Method and apparatus for forming fibre from polymer matrix in electrostatic field

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: electrostatic field is formed in fibre-forming space between the fibre-forming element of a fibre-forming electrode, which is connected to one terminal of a high-voltage source and is located in a fibre-forming position, and a precipitation electrode connected to the second terminal of the high-voltage source to which a polymer matrix is fed from a reservoir with the matrix in an electrostatic field for forming fibre on the surface of the fibre-forming element of the fibre-forming electrode, wherein temperature of the fibre-forming elements of the fibre-forming electrode is raised higher than ambient temperature by direct contact heating of the fibre-forming elements.

EFFECT: more technologically effective method, and simple and efficient design of the apparatus.

8 cl, 2 dwg

 

The technical field

The invention relates to a method of forming fibers from the polymer matrix in an electrostatic field created in the space forming fibers between the fibre-forming electrode and the collecting electrode, in which the polymer matrix is fed from the reservoir to the matrix in an electrostatic field on the surface of the fibre-forming electrode or fibre-forming elements of fibre-forming electrode.

Further, the invention relates to a device for the production of nanofibers by electrostatic method of forming fibers from the polymer matrix in an electrostatic field created between the precipitation electrode and fibre-forming electrode or fibre-forming elements of fibre-forming electrode.

The level of technology

Currently, polymer nanofibres are produced by electrostatic method of forming fibers from different types of solutions and melts of polymers in the liquid state, the process of forming fibers usually takes place at ambient temperature. In some cases, particularly when forming fibers from polymer melts, it is necessary to raise the temperature of some parts of the device in order that I could do to prepare the melt, and to prevent its solidification and deposition in these parts, that m is global to cause a gradual decline in the performance of the entire device. The increase in the temperature of these parts is advantageous when forming fibers from certain types of polymer solutions, since at elevated temperature decreases the viscosity of these solutions, which contributes to the initiation and maintenance of the electrostatic process of forming fibers, and in the case of some types of polymer solutions generally allows molding of fiber from them.

Currently, this heating is realized mainly using fluids as, for example, hot air or hot oil, but the heat transfer in such cases is very large losses, and due to the need to ensure the movement of fluids is greatly restricted by the shape of the inner space of the device for electrostatic molding fiber and layout elements. When using the tools to ensure the heating and circulation of fluids, and in the case of the use of oil or other liquid funds are available for their storage, to a large degree not only increases the amount needed to accommodate this equipment, and increased requirements for its maintenance, but also increase the initial cost and exploition costs of such equipment. The next disadvantage is the low precision temperature control and slow R the action of the regulatory system on the input.

Another method of heating is also induction heating of polymer matrix in the vessel in which the space under the tank is induction heating cooker. But this configuration, in addition to the relatively large heat loss and relatively high requirements to the volume of the embedding has too slow a reaction at a specified temperature change of the polymer matrix in the tank and inaccuracies while maintaining this temperature.

The aim of the invention is the provision of easily adjustable, temporary or permanent raise the temperature of some parts of the device for the production of nanofibers by electrostatic method of molding fiber, and above all parts in contact with the polymer matrix in a way that is different from the well-known on the modern level of technology, more efficient and simple design.

Further aim of the invention is a device for the production of nanofibers by electrostatic method of forming fibers from the polymer matrix, which uses this method to raise the temperature of some of its parts.

The invention

The purpose of the invention is achieved by a method of forming fibers from the polymer matrix in an electrostatic field created in the space forming fibers between the fibre-forming ele what tridom and precipitation electrode, in which the polymer matrix is fed from the reservoir to the matrix in an electrostatic field on the surface of the fibre-forming electrode or fibre-forming elements of fibre-forming electrode, the essence of which is that in this method the temperature of some components of the device, and especially those who are in contact with the polymer matrix, for example, fibre-forming electrode or fibre-forming elements of fibre-forming electrode and/or reservoir and/or the polymer matrix increases direct contact heating above ambient temperature.

The temperature of these parts is increased mainly direct contact heating AC voltage, which is fed directly to the part, the temperature needs to be raised, and when this is converted into thermal energy. Such heating is the conductivity of these parts.

Another way to increase the temperature of the necessary parts of the device for the production of nanofibers is a direct contact heat constant voltage, when a particular part connected with a source of high DC voltage and an auxiliary source of high DC voltage, the voltage which differ by the value of the order of tens or hundreds of volts, while the electric e is argia, the corresponding nominal difference of these voltages, after its transfer to this item is converted into heat. This method is applicable mainly for mobile devices when the source of high DC voltage is more affordable than a source of alternating voltage.

When any part is impossible to make an alternating voltage or two constant voltages of different values directly, for example, because this part is nonconductive, it is advisable to use a variant of indirect contact heat when in the vicinity of the element, the temperature which you want to promote, placed a heating resistor connected to a source of alternating voltage. This resistor AC voltage is converted into heat energy, which is transmitted further to the right element.

The purpose of the invention is also achieved by a device for the production of nanofibers by electrostatic method of forming fibers from the polymer matrix in an electrostatic field created between the precipitation electrode and fibre-forming electrode or fibre-forming elements of fibre-forming electrode, the essence of which is that of fibre-forming electrode and/or fiber-forming fibre-forming elements e is an ode connected to the secondary winding of the transformer, dielectric strength which is designed for high voltage, and the primary winding of this transformer is connected to a source of alternating voltage. In this way, this device is provided to transfer AC voltage to that element of the device, the temperature needs to be increased, and the simultaneous isolation of elements under high DC voltage from an AC voltage.

The purpose of the invention is also achieved by a device for the production of nanofibers by electrostatic method of forming fibers from the polymer matrix in an electrostatic field created between the precipitation electrode and fibre-forming electrode or fibre-forming elements of fibre-forming electrode, while the fibre-forming electrode or fiber-forming elements of fibre-forming electrode connected to one pole of a source of high DC voltage, the essence of which is that of fibre-forming electrode or fiber-forming elements of fibre-forming electrode is connected to the auxiliary DC voltage source. The voltage difference supplied from a source of high DC voltage and an auxiliary source of high DC voltage, for the purpose of this part is converted to t blowou energy.

Advantageously, and particularly in forming fibers from polymer melts, if some elements of the devices are connected to a source of alternating voltage or an auxiliary DC voltage source and an electrostatic field is also at least one heating resistor, which is connected with the secondary winding of the transformer, dielectric strength which is designed for high voltage and the primary winding of the transformer is connected to a source of alternating voltage. In this case, the heating resistor is used for indirect contact heating elements, placed in an electrostatic field, the temperature of which it is impossible to increase direct contact heating, or if structurally it would be too difficult.

List of figures in the drawing

An example of execution of the device for implementing the method of the electrostatic forming fibers from the polymer matrix according to the invention is shown diagrammatically in the attached drawings, in which: figure 1 - section of the chamber forming fibers of this device; figure 2 - section of the chamber forming fibers of another embodiment of this device.

Examples of carrying out the invention

Description of the invention and its essence is contained in the examples of execution of the device for electrostatic molding in the window of the polymer matrix; examples of performance schematically depicted in figure 1 and figure 2. For the sake of clarity and comprehensibility of these drawings, some elements of the device shown in simplified form, regardless of their actual design or proportions, and some other elements that are not essential for understanding of the invention, the design or the mutual position which is clear to every person skilled in the art, are not shown at all.

Device for electrostatic forming fibers from the polymer matrix, depicted in figure 1, contains a chamber forming fiber 1, in the upper part of which is collecting electrode 2, which is connected with one pole of the source 3 of high DC voltage, placed outside the chamber forming fiber 1. Pictured collecting electrode 2 is a metal plate, but not seen in other examples of implementation, depending on the technological requirements or spatial features may be used in any other known structure of the precipitation electrode 2, or several collecting electrodes 2 of any type, or a combination thereof.

Under the precipitation electrode 2, using nasobrahan funds are directed electroconductive substrate 4, in the shown example, the performance of the textile material. The concrete type is oblozhki 4, the way it moves and its physical properties, such as conductivity, will depend mainly on the type of the applied precipitation electrode 2 and the production technology, and in the following, not shown here are examples of performance as the substrate 4 can be used as electrically conductive materials, for example textile materials with electrostatic surface finish, metal foil, etc. In the case of the use of the precipitation electrode of a special type known, for example, CZ PV 2007-727, the substrate 4, on the contrary, does not apply at all, and nanofibres obtained by electrostatic forming fibers from the polymer matrix, are placed directly on the surface of this precipitation electrode.

In the lower part of the chamber forming fiber 1 is the tank 5 with the polymer matrix 51, which in the example of execution is an open capacity, and polymer matrix 51 is a solution of the polymer in the liquid state. However, in other, not shown examples of performance is possible using the invention, to carry out the forming fibers from molten polymers or from a suitable polymer matrix 51 in the solid state, which, of course, correspond to differences in the design of the tank 5 and nasobrahan funds to Supplement p the polymer matrix 51 in the tank.

Near the tank 5 is fibre-forming electrode containing fibre-forming element 6 connected to the pole of source 3 high DC voltage, and to the opposite pole of this source is attached collecting electrode 2, while the fibre-forming element 6 may at set intervals to move between its position of application and their position forming fibers. In the application of fibre-forming element 6 or the part is removed from the precipitation electrode 2, and is applied to the polymer matrix 51, and the position of the forming fiber fibre-forming element 6 or part thereof coated with a polymer matrix 51, approaches to the precipitation electrode 2, where along with it creates an electrostatic field which is formed of fibers of this polymer matrix 51. 1 shows a fibre-forming element 6 made in the form of conductive strings, which in its position of application is immersed below the level of the polymer matrix 51 in the tank 5, and between his position forming fibers and their position applying moves in both directions, making a return movement in the plane. However, the essence of the invention without further improvements may be used for other known constructions of volokno the shedding elements 6 fibre-forming electrodes, who, for example, CZ PV 2006-545, between his position forming fibers and their position applying move in circular paths, or CZ PV 2007-485 in the direction of its length.

Fibre-forming element 6, in addition to the connection to the source 3 of high DC voltage, is connected with the secondary winding 72 of the transformer 7, the dielectric strength of which is high voltage. The primary winding 74 of the transformer 7 through the regulator 8 and the device surge protection 9 connected to the source 10 of alternating voltage, for example, to the distribution network for General use with variable voltage 230 C. When this transformer 7 serves as a galvanic isolation of the source of alternating voltage 10 and the fibre-forming element 6, to which is fed a high DC voltage of the order of tens of kV, because the principle of its action allows the conversion of alternating voltage connected to the primary winding 71, AC voltage, inducirowannoe in the secondary winding 72, but does not convert the high DC voltage, supplied from fibre-forming element 6 to its secondary winding 72. The ratio of the numbers of turns of the primary winding 71 and a secondary winding 72 and the voltage supplied to the primary winding 71, jointly determined by the t value of the AC voltage, connected to fibre-forming element 6 fibre-forming electrode, and therefore, almost any desired value of the alternating voltage source 10 low AC voltage to use, for example, the public grid with a constant AC voltage and the transformer 7 with appropriately selected parameters.

Electric power consumption AC voltage connected to the fibre-forming element 6 fibre-forming electrode, depending on its electrical resistance is converted, for example, according to the formula: P=UI=RI2=U2/R, the Joule-Lenz law into heat, thereby increasing the temperature of this element.

Thus, the desired temperature of the fibre-forming element 6 can be a simple way to install the controller 8, which supports in particular the limits of the value of the AC voltage supplied from the source 10 to the primary winding 71 of the transformer 7, and accordingly the magnitude of the AC inducirowannoe in its secondary winding 72. In the shown example, the execution controller 8 with the advantage of augmented feedback, which results in more accurate and rapid achievement of the set temperature fibre-forming element 6 and a long podderzhkiemitentov values of the temperature. Device surge protection 9 protects the transformer 7 and the fiber-forming elements 6 fibre-forming electrode from abrupt deviations of the power source 10 of alternating voltage. The following protective element is grounding core of the transformer 7.

The temperature increase of fibre-forming elements 6 fibre-forming electrode benefit, mainly in forming fibers from the polymer matrix 51, consisting of the polymer melt as it helps maintain the volume of the melt in the tank 5 or the volume of the melt 51 printed on fibre-forming element 6, in the liquid state within the time required for sformovani fibers from the melt, thereby expanding the applicability of these types of polymer matrix 51. in the electrostatic forming fibers from them, and also increases the efficiency of their use. In addition, with proper selection of temperature fibre-forming element 6 can be molded fiber from a solid polymer matrix 51, when in contact with the fibre-forming element 6 in the liquid state passes only a small part of its volume, which sticks to the surface of the fibre-forming element 6, and then it is shaped into a fiber. This helps to reduce the heat loss associated with podderzhaniem volume of the polymer melt in a liquid state, and also avoids the problems associated with undesirable solidification of the melt in the vessel 5.

In other examples of implementation, on the contrary, you can use the invention to raise the temperature of the tank 5 and/or directly to the polymer matrix 51 and maintain it in a liquid state during the entire working cycle of the device.

Increasing the temperature of the molded fiber of some polymer solutions decreases their viscosity, which facilitates the initiation of the process of electrostatic molding fiber. Thus, increasing the temperature not only improves the performance of all equipment, but also expands applicable for molding fiber solutions, as it allows and facilitates the molding of the fiber, even from such polymer solutions, which still was connected with great difficulty, or could not be done at all.

Figure 2 shows another possible variant electrical wiring diagrams, allowing to raise the temperature of the fibre-forming element 6 fibre-forming electrode, where it is fed a high DC voltage source 11. auxiliary voltage. The value of this voltage is slightly different from the value of the voltage supplied to Volokolamskoye is the element from the source 3 of high DC voltage, moreover, the difference of these voltages on the order of tens or hundreds of volts after summing up to fibre-forming element 6 is converted into thermal energy and thus increases its temperature. Temperature control of fibre-forming element 6 is performed by means of the controller 12 of the power source 11 auxiliary high DC voltage. In the shown example, the execution controller 12 has the advantage feedback.

Due to the conductivity of the polymer matrix 5 high DC voltage supplied from the auxiliary source 11 can directly be used to raise the temperature of the matrix 5, and in the case of the use of electrically conductive tank 51 and for raising its temperature, which further contributes to the extension of the above advantages.

In other not shown cases of execution, where, for example, fibre-forming element 6 fibre-forming electrode is made of electroconductive material to increase its temperature is more profitable use of indirect heating AC. In this case, in the vicinity of each fibre-forming element 6 fibre-forming electrode, or at least part of its path, if in the process of forming fibers it moves, posted by one or as need is ti a greater number of heating resistors, when using the above-described transformer 7 is connected to the source 10 of alternating voltage. Alternating current according to the Joule-Lenz law is converted into heat directly to the heating resistors, which in turn is transmitted to the fibre-forming element 6. The same method of indirect heating can also be used to heat the tank 5 and/or located therein a polymeric matrix 51.

Direct and indirect contact heating, in addition to the above-described variants of the device for the production of nanofibers that can be used in other known and commonly used devices, in essence, regardless of the type and design of fibre-forming electrode 2. Therefore, the invention can be used, for example, to heat the fibre-forming electrode is designed as a compact body, known from the patent CZ 294274, or fibre-forming electrodes in the form of a capillary tube (spray), or groups of capillaries (spray), for an arbitrary configuration of polarities of DC voltage to the collecting electrode 2 and the fibre-forming electrode or fibre-forming elements 6 fibre-forming electrode. Indirect heating, or heating constant voltage, can also be used for grounding of fibre-forming electrode or element is 6, not taking into account the polarity of the voltage supplied to the precipitation electrode 2.

The list of designations of items

1 camera molding fiber

2 collecting electrode

3 source of high DC voltage

4 substrate

5 tank

51 polymeric matrix

6 fibre-forming element

7 transformer

71 the primary winding of the transformer

72 secondary winding of the transformer

8 controller

9 device surge protection

10 source of alternating voltage

11 auxiliary source of high DC voltage

12 the controller.

1. The method of forming fibers from the polymer matrix (51) in an electrostatic field created in the space forming fibers between the fibre-forming element (6) of fibre-forming electrode, which is connected to one pole of high voltage source and is in position forming fibers, and collecting electrode (2), attached to the second pole of the high voltage source, whereby the polymer matrix (51) is supplied from a reservoir (5) with the matrix (51) in an electrostatic field for forming fibers on the surface of the fibre-forming element (6) of fibre-forming electrode, characterized in that the temperature of the fibre-forming elements (6) fibre-forming electrode increases which is above the ambient temperature direct contact heating of fibre-forming elements (6).

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that simultaneously direct contact heat increases the temperature of the polymer matrix (51) and/or reservoir (5) with the polymer matrix.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the temperature rises direct contact heating of the alternating voltage applied from the secondary winding (72) of the transformer (7), dielectric strength which is designed for high voltage, while the primary winding (71) of the transformer (7) connected with a source (10) AC low voltage.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the temperature rises direct contact heating auxiliary high DC voltage from a source (11), and the value of the auxiliary high voltage source (11) differs from the value of the high voltage applied to the fibre-forming element from the source (3).

5. Device for the production of nanofibers by electrostatic forming fibers from the polymer matrix (51) in an electrostatic field created between the fibre-forming element (6) of fibre-forming electrode, which is connected to one pole of high voltage source and is in position forming fibers, and collecting electrode (2), attached to the second pole of the high voltage source, differently the, that fiber-forming elements (6) of fibre-forming electrode is connected to a secondary winding (72) of the transformer (7), dielectric strength which is designed for high voltage and the primary winding (71) of the transformer (7) connected with a source (10) AC voltage.

6. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the transformer is connected to a source of alternating voltage through the device surge protection (8) and the controller (9).

7. Device for the production of nanofibers by electrostatic forming fibers from the polymer matrix (51) in an electrostatic field created between the fibre-forming element (6) of fibre-forming electrode, which is connected with one pole of the source (3) high DC voltage and is in position forming fibers, and collecting electrode (2), attached to the second pole of the source of high voltage, characterized in that the fiber-forming elements (6) of fibre-forming electrode simultaneously connected to an auxiliary source (11) high DC voltage, and the value of the auxiliary high voltage source (11) differs from the value of the high voltage, applied to fibre-forming element from the source (3).

8. Device according to any one of pp.5-7, characterized in that the fiber is brazowy element (6) of fibre-forming electrode is made in the form of conductive strings.



 

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9 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: diode light-emitting structure is formed on monocrystalline silicon with surface orientation (111) or (100). The active zone of the light-emitting element is nanosized crystallites (nanocrystallites) of semiconductor iron disilicide, which are elastically embedded in monocrystalline epitaxial silicon. Before forming the active zone, the substrate is coated with a layer of undoped silicon for spatial separation thereof from the substrate (buffer layer). Nanocrystallites are formed during epitaxial refilling of nanoislands of semiconductor iron disilicide formed on the buffer layer by solid-phase epitaxy. Use of special operating parameters provides high concentration of nanocrystallites in the active zone. The cycle, which includes forming nanoislands and subsequent aggregation thereof into nanocrystallites, is repeated several times, enabling to form a multilayer active structure.

EFFECT: increasing luminous efficacy of the light-emitting element by enabling reduction of the size of crystallites of semiconductor iron disilicide and providing high density thereof, thereby enabling elastic embedding into a silicon matrix and high tension in the inner structure of crystallites, high intensity of the light-emitting element due to a larger volume of the active zone.

2 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: diode light-emitting structure is formed on monocrystalline silicon with surface orientation (111) or (100). The active zone of the light-emitting element is nanosized crystallites (nanocrystallites) of semiconductor iron disilicide, which are elastically embedded in monocrystalline epitaxial silicon. Before forming the active zone, the substrate is coated with a layer of undoped silicon for spatial separation thereof from the substrate (buffer layer). Nanocrystallites are formed during epitaxial refilling of nanoislands of semiconductor iron disilicide formed on the buffer layer by molecular beam epitaxy. Use of special operating parameters, according to the invention, provides high concentration of nanocrystallites in the active zone.

EFFECT: high luminous efficacy of the light-emitting element by enabling reduction of the size of crystallites of semiconductor iron disilicide and providing high density thereof and therefore elastic embedding into a silicon matrix and considerable tension in the inner structure of crystallites.

9 dwg

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