn is spun from three-dimensional, mechanically mixed staple fiber from cotton and synthetic fibers. Nylon staple fiber of 1.7 dpf, Type 420 used in these mixes and commercially produced using INVISTA™ s á. I., Three Little Falls Center, 2801 Centerville Road, Wilmington, Delaware 19808 USA.

Three different blended fabrics receive in the form of simple design Jersey using circular knitting machines. Blended fabrics obtained from relations blending nylon/cotton, as described above. Details knitted fabric are listed below:

The length of the loop: 0,105 inch (0,267 cm)

- Woven columns per inch (wpi): 32 (Hinge bars per centimeter: 12,6)

- Buttonhole rows per inch (cpi): 53 (Buttonhole rows per centimeter is 20.9)

- Weight fabric (oz/quart): 3,65 (Weight of fabric (g/sq. m): 12,48)

The fabric is bleached, cleaned, and then color as the canvas in the "sand" color using a two-stage procedure staining. Cotton piece dyed first with the use of fiber-reactive dyes Procion®, obtained from Huntsman Chemical. Nylon paint the second part using acidic dye Lanaset®. After about the key water a coloured product is treated then hydrophilic softener fabric. This is the procedure of painting can also be carried out in a one-step method of painting. Then dyed knitted fabric trim on drying and tentering machine at a temperature of 340°F (153 ° C) for 2 minutes. Fabric from a blend of nylon/cotton may be exposed to additional stages of compacting. Weight of finished fabrics for all three mixed fabrics is nominally in the range from 3.80 oz/quart to 5.2 oz/quart (13 g/sqm to 17,78 g/sq. m).

Description of the content of fibers and melting characteristics and runoff drops for different tissues, measured by several different studies thermal properties are presented and summarized together in table 1.

50% cotton/50% nylon (comparative sample A), 60% cotton/40% nylon (example 1) and 70% cotton/30% nylon (example 2), all do not show signs of melting or dripping drops in three research studies thermal properties: in the study of vertical combustion, thermal performance and thermal shrinkage. From the evaluated mixtures of cotton/nylon only 60% cotton/40% nylon (example 1) and 70% cotton/30% nylon (example 2) give acceptable performance in the most important study of thermal stability, specifically to trueroots to determine the potential for adhesion of materials to the skin, who dressed in them. None of these mixtures does not show visible signs of melting or dripping drops, and does not stick either to the glass or to itself, as is illustrated after exposure in the study of thermal stability in figure 1. In contrast, the mixture containing 50% nylon (comparative example A), as found, is unacceptable. 100% nylon sample (comparative example E) shows a clear visible signs of melting. Although 50% of the sample (comparative example A) shows no obvious signs of melting and does not stick together tightly with glass or himself, tissue layers are not separated easily and there are signs of softening, as determined by microscopic examination.

As a comparison, 100% polyester fabric (comparative example D) and the fabric is 50% cotton/50% polyester (comparative example B) assess (both are given in table 1). Both show unacceptable behaviour, 100% polyester sample is melted, and they both stick together with glass and with yourself. It is also impossible to separate the layers of tissue for any sample that contains polyester. Thus, it is clear that the same level of protection for skin, who is dressed in appropriate clothing, against melting and dripping drops, how to give a mixture of cotton/nylon, cannot be achieved by replacing the nylon equiv the build number of the polyester.

Table 2 presents the results of many of the comparative examples in which get knitted fabric structures, similar to those which are characterized in table 1, except that the standard nylon complex thread and cotton yarn are knitted in parallel instead of using blended yarn. Parts used designs knitwear included in table 2. The results of comparative examples E-I demonstrate that equivalent behavior without melting/dripping drops achieved by using uniformly mixed yarn NYCO of 30% and 40% nylon (examples 1 and 2 of table 1, respectively), can be reproduced only when the contents of nylon smaller than 15% (comparative example I) in the case Nesmelova yarn. The results from tables 1 and 2 together show clearly the critical importance of using yarn, obtained from a homogeneous mixture of the constituent fibers.

Table 3 presents thermal properties such as cotton/nylon fabrics, such as those described in table 1 (examples 1 and 2 and comparative example A), a lighter cotton/nylon fabric (example 3) and commercially available 100% polyester, cotton and flame resistant fabrics for t-shirts (comparative examples D and J-L), as measured in the study of thermal protective performance gasket ¼ inch (0,64 cm) is between samples of tissue and copper calorimeter, as examined in accordance with NFPA 2112 (Section 8.2).

Thermal insulation mixtures NYCO is excellent, with estimates of TPP, compared with 100% cotton knitted fabric (comparative example J) and knit NOMEX® (comparative example K), and clearly superior to bad grades TPP produced using 100% polyester knitted fabric (comparative example D) and Jersey from modacrylic FR mixture (comparative example L). The value of the efficiency coefficient of the tissue (FFF) divides the assessment of TTP on a mass of tissue as a comparison of thermal efficiency of the material. Values FFF same order as for 100% cotton (comparative example E) and NOMEX® (comparative example F) Jersey with values FFF above 2.0 (cal/cm2)(oz/quart) (0,59 (cal/cm2)/(g/sq.m). Values FFF clearly exceed 100% polyester knitted fabric (comparative example D) and knitwear from modacrylic FR mixture (comparative example L), which is less than 1.0 (cal/cm2)/(oz/quart) (0,29 (cal/cm2)/(g/sq.m). In addition to the absence of melting and dripping drops jerseys of the present invention operate with efficiency comparable to well-known commercial jerseys, demonstrating excellent thermal insulation, and superior to some of the commercially available knitted FR products.

Research working space character is a stick in accordance with NFPA 2112 (Section 8.2) can be performed in two configurations, gasket ¼ inch (0,64 cm) and without it. In the configuration discussed above, the strip ¼ inch (0,64 cm) placed between the tissue sample and thermal sensor to simulate normal fit clothes, as well as to allow tissue to reach the same high temperatures as would happen in a real contact with the flames. When the study of thermal protective performance is carried out in a configuration with the strip ¼ inch (0,64 cm), specimen material surrounded by air and absorbs the full thermal energy for exposure in the study. Configuration with the strip ¼ inch (0,64 cm) is the most difficult of conditions studies to assess thermal insulation performance of different materials and the integrity of the tissue from thermal loads. When the study of thermal protective performance is carried out in a configuration without strip ¼ inch (0,64 cm), the sample material is in contact with the copper calorimeter, which acts as a drain for heat and draws heat energy from the sample material, and slows down the reaction of the material in contact with thermal energy. Configuration without strip ¼ inch (0,64 cm) is useful in assessing the integrity of the tissue and behavior at the inner layer, which could be in direct contact with the skin is.

Table 4 represents thermal protective properties of the same cotton/nylon fabric, as described in table 1 (example 1), a lighter fabric, 50% cotton/50% nylon (example 3 and comparative example 0), and commercially available fabrics for t-shirts from 85% polyester/15% cotton, 100% polyester, cotton and flame resistant fabric (comparative examples C, D, and J-N), as measured in the study of thermal performance without strip ¼ inch (0,64 cm) between the sample of tissue and copper calorimeter, as examined in accordance with NFPA 2112 (Section 8.2). Thermal insulation mixtures NYCO is acceptable, the values of TPP are in the range of 100% cotton Jersey (comparative example J) and knitted NOMEX® (comparative example K) and higher than estimates TPP obtained for 100% polyester knitted fabric (comparative example D) and Jersey from modacrylic FR mixture (comparative examples L-N). The value of the efficiency coefficient of the tissue (FFF) divides the assessment of TTP on a mass of tissue, as a comparison of thermal efficiency of the material. Values FFF, when they are examined in the configuration without strip ¼ inch (0,64 cm), tend to be directly dependent on the mass of tissue, thus, assessment FFF than 1.0 is acceptable. Values FFF for Jersey NYCO than 1.0 (cal/cm2)/(oz/quart) (0,29 (cal/cm2)/(g/m)) and, therefore, are acceptable. 100% cotton is a new Jersey (comparative example J) and knit NOMEX® (comparative example K) also have values FFF than 1.0 (cal/cm 2)/(oz/quart) (0,29 (cal/cm2)/(g/sq.m). In contrast, values FFF 100% polyester knitted fabric (comparative example D) and Jersey from modacrylic FR mixture (comparative examples L-N) is less than 1.0 (cal/cm2)/(oz/quart) (0,29 (cal/cm2)/(g/sq.m). Jersey NYCO, 100% cotton Jersey (comparative example J) and knit NOMEX® (comparative example K) - all of them maintain their tissues and have no open gaps in the contact time with the heat. In contrast, 100% polyester knitted fabric (comparative example D) is melted, and formed in open fractures and knitwear from FR modacrylic mixture (comparative examples L-N) is destroyed, and open breaks upon contact with heat. Higher values of FFF for Jersey NYCO, 100% cotton Jersey (comparative example J) and knitted NOMEX® (comparative example K) reflect the integrity of the fabric when heat load. Lower values FFF 100% polyester knitted fabric (comparative example D) and Jersey from FR modacrylic mixture (comparative examples L-N) reflect the lack of integrity of the tissue under thermal load. In addition to the absence of melting and dripping drops, the knitted fabric of the present invention operates with an efficiency comparable to known commercial tricot is mportant tissues, demonstrating excellent thermal insulation performance and maintaining the integrity of the fabric, and have higher performance characteristics than 100% polyester Jersey and some of the commercially available FR knitted fabrics.

Table 5 represents the properties of thermal shrinkage of the same cotton/nylon fabrics, which are described in table 1 (examples 1 and 2 and comparative example A), a lighter cotton/nylon fabric (example 3) and commercially available fabric, 50% polyester/50% cotton, 100% polyester, cotton and flame resistant fabrics for t-shirts (comparative examples B-D and J-N), as measured in the study of thermal shrinkage, as examined in accordance with NFPA 1975 (Section 8.2). Thermal shrinkage of mixtures NYCO is excellent, and the shrinkage is approximately equal to and less than 6% and much less than the maximum requirement of 10%. 100% cotton knitted fabric (comparative example J) and knit NOMEX® (comparative example K) also exhibit low shrinkage upon contact with a large amount of heat. With this Jersey from modacrylic FR mixture (comparative example L-N) shows extremely high shrinkage. In addition to the absence of melting and dripping drops, knitted fabric according to the present invention have excellent performance characteristics thermal shrinkage and is comparable with the known to the commercial knitted fabrics, demonstrating excellent thermal performance, and superior to some of the commercially available knitted FR fabrics.

The achievement of acceptable properties melting/dripping drops and thermal behavior does not imply any minimum content of nylon in the mix for fabric. However, other performance characteristics, such as fabric strength, abrasion resistance and moisture distribution that may be required to meet military specifications or preferences of the consumer can be achieved by adding to a mixture of nylon fabric, as shown in tables 6 and 7.

Table 6 shows the impact on the strength of the push for adding nylon with high tensile strength to the mix for fabric. As shown, the punching shear strength is increased when increasing the number of nylon material with high tensile strength in the mixture (example 2, example 1, comparative example A). Data on the strength of the push for standardized to account for differences in the mass of tissue. When comparing the normalized results for the punching shear strength for mixtures of fibres of synthetic fibres/cotton or FR fiber with blends with nylon, high tensile strength shows an increase in strength from 15,8%to 100%. Compared to mirceski available cotton blend and knit FR fabrics, knitted fabric of the present invention achieve a high ratio of strength to weight, allowing for a more lightweight fabric with strength punching far above the acceptable level of 60 pounds (24 kg).

Data on resistance to abrasion can be used to predict the performance of wear resistance of the fabric. When the mix for fabric add any number of nylon material with high tensile strength, abrasion resistance increases (example 2, example 1, comparative example A). The abrasion resistance of other synthetic compounds, widely used in knitted fabrics (such as polyester or FR fiber, such as modelinia), significantly lower compared to the fabrics of similar weight, containing nylon with high tensile strength (example 3 as compared with comparative example B, example 1 in comparison with comparative examples L, M, N, P). Lighter fabrics with higher normalized strength bursting strength and abrasion resistance may be constructed using nylon with high tensile strength in comparison with a heavier 100% cotton fabrics, fabrics made from 50% polyester/50% cotton, and fabrics from modacrylic mixture (example 3 in comparison with comparative examples B, P, L, M). Even for small mass of fabric knitted fabric on this is the overarching invention achieves resistance to abrasion a lot more 100,000 cycles.

Performance characteristics of moisture distribution associated with the received comfort when wearing tissues and are characterized by measuring the vertical and surface absorption, absorption and drying efficiency. All tissues with the results listed in table 7, washed 5 times according to AATCC 135 Table 1 (1, V, A, iii) with one additional wash cycle without detergent. An additional cycle is carried out for removal from the fabric of any residual detergent that may affect the results of absorption and absorption.

As illustrated in table 7, for all cotton/nylon fabric, the time of absorption to measure the absorption drops of water in the tissue is very short (1 second). All comparative examples without any content of nylon have much higher absorption times. The same trend can be seen at the surface absorption. Surface absorption is a square in the tissue, which absorbs the measured drop of water and dispenses water on the surface of the fabric. Again, all the comparative examples without any content of nylon, is shown in table 7, have a smaller area absorbed. Knitted fabric of the present invention demonstrate absorption times much less than 15 seconds and is much more than 2.5 inches (6.35 cm) for a square surface vpityvanie is.

Table 7 shows the vertical speed of absorption, in which water will be extended vertically upwards by the same cotton/nylon knitted cloth, which is described in table 1 (examples 1 and 2 and comparative example A), on a lighter cotton/nylon fabric (example 3) and commercially available fabric, 50% polyester/50% cotton, cotton and flame resistant fabrics for t-shirts (comparative examples B, P, L, and M). The greater the rate of absorption, the faster the water is spread on cloth and is available for evaporation from the surface of the fabric. The height of the vertical absorption for cotton/nylon fabric (examples 1-3 and comparative example A), for all reaches full height of the sample 6 inches (15.2 cm) for 10 minutes. All comparative examples (comparative examples B, P, L, and M) without any content nylon show significantly lower rates of absorption and does not reach absorption at full height even after 60 minutes. The knitted fabric of the present invention shows the times of the vertical absorption is much lower than the 30 minutes to achieve the full height of the tissue sample 6 inches (15.2 cm).

The efficiency of drying or how quickly the fabric will dry out after absorbing sweat or moisture is a very important study for comfort when wearing fabric. Ka is shown in table 7, the drying efficiency is increased when increasing the content of nylon, with similar masses/fabric designs (example 2, example 1, comparative example A). More lightweight fabrics containing nylon (example 3)shows the effect of a higher content of nylon plus tissue mass with a more open design of the Jersey. All comparative examples without nylon have a lower efficiency of the drying/drying speed. The knitted fabric of the present invention demonstrates the efficiency of drying is much below 70% after 30 minutes.

Table 2
Thermal stability
The design of the knitted fabricAccording to NFPA 1975 (Chapter 8.3)
The mixture of fibersThe mixing ratioWeight of fabric (oz/quart)The size of the cotton yarn
Count cotton
The size of the nylon yarn (denier)The observation material
Passes or notMeltingFireStick togetherPrili
Paeth to glass
Comparative example ENylon1005,0NA140FailsYesNoYesYes
Comparative example FCotton: Nylon57:435,640100FailsYesNoYesNo
Comparative example GCotton: Nylon72:28the 5.73070FailsYesNoYesComparative example KCotton: Nylon79:216,72070FailsNoNoYesNo
Comparative example ICotton: Nylon87:136,42040PassesNoNoNoNo

5,1
Table 3
Thermal performance according to NFPA 2112 gasket
The mixture of fibersThe mixing ratioWeight of fabric (oz/
quart)
Time TPP (seconds)Evaluation of TPP (cal/cm2)Is FFF (cal/cm2)/
(oz/quart)
The observation material
MeltingStack
the drop
mi
Comparative example aCotton:Nylon50:504,85,511,02,3No, charsNo
Example 1Cotton:Nylon60:40a 4.96,312,52,5No, charsNo
Example 3Cotton:Nylon60:40a 3.94,59,12,4No, charsNo
Example 2Cotton:Neil is n 70:30the 4.76,913,72,8No, charsNo
Comparative example JCotton1004,56,412,82,8No, charsNo
Comparative example DPolyester1005,22,44,80,9Yes, open gapsYes
Comparative example KNOMEX®:KEVLAR®:P14092:5:36,37,414,823No, charsNo
Comparative example LFR-modelinia fiber
spandex:X-Static
75:10:10:52,4the 4.70,9Yes, open gapsNo

Table 4
Thermal performance according to NFPA 2112 gasket
The mixture of fibersThe mixing ratioWeight of fabric (oz/
quart)
Time TPP (seconds)Evaluation of TPP (cal/cm2)Is FFF (cal/cm2)/
(oz/quart)
The observation material
MeltingStack-tion drops
Comparative example 0Cotton:Nylon50:504,5a 4.99,82,2No, charsNo
Example 1Cotton:Nylon60:40a 4.95,611,22,3No, charsNo
Example 3Cotton:Nylon60:40a 3.94,89,52,5No, charsNo
Comparative example DCotton1005,22,24,40,8YesYes
Comparative example CPolyester85:156,23,56,91,1YesYes
Comparative example J1004,55,510,92,4No, charsNo
Comparative example KNOMEX®:KEVLAR®:P14092:5:36,35,110,21,6No, charsNo
Comparative example LFR-modelinia fiber
spandex:X-Static
75:10:10:55,12,65,21,0No open gapsNo
Comparative example MFR-modelinia fiber: TENCEL®
Viscose
85:15a 4.93,77,41,5No open gapsNo
Comparative example N Modelinia fiber78:225,94,08,01,4No open gaps

Table 5
Thermal shrinkage according to NFPA 1975 (Chapter 8.2)
The mixture of fibersRatio)
of
Weight of fabric (oz/
quart)
Woven columnsButtonhole rowsThe observation material
Passes or notPlale
of
Drip drops
of
Fire
Comparative example aCotton: Nylon50:504,86a 3.9 PassesNoNoNoNo
Example 1Cotton: Nylon60:40a 4.92,33,4PassesNoNoNoNo
Example 3Cotton: Nylon60:40a 3.92,11,3PassesNoNoNoNo
Example 2Cotton: Nylon70:30the 4.73,11,8PassesNoNoNoNo
Comparative example ENylon 1005,05,01,6PassesNoNoNoNo
Comparative example BCotton: Polyester50:504,362,5PassesNoNoNoNo
Comparative example CPolyester: Cotton85:156,2of 5.45,5PassesNoNoNoNo
Comparative example DPolyester1005,2to 19.911,1FailsNoNo NoNo
Comparative example JCotton1004,51,30,8PassesNoNoNoNo
Comparative example KNOMEX®:KEVLAR®:P14095:5:36,311,6PassesNoNoNoNo
Comparative example LFR-ModeLine fiber spandex:X-Static75:10:10:5the 4.743,.637,2FailsNoNoNoNo
Comparative example MFR-ModeLine fibre TENCEL®
Viscose
8515 a 4.925,726,.1FailsNoNoNoNo
Comparative example NFR-ModeLine fiber: FR
Viscose
78:225,957,.649,5FailsNoNoNoNo

Table 6
Evaluation of physical properties
The mixture of fibersThe mixing ratioWeight of fabric (oz/
quart)
The punching shear strength (lb)Strength divided by the mass of tissue (lb/(oz/quart)Resistance (ASTM D4966 - 9 kpa) (No. of cycles to failure)
Comparative example A Cotton:Nylon50:504,8109,222,8of 550,000+
Example 1Cotton:Nylon50:40a 4.993,220,2of 550,000+
Example 3Cotton:Nylon60:40a 3.973,2419,0141062
Example 2Cotton:Nylon70:30the 4.7a 94.220,0176338
Comparative example BCotton:Polyester50:504,370,516,457971
Comparative example PCotton100the 5.783,6 14,734333
Comparative example LFR-ModeLine fiber
spandex:X-Static
75:10:10:55,15B,211,483497
Comparative example MFR-ModeLine fibre TENCEL® Viscose85:15a 4.9to 70.214,310575
Comparative example NFR-ModeLine fiber: FR Viscose78:225,994,616,014289

1. thermal protective knit fabric made from a yarn made from a homogeneous mixture only cellulosic and nylon staple fibers, and a mixture of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers has a mass ratio of cellulose and nylon yarn in the range of from about 55:45 to about 85:15.

2. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, in which there are no signs of melting, dripping drops or sticking Priego test in accordance with NFPA 1975 (section 8.3).

3. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, in which the specified homogeneous mixture is obtained using the method of mixing selected from the group consisting of
a) volumetric mechanical mixing of staple fibers before combing;
b) volumetric mechanical mixing of staple fibers to comb through and during it; and
c) at least two passes of the tape machine when mixed staple fibers after screening and before spinning yarn.

4. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, in which the ratio of cellulose to the nylon in the specified yarn is in the range from about 60:40 to about 70:30.

5. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, which has a mass of from about 3 to about 8 oz/quart.

6. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, which has a thickness in the range from about 0,030 0,015 to inches.

7. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, in which the yarn used to form the knitted fabric is a single yarn having a numbering cotton yarn from about 5 to about 60.

8. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, which fit many individual strands of yarn or woven from multifilament yarn;
specified multiple strands of yarn or woven complex thread contains, at least, per the second yarn, manufactured from a homogeneous mixture of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers in respect of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers is from about 55:45 to about 85:15, and at least a second yarn comprising nylon thread, provided that such nylon complex thread does not exceed 15 wt.% of the total content of the cellulose and nylon in the fabric; and the ratio of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers in the first homogeneously mixed yarn is regulated so that the content of the nylon thread plus staple yarns in the cloth does not exceed 45 wt.% with respect to the total content of the cellulose and nylon canvas.

9. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, which fit many individual strands of yarn or woven from multifilament yarn;
specified multiple strands of yarn or woven complex thread contains, at least, the first yarn is made of a homogeneous mixture of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers in respect of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers is from about 40:60 to about 85:15, and at least a second yarn made from a homogeneous mixture of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers in respect of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers, at least about 60:40, and at least a third nylon complex thread provided thatis nylon complex thread does not exceed 15 weight.% of the total content of the cellulose and nylon cloth; and the ratio of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers in the knitted cloth is adjusted so that the nylon thread plus the contents of the staple fibers in the cloth does not exceed 45 wt.% in relation to the content of cellulose and nylon canvas.

10. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, in which part of the pulp and staple fibers in the specified homogeneous mixture replaced wool or silk and/or part of the cellulose and/or nylon staple fibers in a specified homogeneous mixture of substituted fire-resistant staple fibers.

11. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, in which part of the pulp and staple fibers in the specified homogeneous mixture replaced and/or part of the cellulose and/or nylon staple fibers in a specified homogeneous mixture is replaced by a fire-resistant aramid staple fibers.

12. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1 which includes the nylon staple fibers include nylon 6 and/or nylon 6,6 and have a tensile strength of at least 3.0 grams per denier.

13. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, which contains a mating structure selected from the smooth knit, knit with the press and/or rocker loops, fangovyh knit, knitted jacquard fabric, knitted fabric, made to interlock machines, vertoletnogo jerseys alatna and knitted fabrics, made on a Raschel machines.

14. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, which contains yarns made from fibers or threads with elastomeric, flame retardant, antimicrobial and/or antistatic properties.

15. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, which has applied thereto the surface or volume treatment, giving the fabric antimicrobial, antistatic, chemical resistance, resistance to wrinkling, flame retardant, stain removal, gazettelive, malatjalian, water resistant, moisture absorption, moisture absorption, the efficiency of drying and/or hydrophobic properties.

16. thermal protective fabric according to claim 1, which has a coefficient of efficiency fabric (FFF)of at least 1.0 (cal/cm2)/(oz/quart) when tested in accordance with thermal NFPA 2112 (section 8.2) without gaskets.

17. thermal protective fabric according to claim 1, which has a coefficient of efficiency fabric (FFF)of at least 2.0 (cal/cm2)/(oz/quart) when tested in accordance with NFPA 2112 (section 8.2) with gasket ¼ inch (0,64 cm).

18. thermal protective knit fabric according to 14, which shows no signs of melting, dripping drops or adhesion when tested in accordance with NFPA 1975 (section 8.3).

19. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, cat is the art of thermal shrinkage of less than about 8% as in the direction of the hinge bars and in the direction of the stitch rows when tested in accordance with NFPA 1975 (section 8.2).

20. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, which has a strength when punching the ball, at least about 60 pounds when tested in accordance with ASTM D-3787.

21. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, which has a resistance to abrasion of Martindale at least about 100,000 cycles when tested in accordance with ASTM D-4966.

22. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, which has the efficiency of drying, at least about 70%.

23. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, which is the time of absorption of less than 15 C.

24. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, which has an area of surface absorption, greater than 2.5 square inches.

25. thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1, which has a vertical height absorbed 6 inches in less than 30 minutes

26. Product service, which contains a thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1.

27. Product service in the form of service of the lower layer which contains a thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1.

28. The clothing of the lower layer in the form of t-shirts, which contains a thermal protective knit fabric according to claim 1.

29. Thermal knitted fabric containing yarn, made of a homogeneous mixture of wool and it is nowych staple fibres, characterized by a mass ratio of wool to nylon in said yarn being in the range from about 55:45 to about 85:15.

30. thermal protective knit fabric according to clause 29, which shows no signs of melting, dripping drops or adhesion when tested in accordance with NFPA 1975 (section 8.3).

31. thermal protective knit fabric according to clause 29, which indicated a homogeneous mixture is obtained using the method of mixing selected from the group consisting of
a) volumetric mechanical mixing of staple fibers to comb through;
b) volumetric mechanical mixing of staple fibers to comb through and during it; or
c) at least two passes of the tape machine mixing staple fibres after combing and to spinning yarn.

32. Thermal knitted fabric containing cellulosic and nylon staple yarn, which is characterized by the mass ratio of the cellulose and nylon in the specified yarn, in the range of about 55:45 to about 85:15, and at least a part of the said knitted fabric forms a non-leaking structure at temperatures above the melting temperature of the nylon.

33. thermal protective knit fabric according p, in which the mass ratio of cellulose and nylon knitted cloth is in the range from about 60:40 to about 7030.

34. thermal protective knit fabric according p in which the specified cellulose is a cotton.

35. thermal protective system containing:
a) the first layer of knitted fabric containing yarn, representing a homogeneous blend of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers,
b) a second layer of woven material, made of blended yarn, representing cellulose staple fiber and nylon staple fiber, with the specified yarn is characterized by a mass ratio of cellulose and nylon in the specified yarn, in the range of about 55:45 to about 85:15.

36. thermal protective system containing:
a) the first layer of knitted fabrics made from yarn, representing a homogeneous blend of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers; and
b) a second layer of woven material, made of yarn selected from the group consisting of: (i) blended yarns containing cellulose staple fiber and nylon staple fiber, with the specified yarn is characterized by a mass ratio of the cellulose to the nylon in the specified yarn, in the range of about 55:45 to about 85:15; and (ii) a flame-retardant yarn, containing aramid staple fiber.

37. A method of obtaining a thermal protective knit fabric according to which:
a) which secure the yarn, manufactured from a homogeneous mixture only cellulosic and nylon staple fibers, and the mass ratio of cellulose and nylon yarn from a blend of cellulosic and nylon staple fibers kept in the range from about 55:45 to about 85:15;
b) knit the specified yarn forming the fabric.

38. The method according to clause 37, according to which additional cut specified thermal knitted fabric with obtaining the constituent parts of the service.

39. A method of manufacturing a thermal protective clothing, according to which:
a) provide a thermal protective knit fabric made from a yarn made from a homogeneous mixture only cellulosic and nylon staple fibers; and
b) collect the specified thermal knitted fabric with obtaining service.

40. The method according to § 39, in which the referenced Assembly is a staple.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: textiles, paper.

SUBSTANCE: method includes formation from a working thread with a hook or knitting needles of rows of loops from which the corresponding parts of a knitwear is formed, while as a working thread a working thread with parts of varying thickness is used. The thickness of the working thread on its corresponding part of variable thickness is adjusted according to the required thickness of the performed part of the knitwear, for formation of which this part of the working thread is used.

EFFECT: increased operational reliability of the product.

4 cl

FIELD: textiles, paper.

SUBSTANCE: conjugate reinforced thread of rod braiding-type contains a rod part containing polyurethane, and braided portion containing elastomer. Polyurethane contains polyurethane of double prepolymer type. It is obtained from interaction of prepolymer having isocyanate groups at both ends, which is obtained by interaction of polyol and a diisocyanate with one another, and prepolymer having hydroxyl groups at both ends, which is obtained as a result of interaction with each other of polyol, diisocyanate and diol with low molecular weight. Conjugate reinforced thread of rod braiding-type is obtained by spinning of conjugate yarn in a fineness conditions of 18 to 110 dtex, the ratio of core part mass to the braided part from 95/5 to 60/40, and the multiplicity of exhaust from 1.5 to 4.0. Knitted fabric is connected to the use of such conjugate reinforced filament. Item of clothing is obtained by using such knitted fabric.

EFFECT: conjugate reinforced fiber has excellent elongation, has sufficient strength, reveals high transparency, provides a pleasant tactile feeling and has a moderate fitting potential.

7 cl, 6 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: textiles, paper.

SUBSTANCE: double combined filling-knit fabric based on the double-back stitching and overhead jacquard weave contains a overhead jacquard weave with a wale of elongated double stitches, underlap of each loop of which are connected with loops of different rows of double-back stitching.

EFFECT: broadening the range of knitted fabric due to obtaining the effect of a combination of loops with machines of different classes.

2 dwg

FIELD: textile industry.

SUBSTANCE: described is the method for production of piece of clothing such as the calf-length sock on the circular fabric machine with cyclic movement. The sock is produced as an “entire piece” bound without knit lines and formed as a single piece comprising a front end which is elongated and has the form of the socket which corresponds to the toe. The socket contains the first and the second front sections. The sock also comprises a jointing section between the said front end and the rear end. The jointing section contains a sole section and two side sections, and an upper opening between the side sections where the foot is inserted. All sections are produced through knitting phases, and, according to the method, several thread guides can be used simultaneously and independently during all stages to produce the calf-length sock. Described is a piece of clothing, such as a calf-length sock.

EFFECT: reduced time required to produce the piece of clothing, patterned or coloured sections can be produced without loose threads on the inside of the piece.

13 cl, 2 dwg

Jersey fabric // 2435880

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: jersey fabric produced by means of excluding 1×1 needles from operation, related to a class of figured ones, formed on the basis of the main looping weaves - by incomplete weaving, consists of half-woollen yarn with linear density of 62 tex or cotton yarn of linear density of 65 tex, used to form baseline loops of the jersey fabric and threads of leather with linear density of 673-924 tex. At the same time the following ratio of components, wt %, is selected: half-woollen yarn - 16-20 and leather threads - 80-84 or cotton yarn - 17-20 and leather threads - 80-83, number of wales and courses per 10 cm in the fabric are chosen as Pg 8-9 and Pv 14-16 accordingly. At the same time the surface density of the fabric is 479-530 g/m2.

EFFECT: jersey fabric has higher wear resistance, shape resistance, insignificant twisting at cut edges during pattern cutting of articles and at edges during article production at flat-knitting machines with one set of needles in separate parts and making it possible to expand the range of jersey fabrics, and is more comfortable for outerwear jersey items of new fashionable trends produced commercially.

1 tbl

Pullover // 2430202

FIELD: textile; paper.

SUBSTANCE: pullover comprises a front with a yoke, a back with a yoke, sleeves that are integrally joined to each other. Yokes are integrally knitted with the front and the back by low tensile weaving of the first group of tensility, which contains, according to the ornament repeat, rows of jersey structure and rows of double pressed weaving on the basis of lasting 1+1, one side of which consists of jersey stitches, and the other one - from press stitches, having single casting-on and displaced by one needle pitch. Sleeves and other parts of the front and the back are made by weaving of the second or third group of tensility.

EFFECT: improved consumer properties and saving of labour and material inputs in making of a pullover.

3 dwg

FIELD: textile; paper.

SUBSTANCE: knitted fabric contains two layers of incomplete jersey structure, displaced relative to each other by one needle pitch and connected to each other by stitches of incomplete lasting. To form one layer of this knitted fabric, three stitch-forming systems are required. In the first stitch-forming system on needles of a disc with high position of anvils the incomplete jersey structure is knitted, in the second system - also incomplete jersey structure is knitted on cylinder needles with upper position of anvils, but it is displaced by one needle pitch relative to incomplete jersey structure, formed on disc needles with high position of anvils, and in the third system a connecting thread is laid onto needles of the disc and the cylinder with lower position of anvils. The connecting thread joins two layers of incomplete jersey structure by stitches of incomplete lasting. The connecting thread is laid between two layers of jersey fabric in the form of broaches and exits to both sides to form longitudinal strips.

EFFECT: expanded assortment of double-layer weaves, increased stability of shape and possibility to use jersey at both sides and to control jersey tensility.

1 dwg

Composite material // 2428240

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composite multilayer material to be used for drinking water treatment, steam condensate treatment and purification of effluents. Proposed material comprises nonwoven material including ion-exchange fiber and knitted-fabric base. Besides, it comprises nonwoven fiber glass layer. Said ion-exchange fiber represents modified polyacrylic nitrile fiber with carboxyl, hydrazide and amino groups in amount of 1.1-1.2, 2.0-2.2 and 2.9-3.1 mmol/g, respectively. Knitted-fabric base is made from yarn composed of modified finer based on graft copolymer of polycaproamid with phosphorus methacrylate. Layer weight relationship makes 1:(1.6-1.8):(1.3-1.5), respectively.

EFFECT: improved sorption and filtration properties.

1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: proposed double-layer jersey fabric with covering attachment of layers consists of two single cloths, stitches of which face each other with purl sides. Layers attachment is carried out by pulling of stitches of one stitch layer through stitches of previous stitch row, both in one and the other stitch layer.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to produce jersey with covering attachment of layers without increase of their total material intensity.

6 dwg

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: knocking-over single knitted fabric of plating structure has openings formed with plating elastomeric thread that holds cores of thrown off purls, angled to the face of fabric. At that the thrown off knit stitches are loose. The upper edge of the hole consists of sketches, broaches and unclosed stitches of plating structure.

EFFECT: invention expands the range of knitted fabrics used in manufacture of hosiery, underwear and sports products.

3 dwg

FIELD: personal use articles.

SUBSTANCE: proposed technical solution relates to sewing industry and may be used to manufacture outerwear with loose volumetric insulants providing for the specified level of the ready product quality. The design of the heat-protective package with partitions contains the outer and the inner coating material layers, a loose volumetric insulant positioned between them and partitions connecting the outer and the inner coating material layers, as well as seams of the coating material layers connection to the partitions. The varied length coating material layers are interconnected with partitions consisting of n longitudinal parts of varied length.

EFFECT: invention ensures material intensity reduction and improvement of quality of reedy products with loose volumetric insulant.

3 cl, 1 dwg

Clothing article // 2478322

FIELD: personal use articles.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a clothing article, in particular - one for going in for such spots as jogging, skating, cycling etc. The clothing article is manufactured of at least one sort of yarn (3) having a heat-reflecting coating (5). Coated yarn (3) is interwoven with other yarn (2) positioned on the side turned towards the skin integument (4) while coated yarn (3) is positioned on the side turned away from the skin integument (4).

EFFECT: clothing article for going in for sports ensured increased performance capacity due to insulation from warm ambient air.

9 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: personal use articles.

SUBSTANCE: proposed technical solution relates to sewing industry and may be used to manufacture heat shielding outerwear with a noncoherent insulant, providing for the specified level of aesthetic and hygienic properties. The design of the heat-shielding packet with an elastic tape comprises two layers of the shell material: inner (1) and outer (3), an elastic tape (5), previously stitched in a stretched condition onto a strip of a material or a tape (6), a volume insulant (2), and areas of layers jointing (4). Prior to fixation of a heat-shielding packet, which is not filled with a volume incoherent insulant, between shell materials (inner and outer) perpendicularly to fixation lines, an elastic tape is inserted as stitched onto a strip of material or a tape, quilted along the marked lines of shell layers fixation. The proposed design of a heat-shielding packet with an elastic tape connected to a strip of material or a tape reduces displacement of feather and down mass into a lower layer of a compartment.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to create a volume shape of a heat-shielding packet with lower consumption of an insulant, to increase distance between lines of layer fixation, providing for even thickness along its entire thickness and the specified level of thermal resistance.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: fabric contains threads and gaps between threads, at the same time gaps between threads have average width of more than 100 mcm. At least one of threads consists of many fibres. The specified at least one thread has cavities between fibres, at the same time cavities are filled with polymer material. Gaps remain open, and size of gaps remains same as before treatment. Polymer material is located substantially in cavities of a thread and covers fibres available inside relative to the external surface of the specified thread.

EFFECT: filling of cavities between fibres with polymer material prevents water absorption by the specified gaps and results in reduced absorption of water by the fabric.

56 cl, 13 dwg, 5 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: personal use articles.

SUBSTANCE: design of heat protective bag with horizontal quilting of variable asymmetry comprises two layers of shell material: outer and inner, volume insulator arranged in between, and areas for connection of layers that divide bag into compartment. Ratio of shell layer material lengths between areas of compartment layers fixation varies along bag length between adjacent compartments within the limits of 0.71<Kdef.<1.4.

EFFECT: invention provides for expansion of model range of heat protective clothes, specified level of heat resistance at lower specific consumption of volume insulator.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: personal demand items.

SUBSTANCE: design of heat-proofing packet with vertical quilting of alternate symmetry contains two layers of shell material - internal and external ones, heat-insulation material arranged between them, and areas of layers fixation. At the same time ratio of packet shell layer material lengths between areas of layers fixation varies along with length of packet Lpack.

EFFECT: invention provides for expansion of model range of heat-proofing clothes, specified level of thermal resistance with lower specific consumption of volume heat-insulation material.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: personal demand items.

SUBSTANCE: design of heat-insulating sleeve packet of heat-proofing clothes with unlinked heat-insulation material comprises external and internal layers of shell, unlinked heat-insulation material installed between them, areas of layers fixation along part contour, areas of layers fixation by quilt stitches or welding lines. Prior to packet quilting, external and internal layers of shell materials are fixed with quilting stitch along the line of front roll of sleeve, which separates heat-proofing packet into two adjacent compartments for filling with unlinked heat-insulation material. Density of unlinked heat-insulation material density for lower part of sleeve is less than density of unlinked heat-insulation material for upper part of sleeve.

EFFECT: invention provides for arrangement of sleeve design, which has smooth surface with static position of naturally dropped hand in external side of sleeve and touches body panel of item at internal side of sleeve, stable structure in process of operation, and also reduced specific consumption of heat-insulation material with specified level of thermal resistance.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: personal utensils.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the area of production of special warning clothes, in particular to production of high visibility clothing, which is used in outfit of construction personnel, public service employees, medical workers, rescue service workers, policemen, firemen, and airport staff. Special high visibility warning clothes is made of textile material and contains warning elements of specialised materials, selected from the following groups: fluorescent background material - base, light-reflecting material or combined material possessing simultaneously properties of the fluorescent and light-reflecting materials. Additionally, clothes contains luminescent warning element containing hydrolysis - safe waterproof aluminate luminescent pigment, resulted from processing of aluminate phosphor with salt mixture, selected from the following group: Na3PO4, Na2HPO4, (NH4)2HPO4, Ca3(PO4)2, with acids, selected from the following group: HCL, H2SO4, HNO3, ensuring glowing in the darkness. Luminescent warning material is produced by application of the paint containing luminescent pigment onto the material selected from the group: unpainted, background fluorescent, light reflecting, combined. Luminescent warning element may be made by application of luminescent pigment directly on to any parts of the ready clothes by spraying or pigment stamping. Besides luminescent warning element can be made of luminescent material as cutout garments or as stripes sutured to the clothes.

EFFECT: ensured visibility at night, visibility in the darkness even without source of light due to the fluorescent effect, ensured fluorescent effect in high humidity conditions.

11 cl, 5 dwg, 7 tbl, 40 ex

FIELD: household goods and personal effects; cosmonautics.

SUBSTANCE: suit is fabricated of knitted fabric containing elastic and non-elastic knitted textile parts. The non-elastic knitted textile parts are fabricated of simultaneously loop-knitted twisted natural silk fibres and physically modified linen-like twisted polyamide filaments. The elastic knitted textile parts are fabricated of simultaneously loop-knitted polyurethane fibres, twisted natural silk fibres and physically modified linen-like twisted polyamide filaments. The latter consist of elementary profiled fibres with the following non-dimensional indices of cross-section shape modification: fill degree 0.34±10%, deformation degree 1.8±10%, branching degree 75±10%, irregularity degree 1.45±10%.

EFFECT: improved suit convenience, durability, elasticity and flexibility; reliable protection against injuries during the cosmonaut's stay inside the vehicle (station) cabinet; no dust generated as a result of the suit usage.

3 ex

FIELD: transport, space engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed coveralls for operation in zero-gravity are made in knitted fabric and incorporate the elements of non-stretchable and stretchable knitted fabric. The aforesaid elements made in non-stretchable knitted fabric comprise natural silk twisted threads. At that the elements in the areas of elbows, hips and ankles are from stretchable knitted fabric composed of polyurethane threads and natural silk twisted loop-knitted threads.

EFFECT: comfortability, higher strength, wear-resistance and elasticity, protection of astronaut against mechanical damages.

2 ex

FIELD: items of personal and house use.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in manufacturing complete sets of flight suits intended for daily usage under normal conditions of a short-term flight, at air temperature in a ship cabin not lower than 18°C. The offered complete set consists of a jacket, trousers and jumper. The jacket and trousers are made of the two-layer knitted cloth with the internal layer made from natural silk plied twines. The external layer of a cloth is made from physically modified cotton-type polyamide complex plied twines. The jumper is made from physically modified cotton-type polyamide complex textured plied twines. The said polyamide complex plied twines and textured threads consist from elementary shaped threads having degree of filling of 0.3±10%, degree of deformation of 2.7±10%, degree of branching of 54±10%, degree of irregularity of 1.2±10%.

EFFECT: creation of the complete set of clothes with high hygienic properties

3 ex

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