Wing tip configuration, in particular, that of aircraft wing

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: configuration of aircraft wing tip with wing section extending in wing span 1 and in width of said wing span from leading edge 8, 6, 10 to trailing edge 7. Said section is confined by comprises first skin 11 and second skin 12 with minor wing at wing end. Said minor wing 3 is flat and has transition area 2 located between wing 1 and minor wing 3. Said transition area 2 extends from joint 4 with wing 1 to joint 5 with minor wing 3. Curvature of local V-angle in transition area 2 increases in outboard direction from low lever or zero level nearby the joint 4 with wing.

EFFECT: decreased inductive reactance at minimisation of interference at transition from wing to minor wing.

15 cl, 4 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the configuration of the wing tips, in particular for an airplane wing.

The configuration of the wing tips, in particular the wing, known already for a long time and already studied in detail. The design configurations of the wing tips is important for the development of modern passenger and transport aircraft, which fly at transonic speeds (from 0.65 to 0.95 Mach). Full aerodynamic drag of a wing of an aircraft flying at transonic speed, mainly contains the wave resistance profile of the resistance, inductance and parasitic resistance. In turn, the inductive resistance mainly depends on the distribution of lift forces on the wing and the wing span. Thus, the reduction in induced drag can most easily be obtained by increasing the wing span. However, due to structural, industrial and operational constraints, this increase cannot be indefinitely.

One possibility of reducing induced drag at constant wing span is to replace the flat configuration of the wing tips on a non-flat configuration.

Possible not flat configuration wingtips contains the wing, which provided the but on the wing tip. The main geometrical parameters of the wing are the height, the coefficient of contraction and the dihedral angle. The dihedral angle of the wing may vary significantly from the dihedral angle of the wing, and is typically constant or almost constant along the span of the wing. If the dihedral angle of the wing is constant or almost constant, the wing is called flat or almost flat.

Generally speaking, it has already been shown that the vertical wings with almost perpendicular to the transition between the wing and the wing provide the most effective reduction in induced drag. However, the transition region from wing to wing creates problems, because in this area, due to the interference effects in transonic flight, easily experience undesirable shock wave. The shock wave on the wing, which are a common and significant in transonic flight, have a negative impact on the area of the transition from wing to wing, which, in turn, increases the impedance. Therefore, the full potential through the use of vertical wings cannot be used.

In U.S. patent No. 5348253 described configuration, wing tips reserved for the wing, which is used mainly flat wing, located at the transition region, which goes from preprogram the Oia with wing before joining the wing. The transition region, in which there is a continuous transition of the local V-angle from wing to wing, has the shape of a circular arc with a radius of curvature which lies in a narrow range, and the specified shape is determined by the height of the wing, the angle of inclination of the specified wing relative to the wing span and constant curvature parameter. This known configuration, the wing tip can significantly reduce induced drag. However, due to the interference effects in the transition region in the form of an arc of a circle from wing to almost flat to the wing, there is a tendency to undesirable increase in the impedance.

Moreover, patents Germany DE 10117721 A1 or B4 that correspond to the application for U.S. patent No. 2002/0162917 A1 or U.S. patent No. 6722615 B2, known lengthening the wing tip designed for the wing, and the specified elongation wingtips between the joint area with the wing between the wing tip provides a continuous increase of the local V-angle, in combination with the continuous increase of inclination as the front edge and the rear edge, and a continuous decrease in the thickness of the lengthening of the wing tips. With regard to the local V-angle, it was found that this angle increases from values from 0 to 10 in the connection area of the wing to a value of from 45 to 60 in extension is koncovka wing. This known design lengthening the wing tip allows you to get a low level of interference and, therefore, the low level of impedance. However, in this configuration, the wing tip can be achieved only limited height of the wing tip, which gives little freedom of choice when designing the area of the wing tip in comparison with the design of the added wing.

Finally, in U.S. patent No. 6484968 B2 describes a plane with wings provided at the ends of the wings and these wings have an elliptical curvature. This solution leads to a further connection, in which the curvature configuration wingtips in connection with the wing has a maximum value and then decreases along the span of the wing, which is the exact opposite of the requirements that are defined later, so with this configuration, the wing tips also result in undesirable interference effects, which lead to an increase in wave resistance.

The present invention is the creation of a configuration of the wing tips, which, on the one hand, to the fullest extent allows you to use the advantage due to the high wings and is associated with a decrease in induced drag, and which, on the other hand, minimizes the effect is you interferences in the area of transition from wing to wing.

This problem is solved by using the configuration wingtips with features of the present invention.

In accordance with the present invention is proposed configuration of the wing tips intended in particular for an airplane wing, and the specified wing contains the profile that goes in the direction of the wing span and is wide in the direction of the wing span from the wing leading edge to the trailing edge of the wing, with the specified profile is limited to the first casing and the second casing, with wings situated at the end of the wing, and the specified wing is mostly flat, and a transition region located between the wing and the winglet, and the transition region runs from a junction with the wing before joining the wing while in this transition region the local V-angle from the wing to the winglet has a continuous transition. In accordance with the present invention, the local curvature of the V-angle in the transition region increases from a low level or zero level close to the transition region to the wing to the highest level in the vicinity of the connection of the wing with the transition region in the outboard direction.

This characteristic curvature may be present in at least one of the curve formed by means of regular points in the direction of the chord in the transition region, vdol the length in the direction of the wing span, which, for example, may be the leading edge. Other examples are the rear edge or curve formed by the points of the chord 50%. It depends on the requirements of the specific calculation of the configuration of the wing tips to achieve a good surface quality. Thus, in regard to the surface formed by the transition region, at least part of the transition region, when viewed cross-section, forms a curve with increasing curvature of the local V-angle in the outboard direction.

Studying the influence of interference effects on the geometry and boundary conditions of the flow, based on the present invention, showed that described in the introduction interference effects, which are manifested in the transition from wing to wing, substantially dependent on the curvature along the span of the wing. This dependence shows that the curvature in the area of high load profile, i.e. with a large local lifting force to the local profile depth must be less possible, and can be increased by reducing the load profile. For minimizing the induced drag attached to the wing aerodynamic load should preferably be less than that applied to the wing. For this reason, the configuration of the wing tips, which dostigao the specific elevation (above the wing), must begin with the smallest curvature, which then begins to increase as the distance specified configuration wingtips from the plane of the wing.

If you use the example of the ellipse, we can understand that the requirement of the lesser curvature in the position of connection with the wing and subsequent continuous increase of the curvature limits the attainable height of such a configuration wingtips. Figure 4 shows this fact for a section of an ellipse with normalized maximum width of 1 for the various relationships of the major axis and minor axis b, such as a/b=1 (circle), a/b=1.2 and a/b=1.5. This justifies the need for a large flat wing (mainly constituting at least 50% of the total height of the wing tip) after the transition of the arc, taking into account the results of the research, so that you can provide a large reduction in induced drag.

To ensure smooth connection between the transition region and wing, this place must primarily have a local decrease in curvature. While maintaining the advantages of the present invention, it is possible to create a transition region in which the local curvature of the V-angle is increased from low or zero level close connection with the wing, up to a maximum in the area between 50% and 90% of the length of the transition region the direction of the wing span.

Mainly in the transition region, the local curvature of the V-angle begins to increase at a connection point of transition from the wing.

Configuration wingtips extended maximum in the range from 5 to 20% of poluraspada wing.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the configuration of the wing tip extends a maximum in the region of 10% of poluraspada wing.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the height of the flat wing is at least 50% of the full height configuration wingtips over the wing. This size of plane wing, in combination with low local curvature of the V-angle at the position of connection of the wing and then with increasing curvature of the local V-angle in the transition region in the direction of the wing span, in accordance with the principles of the present invention, provides a significant reduction in induced drag, in combination with a small interference effects and low wave-making resistance.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a flat wing has a slope of 45 degrees relative to the vertical x-z plane.

In accordance with the present invention, a flat wing can be tilted up to 60 degrees relative to vertical is y x-z plane.

In accordance with the present invention, a flat wing may have a slope of up to 80 degrees relative to the vertical x-z plane.

The tilt of the wing to the vertical plane can also be defined as 'angle', which is in itself known.

Tangent to the local V-corner may be continuous in the connection between the wing and the transition region.

Tangent to the local V-corner may be continuous in the connection between the transition region and wing.

The front edge of the transition region in the connection (in connection with the wing) can make the transition to continuous tangent to the leading edge of the wing.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the slope of the leading edge configuration wingtips continuously increases up to the point of greatest slope.

From the point of greatest slope, if this point is in the transition region, the leading edge of the transition region can make the transition to continuous tangent to the leading edge of mainly flat wing.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the point of greatest slope on the leading edge is at a distance of more than 75% of the length of the transition region in the direction of the wing span, calculated from compounds of transition from the wing to the soedineniya a transition from the wing.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, there is continuity of the tangent to the leading edge throughout the transition region.

Next, an exemplary configuration of the wing tip in accordance with the present invention will be explained with reference PA figures.

Figure 1 shows the front view of the modern civil aircraft configuration the wing tip in accordance with an exemplary variant of the present invention.

Figure 2 shows a side view of the civil aircraft, shown in figure 1, with the configuration of the wing tip in accordance with an exemplary variant of the present invention.

On figa shown to increase a front view of the configuration of the wing tip in accordance with an exemplary variant of the present invention.

On fig.3b shows a top view of the configuration of the wing tip shown in figa.

Figure 4 shows a section of an ellipse.

Figure 1 and 2 shows civilian aircraft wing (1) which has the configuration of the wing tips formed by the wing (3) and area (2) transition.

On figa and 3b shows in detail an exemplary variant, in which the wing (1) contains profile, limited by means of a first or upper casing (11) and a second or lower casing (12), which goes in the direction of the wing span and width from the front edge (8) of the wing to the rear of the edges (7) of the wing.

At the end of the wing is provided by the wing (3), which is connected to the wing (1) area (2) transition. Region (2) transition goes from the imaginary or actual connection (4) wing (1) to the alleged or actual connection (5) with wings (3). In region (2) of the local transition V-angle, i.e. the angle associated with the y-axis running in the direction of the wing span, wing (1) to the wing (3), has a continuous transition. In region (2) transition, and in other words, from compound (4) with the wing (1) in the direction of the connection (5) with wings (3), the curvature increases from a low level or zero level in the outboard direction.

The size along the wing span of the transition region is a linear size of the transition region, measured in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.

Local V is the angle from the wing (1) to the wing (3) has a continuous transition, and the transition region (2) local curvature of the V-angle increases to a maximum level at a point at least 50% of the length of the transition region in the direction of the wing span, which is (length) is 100% in position (5) connection with the wing. In the variant shown in figa, the local curvature of the V-angle begins to increase in connection (4) wing area (2) transition and increases to a maximum level at the point of at least 90% of the length of the field (2) transition in the direction of the wing span in ortom direction.

Region (2) transition is connected in the connection (4) wing (1), while the wing (3) is connected to the region (2) transition in the compound (5). As mentioned here above, the region (2) transition is characterized by an increase of the local curvature of the V-angle to the maximum level.

The winglet (3) has a flat, almost flat or substantially flat shape, i.e. is essentially constant V is the angle from the compounds (5) to its end (13). Thus, in the shown figa from the front wing (3) is essentially constant slope relative to the y-axis. Geometrical parameters of the wing (3) essentially can be defined freely, so that it is optimally reduced inductive resistance. On the other hand, area (2) transition optimize to minimize the effects of interference and, consequently, the wave resistance.

In the shown exemplary embodiment, the configuration of the wing tip extends a maximum in the region of 20% of poluraspada wing (1), and a flat wing (3) is at least 50% of the full height configuration wingtips on the wing (1) and has a slope up to 45 degrees relative to the vertical x-z plane relative to the longitudinal plane of the aircraft.

In connection (4) between the wing (1) and area (2) transition can be ensured the continuity of the tangent to the V-angle, i.e. in soy is ininii (4) tangent to the sphere (2) transition makes a continuous transition to the tangent to the wing (1), what is preferred, but not mandatory. Similarly, in connection (5) between the area (2) transition and the wing (3) can be ensured the continuity of the tangent to the V-corner, which is also preferred, but not mandatory. In an exemplary configuration, the wing tip in accordance with the present invention, a front view of which is shown in figa, there is a continuity of the tangent to the V-angle in the y-z plane, as in compounds (4) region (2) transition to the wing, and the compound (5) region (2) transition from the wing.

In an exemplary configuration, the wing tip in accordance with the present invention, a top view of which is shown in fig.3b, in the x-y plane is shown a continuous change of the tangent from a tangent to the leading edge (6) region (2) transition to the tangent to the leading edge (8) of the wing (1) in the compound (4), which is preferred because it has a positive effect on the flow of the air stream of the leading edge, but is not required. Thus, compounds (4) tangent to the leading edge (6) region (2) transition can make a continuous transition to the tangent to the front edge (8) of the wing (1), which is also not required.

The curvature of the leading edge (6) region (2) transition increases, so that a continuously increasing curve up point is (9) on the front edge (6) region (2) transition or on the front edge (10) of the wing (3). Mainly, this point (9) most of the bend is located at a point more than 75% of the length in the direction of the wing span, if you take the position (4) connections to the wing for 0% of the length and position (5) connections to the wing for 100% of the length.

Starting from the point (9) maximum bending, a continuous transition tangent to the leading edge (6) region (2) move to the front edge (10) is almost flat wing (3) is preferred, if the point (9) is located on the front edge (6) region (2) transition, but is also not required.

In the shown exemplary embodiment, there is a continuity of the tangent to the leading edge (6) for the whole region (2) transition, which gives significant benefits, but is not required.

The configuration of the trailing edge (7) region (2) transition can be selected mainly freely, provided that this does not adversely affect the aerodynamic characteristics of the configuration of the wing tips.

1. The configuration of the wing tips, in particular the wing, and the wing contains a profile that goes along the width direction of the wing span (1) from the front edge (8, 6, 10) of the wing to the trailing edge (7) of the wing, with the specified profile is limited to the first panel (11) and second panel (12), wing (3)located on the end of the wing, and the specified wing (3) is mainly p is askim, and with area (2) transition located between the wing (1) and the wing (3), and the specified region (2) transition goes from compound (4) with the wing (1) to compound (5) with wings (3), the local curvature of the V-angle in this area (2) transition increases in the outboard direction and the above description of the inherent curvature of any curve formed by means of regular points in the direction of the chord in the transition region, along the length direction of the wing span.

2. The configuration of the wing tip according to claim 1, in which the local curvature of the V-angle in region (2) transition increases to the maximum value at least to the point of 50% of the length of the transition region in the direction of the wing span.

3. The configuration of the wing tip according to claim 1, in which the local curvature of the V-angle in region (2) transition increases to the maximum value at least to the point of 90% of the length of the transition region in the direction of the wing span.

4. The configuration of the wing tip according to claim 2 or 3, in which the local curvature of the V-angle in region (2) transition begins to increase at a compound (4) region (2) transition to the wing.

5. The configuration of the wing tip according to claim 1, which extends the maximum in the range from 5 to 20% of poluraspada wing (1).

6. The configuration of the wing tip according to claim 1, in which the height of the wing (3) is at least 50% of the full height configuration wingtips on the wing (1).

. The configuration of the wing tip according to claim 1, in which the wing (3) has an angle of inclination up to 45.

8. The configuration of the wing tip according to claim 1, in which the wing (3) has a tilt angle of 80.

9. The configuration of the wing tip according to claim 1, characterized by the continuity of the tangent to the local V-corner connection (4) between the wing (1) and area (2) transition.

10. The configuration of the wing tip according to claim 1, characterized by the continuity of the tangent to the local V-corner connection (5) between the area (2) transition and the wing (3).

11. The configuration of the wing tip according to claim 1, in which the leading edge (6) region (2) transition coupling (4) passes in the continuous tangent to the front edge (8) of the wing (1).

12. The configuration of the wing tip according to claim 1, in which the slope of the leading edge (6) region (2) transition, or on the front edge (6) in (2) transition and on the front edge (10) of the wing (3), continuously increases up to a point (9) of the largest angle.

13. Configuration wingtips indicated in paragraph 12, in which from the point (9) the greatest slope of the front edge (6) region (2) transition becomes continuous tangent to the front edge (10) of the wing (3).

14. The configuration of the wing tips under clause 12 or 13, in which the point (9) of greatest slope on the leading edge is located at a distance of more than 75% of the length of the field (2) transition in the direction of the size of the ha wing, if we assume the length of the junction (4) wing (1) to compound (5) with wings (3).

15. The configuration of the wing tip according to claim 1, characterized by the continuity of the tangent to the leading edge (6) throughout the area (2) transition.



 

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3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: aviation; air transportation of air troops and air-borne troops.

SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft has fuselage, wing jet engines or turbo-jet engines mounted for turn relative to horizontal and/or vertical plane. Wing has variable area. Upper and lower surfaces of wing may be wound on/off individual drums. Tail-mounted engines may be provided which are set in horizontal plane at angle relative to aircraft longitudinal axis at similar signs.

EFFECT: improved service characteristics.

2 cl, 4 dwg

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