Compact aircraft with self-stabilising airfoils
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft structural components and airfoils, particularly, to airfoils design for compact aircraft stabilisation in the plane of trajectory and for control in ballistic flight. Compact aircraft comprises fuselage, airfoils and tail plane. Airfoils are mounted at fuselage at the center of gravity to turn about aircraft lengthwise axis. Said airfoils represent two wings secured to turn assembly and arranged in symmetry about aircraft lengthwise axis in different planes.
EFFECT: higher aircraft efficiency, use of airfoils for flight control.
The invention relates to structural and aerodynamic elements of the aircraft (LA), in particular to elements perform the aerodynamic surfaces of the aircraft to the implementation of the stabilization of small aircraft in the plane of the trajectory and control of small aerial vehicle in flight along a ballistic trajectory.
The invention can be used in devices of small aircraft used for personal protection the basic carrier, which is allocated a limited weight on the stabilization device, for example, in devices of small maneuvering decoys, jammer disposable, detachable from the main carrier and make the trip on a ballistic trajectory.
The closest to the technical nature of the claimed device is an aircraft (Lebedev A.A., Chernobrovkin PS flight Dynamics of unmanned aerial vehicles. Barongis, 1962, s)containing the fuselage aerodynamic surface and a tail section attached to the fuselage. Aerodynamic surface in the form of two wings, symmetrical relative to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and lying in the same plane.
A disadvantage of the known device is indefinitely the th position of the aerodynamic surfaces in space, occurring due to the perturbation of the aerodynamic moment on the roll at the Department of LA from the media. It is not possible to use the area of aerodynamic surfaces for flight control of small aerial vehicles, thereby decreasing the efficiency of application of small-size aircraft.
The task, which directed the inventive device is to eliminate the uncertainty of the position of the aerodynamic surfaces of small aircraft in space arising from the perturbation of the aerodynamic moment on the roll in the separation of small LA from the media and the creation oriented lifting force using the same aerodynamic surfaces in the plane of the flight path for flight control of the aircraft.
The technical result consists in increasing the efficiency of the use of small aircraft by providing semistability position of the aerodynamic surfaces relative to the fuselage and create oriented lifting force using the same aerodynamic surfaces in the plane of the flight path for flight control of the aircraft.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that on small aircraft, containing the eat the fuselage, aerodynamic surfaces and tail, aerodynamic surfaces mounted on the fuselage near the center of mass of the aircraft for rotation about the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and made in the form of two installed on the node rotation of aerodynamic wings, symmetrical relative to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and not lying in one plane.
Due to the installation of the aerodynamic surfaces at an angle to each other when the roll LA occurs stabilizing moment in the plane of the roll, directed towards the opposite Bank.
Due to the installation of the aerodynamic surfaces on the fuselage of the aircraft using node rotation about the longitudinal axis LA decreases the magnitude of the aerodynamic moment, in which there is semistability block aerodynamic surfaces, as in this case, the stabilization of not only the aircraft, but only the aerodynamic surfaces relative to the fuselage of the aircraft, installed on the node rotation.
Due to the installation of the aerodynamic surfaces at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft creates an aerodynamic lifting force, correcting the flight path of the aircraft in the plane of fire, thereby polychaets the efficacy of small-sized aircraft.
The essence of the invention consists in the following. It is proposed to stabilize not all small aircraft, but only aerodynamic surfaces mounted on the fuselage for rotation around the longitudinal axis of the small-sized aircraft. At the same time the same aerodynamic surface is proposed to use for creating oriented directional aerodynamic forces to correct the trajectory of small aircraft.
Figure 1 presents the claimed small aircraft with self-stabilizing aerodynamic surfaces.
Figure 2 presents the possibility of using small aircraft with self-stabilizing aerodynamic surfaces.
Figure 3 presents a view of small-sized aircraft with side bow and shows the principle of semistability proposed aerodynamic surfaces.
Presented in figure 1 small-sized aircraft with self-stabilizing aerodynamic surfaces contains a fuselage 1, which set the rotation unit 2 with a fixed aerodynamic surfaces 3, and a tail 4. Site rotation 2 is a rolling bearing or sliding, to ascertain the tion on the fuselage 1 of the aircraft in the area of the center of mass 5 aircraft for rotation about the longitudinal axis 6 of the aircraft. The aerodynamic surface 3 is made in the form of two aerodynamic wings, mounted on the rotation unit 2. While the wings 3 are arranged symmetrically relative to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft 6 do not lie in one plane. Depending on the position relative to the longitudinal axis 6 of the aircraft wings 3 can create positive or negative lift force.
The device operates as follows. In the process of separation of the aircraft from 7 media 8 and its flight near the carrier 8 along a ballistic trajectory 9 due to the bevels of flow of the medium sliding LA or production variances, production elements LA to the aircraft operates the roll moment MPROBcausing rotation of the aircraft about the longitudinal axis 6 (see Fig 1, 3). After separation of the LA 7 moves along a ballistic trajectory 9 (see figa). When driving along a ballistic trajectory 9 speed LA has a horizontal VGand vertical VIncomponents (see figa). Under the action of the vertical component of velocity VInarise aerodynamic force applied to the center of pressure to the left FCLand to the right FCPaerodynamic surface 3 (see figure 3).
The magnitude of the aerodynamic forces applied to the aerodynamic surfaces 3, op is Adelaide by the formulas (S.p.kiselev. Physical fundamentals of aerodynamics of missiles. Military publishing house of the Ministry of defense of the USSR, M., 1976, p.45).
where Cx- the drag coefficient aerodynamic surfaces;
ρ - air density;
SCL, SCPsquare left and right aerodynamic surfaces;
VG- the vertical component of the velocity of flying small aircraft;
αCL- the angle between the vertical and the plane left the airfoil;
αCP- the angle between the vertical and the plane of the right aerodynamic surfaces.
When the perturbing moment in the direction shown in figure 3, the magnitude of the aerodynamic forces FCLis always greater than FCP. Due to the presence of the difference between aerodyn the economic forces F CL-FCPoccurs resulting stabilizing aerodynamic moment MCAMERA(see figure 3), the value of which is determined by the formula (Ingebrigsten and K.semendyaev. Handbook of mathematics. Publishing House "Nauka", M., 1965).
where L is the distance from the center of pressure of the aerodynamic surface 3 to the longitudinal axis 6 of the aircraft.
The resulting stabilizing aerodynamic moment MCAMERAalways acts in the direction opposite to the action of the disturbance torque roll MPROB(see figure 3). Due to the difference of the moments MCL-MCPthe aerodynamic surface 3 will turn in the rotation unit 2 on the angle at which the equality MCL=MCP. Similarly there is a stabilization of the aerodynamic surface 3 in the plane of the trajectory of LA when the perturbing moment the opposite is shown in figure 2.
After the end of the transient aerodynamic surface 3 are oriented symmetrically relative to the vertical component of airspeed. This phenomenon can be used to create oriented lifting force in the plane of the trajectory (positive or negative)required for assests is in the management of aircraft in the plane of the trajectory. Use small aircraft with self-stabilizing aerodynamic surfaces shown in figb, and figa - usage of the prototype. From the comparison shown in figure 2 trajectories of the prototype and of the present invention, it follows that the trajectory of small aircraft with self-stabilizing aerodynamic surfaces (see figb) is closer to the flight path of the carrier 8, than the trajectory of the flight of the prototype (see figa). This is achieved by improving the efficiency of application of small-size aircraft with self-stabilizing aerodynamic surfaces compared to the prototype.
In the search for sources of patent and scientific and technical information, the set of indicators proposed small aircraft with a self-stabilizing aerodynamic surfaces, not detected. Thus, the present invention meets the eligibility criterion of "new".
Based on comparative analysis of the proposed technical solutions with the prior art by sources of scientific-technical and patent literature it can be argued that between the set of features, including distinctive, and their functions and achievable goals, there is not chevigny causality. Based on the above we can conclude that the technical solution is not obvious from the prior art and, therefore, meets the criterion of "inventive step".
The proposed solution is characterized by simple design and can be used to create small maneuvering decoys and transmitters interference detachable from the carrier and flying on ballistic trajectories. Thus, the present invention meets the eligibility criterion "industrial applicability".
Small flying machine that contains the fuselage aerodynamic surface and a tail, wherein the aerodynamic surfaces mounted on the fuselage near the center of mass of the aircraft for rotation about the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and is designed as two mounted on the rotation unit aerodynamic wings, symmetrical relative to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and not lying in the same plane.
FIELD: rocketry, in particular, device for stabilization of aircraft winged missiles at the initial stage of independent flight.
SUBSTANCE: the body of the stabilizing device is made in the form of a convex cover sealing the nozzle of the missile solid-propellant acceleration engine, and the controls-in the form of four pairs of kinematically linked with one another aerodynamic control surfaces and jet vanes of the solid-propellant acceleration engine, each of them is positioned in the plane of installation of the aerodynamic control surface of the missile sustainer stage and linked with the drive of the mentioned control surface by means of control rods. The control mechanism of the stabilizing device control surfaces is made for separation of the links controlling the position of the device aerodynamic control surface, as well as for separation with the control rods from the sustainer stage control surface drive.
EFFECT: simplified structure and reduced overall dimensions of the stabilizing device, enhanced aerodynamic characteristics of the winged missile.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Proposed wing tip has end plate with aerodynamic sweep of light elongation and sharp leading edge arranged at end plate end outer side. Aerodynamic surface trailing edge is aligned with end plate rear edge. Tip is located at end plate front edge, below rear edge while sweep make 60-85 degrees. There is lower vertical aerodynamic surface of small elongation coupled with end plate so that its leading edge coincides with leading edge of end plate aerodynamic surface. Angle between end plate aerodynamic surface and lower vertical aerodynamic surface makes 125-30 degrees.
EFFECT: higher aerodynamic efficiency, decreased fuel consumption.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. invention relates to aircraft engineering. Proposed wing tip has end plate with aerodynamic sweep of light elongation and sharp leading edge arranged at end plate end outer side. Tailing edge of extra aerofoil is aligned with rear edge of end plate while nose flap is located at leading edge of end plate under the level of tailing edge, sweep making 60-85 degrees. Proposed wing tip has end plate with aerodynamic sweep of light elongation and sharp leading edge arranged at end plate end outer side. Tailing edge of extra aerofoil is aligned with rear edge of end plate while nose flap is located at leading edge of end plate under the level of tailing edge, sweep making 60-85 degrees. Angle between end plate and aerofoil makes 175-180 degrees. Wing tip is arranged at 2 to 3 degrees to wing tip chord.
EFFECT: higher aerodynamic efficiency, reduced fuel consumption.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aerodynamic elements for stabilisation of airborne vehicles. Airborne vehicle aerodynamic focus control element includes airfoil fixed on shaft, steering machine and linkage for transmission of hinge moment from shaft to steering machine rod. The linkage transmits hinge moment generated by air foil to steering machine rod via one or more its members which are mechanical or pneumatic springs.
EFFECT: invention is focused on providing relation between mass centre position and aerodynamic focus position.
SUBSTANCE: system of tail fin (1) for aircraft includes fuselage (3), wing (2) and traction engine (5, 5a, 5b) mounted in fuselage aft portion of this aircraft which is located behind the wing (2) relative to longitudinal axis of aircraft. System of tail fin contains air foils fixed on fuselage aft portion. System of tail fin is formed by horizontal air foils (41a, 41b, 43) and vertical air foils (42a, 42b) made to form ring structure containing ring fixed on fuselage. Traction engine is held in the ring formed by system of tail fin. Central vertical stabiliser is used to form two rings in the ring structure. Versions of aircraft are characterised by tail fin features and mounting of one or two engines in the ring zone.
EFFECT: higher safety of operation.
13 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering, particularly, to assembling aircraft components, namely to attachment of tail unit to fuselage. On fitting tail unit front shutter in gap between fuselage and tail unit end face, tail unit is set to 0° relative to fuselage to remove panels from end face and to set shutter into said gap. Beforehand, shutter mounts are secured on outer shutter. Rod keys are fitted via through holes and turned through 90° to fit in mount part-through slot to strain the shutter to operating sizes. Thereafter, tail unit detachable panels are mounted along strained shutter to remove rod keys. Proposed appliance comprises mounts and rod keys with articulated spherical surfaces. Note here that said mounts have cruciform openings with one through cutout and one part-through cutout. Rod keys are composed of threaded rods on one end and, on opposite end, of plates with flanges shaped to match through cutouts and spherical surfaces of mounts.
EFFECT: ruled out mechanical damages.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to launching site equipment. Proposed method consists in creating closed water curtain adjoining carrier rocket aft section and to combustion product jet formed by incident jets pre-directed to carrier rocket axis at an angle. Incident flows of separate jets fall nearby said aft section with partial overlap. Proposed device comprises annular water duct arranged on launch pad, axially symmetric about rocket axis, with water feed branch pipes and channels to feed water on curtain made on water duct top face surface. Sleeve with through hole is secured in every aforesaid channel. Nozzle is secured on every said sleeve that deflect from vertical.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft comprises trimmed horizontal stabiliser 20 abuts upon aircraft fuselage 10. Said stabiliser 20 is integrated with moving elevator 21. Trimmed horizontal stabiliser 20 comprises bearing structure 22 extending along its span and rigidly jointed with fuselage, and moving sections 23, 24 jointed with said beating structure 22 to displace irrespective of elevator 21 to trim horizontal stabiliser 20 by varying its aerofoil so that said stabiliser 20 may selectively generate aerodynamic force, negative aerodynamic force, or stay neutral. Aforesaid sections 23 moving along aircraft lengthwise axis X are arranged ahead of bearing structure 22.
EFFECT: perfect design, better in-flight stabilisation.
16 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: body stabilisation apparatus has a dynamic resistance element mounted on the edge of the body on a post, the axis of which is directed on the axis of stabilisation of the body. The dynamic resistance element is in form of a brake flap. The flap is mounted at the end of the post in the region of its geometric centre and is hinged with possibility of turning freely about the axis perpendicular the axis of the post.
EFFECT: simple design of the apparatus and reduced size and weight.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to stabilising gear or fins. Proposed keel of fin consists of front section with convex sweep with its angle increasing with increasing length of curvature and rear section with its edge representing a shutter.
EFFECT: reduced drag.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to air-cushion flight vehicles. Flight vehicle contains disk-shaped housing with central tunnel inside which streamline body with elevating screw on its top part which body is attached to walls by radial airfoil baffles; cockpit; power plant with pushing screws; air-cushion in the form of toroidal balloon with flexible guard; wheel-ski undercarriage under the body; planing bottom under the cockpit and hydrofoil on the rear of the body; rocking doors installed at tunnel entrance; wing-mounted consoles; tail fins with stabiliser and vertical fins installed on the rear part of housing; jet flaps installed on the rear parts of the wing-mounted consoles and housing; control and stabilisation elements in the form of aerodynamic rudders installed at the exit form the tunnel; control jets installed on the stabiliser and wing-mounted consoles; elevens installed on the stabiliser. On the top of front part of disk-shaped housing, longitudinal wing fences are installed at both ends of the tunnel.
EFFECT: invention is aimed to provide stable and controlled flight, to increase safety and elevating force and to decrease mass of structure.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: canard configuration aircraft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft has wing 1, horizontal nose plane consisting of lower plane 2 and upper plane 3, fuselage 4, wheeled landing gear including main support 5 and two side supports 6 and engine plant 7. Main support 5 of wheeled landing gear is located behind aircraft CG. Upper plane 3 of horizontal nose plane is shifted backwards relative to lower plane 2. Movable surface of upper plane 3 of horizontal nose plane is kinematically linked with aircraft control system by pitching and is used as elevator 8. Movable surface of lower plane 2 is kinematically linked with control system of wing high-lift devices; it may move downward only and is used as flap 9.
EFFECT: reduced sizes of aircraft.
FIELD: rotary-wing flying vehicles, autogyroes in particular.
SUBSTANCE: proposed head has rotor hub unit connected with swivel joint of hub and aerodynamic surface connected with hub axle. This surface is so positioned that rated point of application of resultant aerodynamic force is shifted towards tail section of autogyro from axis of longitudinal swinging of hub. Aerodynamic surface is mounted on member rigidly connected with hub axle. Aerodynamic surface may be provided with device for change of its angle, may be located on either side from longitudinal plane of symmetry and may be symmetrical relative to this plane of symmetry.
EFFECT: enhanced aerodynamic stability of autogyro in flight; reduced level of vibrations of rotor head.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: aeronautical engineering; various flying vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed tip has end plate and is provided with additional swept aerodynamic surface of low aspect ratio with sharp leading edge mounted on the outside of end plate. Trailing edge of additional aerodynamic surface is combined with trailing edge of end plate. Nose is located on leading edge of end plate below level of trailing edge; sweep ranges from 60° to 85°.
EFFECT: enhanced aerodynamic efficiency at high subsonic speeds.
FIELD: power plants for auxiliary-purpose flying vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes panel of lifting surface of flying vehicle with device for localization of overflow of airflow; this device includes flow-through nacelle, power loop and air-jet engine with exit nozzle. Axis of nacelle lies in way of motion of lifting surface of flying vehicle; inlet part is made in form of side inlet window located on lower part of lifting surface panel. Power loop includes at least one wind wheel with at least one electric power generator which are arranged inside flow-through nacelle in parallel with inlet window. Engine is mounted in outlet part of flow-through nacelle.
EFFECT: extended field of application; enhanced safety of flight.