Method of optical determination of tack irregularities and defects
SUBSTANCE: Invention relates to railway transport, particularly, to determination of track irregularities and other defects. Propose method consists in defining the level controlled track section of electromagnetic radiation by video control appliances in shifting electromagnetic radiation receiver along said section. Measured level of electromagnetic radiation is used to define track wear and defects. Track image is locked in visible spectrum of electromagnetic radiation in polarisation filter with rotary gating axis and processing of images by estimation of Stocks parameters.
EFFECT: determination of track whatever defects and irregularities by whatever processing means.
1. The technical field
The invention relates to the field of rail transport, and in particular to methods of identifying irregularities and other defects in the rail.
2. The level of technology
There is a method of condition monitoring of railway track (patent RU 2123445, UK 9/08, EV 35/00 from 12.07.1995), namely, that detect the angular fluctuations and the coordinates of the axle box of a pair of wheels. Find the coordinates of the touch points of the left and right wheel pair and the drawdown of each rails expressed as the difference between the vertical coordinate of the touch point of the wheel, corresponding to the two points in time. There is also known a method of inertial measurement rail (patent RU 2242391, UK 9/08, EV 35/06 from 30.12.2002), in this way form the vector of the virtual speed of each of the rail lines in the project coordinate system, using the signals from the sensor path, go to the independent variable along the longitudinal coordinate of the path. Integration found velocities receive the vertical and horizontal profiles of rail lines and desired roughness receive as the difference between the measured profiles and their approximarely curves, obtained by processing measurements or passport profiles. The drawbacks are the low sensitivity to small discontinuities smaller than the width of the top support surface of the rail, as well as the need to have a passport profiles of rail lines.
The closest analogue (prototype) is a method of assessing the condition of the track structure (patent RU 2096221, UK 9/06, UK 9/08 from 03.10.1994). How is that determined the level of electromagnetic radiation from the surface of the controlled area, which is compared with a reference corresponding to a given characteristic of the track structure, and by comparing the results reveal the degree of wear and defects of the track structure. The disadvantages of this method are the low sensitivity to small discontinuities smaller than the width of the upper support surface of the rail, and the need to have a passport (reference) profiles of rail lines and the need to install device for nondestructive inspection on special potenzmitteln cars.
3. List of figures, drawings and other materials
Figure 1 presents the block diagram of the image acquisition track: 1 - non-polarized electromagnetic radiation of the visible spectrum; 2 - partially polarized radiation; 3 - track; 4 - polarizing filter rotating axis of the transmission; 5 - receiver electromagnetic radiation of the visible spectrum, 6 is the angle of sight; 7 - normal to the surface of the rail head.
Figure 2 presents the photo of the depression is and the rail, captured in the profile (long depression - 300 mm, depth 3 mm).
Figure 3 shows the original image of the section of rail track in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum of radiation.
Figure 4 shows the result of image processing of the depression on the rail, obtained at different positions of the polarization filter, and their subsequent processing by the evaluation of the Stokes parameters.
4. The invention
The technical challenge is to remedy these disadvantages by fixing the image track in the visible range of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation using a polarizing filter with a rotating axis of the transmission.
4.2. Distinctive features
The technical result is achieved by the fact that in contrast to the known method, namely, that determine the level of electromagnetic radiation of the surface of the controlled section of railway track by videoendoscope read by moving a receiver of electromagnetic radiation along a specified section, and the measured level of electromagnetic radiation to detect the degree of wear and defects of the track structure is fixed images of rail track in the visible range of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation through a polarizing filter rotating axis transmittance and PEFC is blowing processing of obtained images by estimating the Stokes parameters.
4.3. The method
The method for the optical determination of the roughness of the track shown in figure 1: non-polarized electromagnetic radiation of the visible spectrum 1 becomes partially polarized 2, reflected from the track 3, passes through a polarizing filter with a rotation shaft of the transmission 4 and enters the receiver of electromagnetic radiation of the visible spectrum 5, further resulting image is processed by the transformation of the Stokes equations, which allows to obtain a clearer image of the defects of the track (including small). This effect is based on the fact that the degree of polarization of the reflected angle of sight 6 (7 is normal to the surface of the rail head), which is a constant for smooth sections of the rail head and changed its irregularities.
5. Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention
It is known that when light is reflected from the metal surface there is a change of parameters of polarization, i.e. the polarization characteristics of the reflected light does not coincide with similar characteristics falling (M. born, E. wolf, principles of optics, M., 1973, 716 S.; Sokolov, A.V., Optical properties of metals, M, 1961, 464 S.) Parameters of polarization depends on the angle of sight, which, in turn, is determined by profileproperty rail at the place of observation.
For the implementation of the proposed method was carried out shooting rail track camera Canon 40D with mounted lens Canon EF-S 17-55 f/2.8 IS USM lens and polarizing filter. Used focal length 55 mm For each piece of cloth was done in a series of frames (60 or 30) with different orientation of the polarization filter (step 6 or 12 degrees, respectively), while performed a complete rotation of the filter 360 degrees.
As a model of the echo signal (IC(φj)registered by the matrix camera at an angle φjbetween the main axis of the polarization filter and a vertical plane passing through the axis of the optical system, we used the following expression:
For each series of images was calculated estimates of the Stokes parameters
and error models:
where N is the number of frames;and
For experiments we used part of the way near the station Rzhevskaya Oktyabrskaya railway, Moscow.
As a first test sample was selected portion of the path with welded rail joint (figure 2). Because of the violation of the structure of the metal in the weld area during long-term operation of such a rail occurs cavity, the length of which was about 30 cm, and the maximum depth was about 3 mm, the Image of the depression on the rail, captured in the profile shown in figure 2.
Figure 3 shows the image of the depression on the rail in natural light, and figure 4 - after processing the original image by estimating the parameters of the Stokes equations. The converted image is their significantly increase the contrast of the depression on the source image.
The method is based on the change of parameters of polarization of the electromagnetic radiation of the visible range reflected from the defects of rail lines, compared to defect-free sections of the route allows you to use as a media equipment in addition to potenzmitteln cars and low-flying aircraft, including remotely-manned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The use of UAVs will improve the performance and efficiency of diagnostics of railway tracks.
The analysis performed by the applicant is known to him prior art showed that the proposed invention has novelty and industrial applicability, is responsible in respect of the totality of its essential features to the requirement of the criterion of "inventive step", in the prior art is unknown mechanism to achieve a technical result disclosed in the application materials.
Method for the optical determination of defects in the track, namely, that determine the level of electromagnetic radiation of the surface of the controlled section of railway track by video reading by moving the receiver of electromagnetic radiation along a specified section, and the measured level of electromagnetic radiation to detect the degree of wear and defects of the track structure is URS, characterized in that the produced image is fixed rail track in the visible range of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation through a polarizing filter with a rotating axis of the transmission and subsequent processing of the obtained images by estimating the parameters of the Stokes equations.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: immersion tank is filled with water, pipes are moved through the tank, and ultrasonic testing of pipes is performed for example by means of piezoelectric converters; surface layer of water filling in the immersion tank and touching the tested surface of the pipe is moved by additional supply to the immersion tank of a water jet by means of a nozzle evenly spaced relative to the surface of the tested pipe, which is submerged into water to the level of surface water layer, through which water is supplied to the immersion tank in the pipe movement direction at speed Vw exceeding the pipe movement speed Vpipe and speed VH of all the rest water layers through the immersion tank throughout its depth H to exclude filling of the inner cavity of the pipe with water.
EFFECT: improving reliability and efficiency of ultrasonic testing of pipes.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: control zones are scanned with the help of an inclined combined piezoelectric converter (PEC), PEC position is determined, which corresponds to maximum of an echo-signal from a defect, equivalent area of the detected defect is determined, as well as its coordinates. At the same time acoustic probing of the welded joint is carried out with a multiply reflected beam, in process of control they identify the number of rereflections of an ultrasonic beam, speed of a shift ultrasonic wave in a metal is determined with the help of standard samples, besides, speed measurement is carried out using non-lapped PECs, and the operation of calibration of a depth metre of a flaw detector is carried out in special control samples with the help of lapped PECs using the following operations: installation of the PEC onto the control sample at a certain distance from artificial reflectors, control of delay time in a prism introduced into the flaw detector memory, with a pitch of 0.01 mcs, registration of flaw detector depth metre readings at each step of control, determination of actual values of coordinates of artificial reflectors for each scheme of acoustic probing with a single-reflected, double-reflected or triple-reflected beam, measurement of coordinates of artificial reflectors in the control sample with the help of ordinary measurement tools, completion of the process of delay time calibration-control in the prism.
EFFECT: increased accuracy and reliability of defect coordinates detection in process of ultrasonic control of butt, lap and tee welds of thin-walled pipes of small diameter.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: amplitude-frequency characteristic (AFC) is measured in a module of full conductivity (resistance) of the sample, and resonances are detected in the area of working frequency, at the same time in case there are additional resonances are available on the AFC of the free piezoceramic sample, apart from frequencies of mechanical and electromechanical resonances of the working mode of oscillations, mechanical damping is introduced into the mode of oscillations, having resonant frequency nearest to the working one, besides, damping is carried out in the field of maximum amplitude of damped oscillations, and at the same time the AFC of the sample is measured; additional resonances preservation on the AFC confirms availability of mechanical defects, and their disappearance confirms on absence of mechanical defects.
EFFECT: provision of the possibility to monitor condition of piezoelement structure on the basis of analysis of additional resonances behaviour.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: acoustic signal of a sound range is emitted into a pipeline wall bordering the medium that surrounds the pipeline or flows inside the pipeline, sound waves reflected from an uneven formation, refracted and having passed through it are registered, and location and size of uneven formations are defined on the basis of time, amplitude, frequency and speed analysis of registered waves.
EFFECT: provision of simple, valid and efficient diagnostics of uneven formations on inner and outer surfaces of pipelines, making it possible to detect location and size of irregularities with quite high accuracy.
19 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: two converters that emit ultrasonic oscillations with a time delay relative to each other are installed on the surface of an item as moving along outer generating lines of a pipe; each converter receives echo pulses reflected from the item defect, parameters of received echo pulses are measured, compared to the reference value, and based on the comparison results, decide on the defect size. At the same time pulses of ultrasonic oscillations are introduced perpendicularly to the generating surface of the item, additionally a pulse of ultrasonic oscillations that "surrounds" the item is registered, being emitted by one converter and received by another converter, and by change of the pulse amplitude they correct the value of the pulse amplitude reflected from the defect, and comparing it with the reference value, they decide on the defect size, afterwards an additional pulse is radiated in the direction opposite to the main one, each converter receives echo pulses reflected from the item defect, they are compared with the reference value, and based on the comparison result, they decide on availability of defects in "dead zones" of each converter. At the same time converters are installed opposite to each other at the distance, which is not less than the sum of lengths of "dead zones" of each converter in one direction.
EFFECT: provision of quality inspection.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: on a platform deck they install a double-component sensor of horizontal accelerations of infrared range and with its help they register in a PC the amplitude, form and frequency spectrum of internal bending vibrations of the platform under effect of ice loads, disturbance and wind, which contain information on availability and nature of defects in stressed units of the structure. Then quantitative estimates of defects are calculated according to formulas, which establish the quantitative relation between parameters of oscillations and defects, at the same time availability of defects in the form of cracks and breaks in support units of the structure is determined by availability and amplitude of even harmonics in the spectrum of oscillations, and summary quantitative estimate of metal fatigue is determined by reduced quality of oscillations, which manifests in the width of spectrum of the main harmonic. The device for detection and diagnostics of defects is characterised by using active RC-filters of infrared range.
EFFECT: provision of the possibility to detect and diagnose cracks and breaks in stressed units of structure of marine oil and gas platforms, provision of metal fatigue assessment.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: remote acceptance of acoustic signals is carried out, which accompany partial discharges arising on equipment defects, a signal envelope is identified, and its spectral analysis is carried out, at the same time the spectral analysis is carried out in the range of frequencies of up to 1 kHz, defining the availability (or absence) of a row of serial peaks with frequency multiple to 50 Hz in the spectrum.
EFFECT: provision of the possibility to determine a type of a signal source.
SUBSTANCE: ultrasonic vibrations are input and received; combined source and receiver are synchronously moved along and across the weld joint and an additional receiver of said vibrations, which is placed at a certain distance opposite the main receiver, is also moved likewise; the combined source and receiver detect volume defects of the type of pores and nonmetallic inclusions; values thereof are determined; distance to the detected defects from the source and the main receiver combined with it is measured; the depth of the volume defects and distance between them on the depth are determined; the source and the additional receiver detect flat defects of the type of cracks, poor fusion and oxide films; coordinates of the transverse and longitudinal displacement of the source of ultrasonic vibrations are determined; the depth inside the weld joint of the beginning and the end of the flat defect relative the surface of entry and reception of ultrasonic vibrations is determined and the extent of the flat defects inside the weld joint is determined.
EFFECT: simple method for ultrasonic inspection of quality of butt welded joints made by electron-beam welding on the entire thickness thereof, enabling more objective inspection of the quality of weld joints.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: sources of acoustic oscillations are placed onto a surface of a monitored object, acoustic oscillations are introduced into a monitored object, attenuating acoustic oscillations reflected from a defect are received and recorded, by means of laser scanning, measurement results are converted into an electric signal with subsequent electronic processing of produced signals, also with application of a computer controlled by a special program, to memorise results of processing in the memory of the computer processor and possibility of their display. At the same time location of the source of acoustic oscillations and received of reflected acoustic signals on the surface of the monitored object, is selected depending on the design of a specific monitored unit; introduction of acoustic oscillations into the monitored object is carried out by applying mechanical strikes in a certain zone, depending on a type of a specific object; reception of reflected acoustic signals is carried out by means of a titanium needle installed in an elastic element, being simultaneously a modulator of an optical system of a laser scanner, and the special program for realisation of computer processing of measurement results is developed using a wavelet analysis.
EFFECT: provision of universality and expansion of functional capabilities of a device, simplification of its design and a system of control process management.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: inclined converter with a phased array is moved along flat surface of the blade; at that, for positioning of a converter with phased array, when inspecting the joints made by means of linear friction welding, there used are flat surfaces of manufacturing allowance of the blade, the location of which is set so that possibility of inspecting the weld joint from front blade edge to rear blade edge can be provided.
EFFECT: enlarging functional capabilities of inspection of weld joints of blades with a disc.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: flaw detector comprises a channel 1 for stretching of a controlled rope 2, a magnetising unit 3 with magnetic poles 4 and 5, facing the channel 2, a unit of measuring magnetosensitive elements 6, arranged between magnetic poles 4 and 5, a unit of signal processing 7. The flaw detector is also equipped with three additional magnetosensitive elements 8, 9, 10 and a unit of pulse registration 11, connected by its inputs with each of the additional magnetosensitive elements 8, 9, 10, arranged between magnetic poles on one line, parallel to the axis of the channel above its external surface. Magnetosensitive elements 8, 9, 10 are arranged as capable of distance adjustment between them. Previously the distances between adjacent additional magnetosensitive elements 8, 9, 10 are selected so that in the sum they do not exceed half of the distance between tops of adjacent strands along the axis of the controlled rope.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of detection of defect coordinates, found in flaw detection of strand steel ropes.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: device consists of well module containing magnetiser, magnet-measuring system from N magnet-sensitive sensors and onboard controller, ground electronic unit that includes power source, ground controller and system for determining the depth of well device, personal computer and geophysical cable connected in such a way that well module is connected via geophysical cable to ground electronic unit and personal computer interconnected via standard interface, each of N information inputs of onboard controller is connected to the output of one of N magnet-sensitive sensors. Note that the output of power source is connected to the inputs of magnetiser and each of N magnet-sensitive sensors, also to the first input of onboard controller, the first output of which is connected to the first input of ground controller connected by the second input to the output of the system for determining the depth of well device and by the output - to personal computer. Well module includes onboard time setting and storage devices and ground electronic unit consists of ground onboard time setting and storage devices, note that the second input of onboard and the third input of ground controllers are connected to the outputs of onboard and ground time setting devices correspondingly, the third input of onboard controller is connected to the output of onboard storage device, the input of which is connected to its second output, and the forth input of ground controller is connected to the output of ground storage device, the input of which is connected to its second output. Magnetiser is made composed of magnetic conductor from steel core with one or several inserts from constant magnets mounted regarding the connection of neighbouring inserts by positive poles to negative ones.
EFFECT: increase of efficiency and reliability, extension of functional capabilities.
12 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: section of a steel double-lay rope is longitudinally magnetised to a state close to saturation. Using coils lying in the interpolar space in the zone of the main magnetising flux, electromotive force arising when the inspected object moves relative the coils is determined. That signal is processed via discrete Fourier transform, the width of the window of which is set equal to twice the diameter of the rope. The obtained amplitude-frequency characteristic is smoothed out and presence of two local maxima is determined. If the ratio of local maxima is 10 or higher, there is a local defect. The harmonic order n, which divides the region of determining local maxima, is determined using the formula where f is the signal sampling frequency; D is the diameter of the rope. The window is shifted by half its width in order to compensate for the defect possibly falling on the edge of the window.
EFFECT: reduced error in inspecting local defects of a ferromagnetic double-lay rope.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transducer comprises welding current power supply 1, magnetic field input device including two current collectors 2, 3 connected in parallel to welding current circuit via electrode 8 and magnetic field registration unit. It is made up of differential flux-gate 9 rigidly connected with welding head 10 and arranged above weld butt. It includes also converter amplifier circuit including the following components connected in parallel: selective amplifier 15 tuned in resonance to frequency (2ω+Ω) (ω - flux-gate excitation frequency, Ω - welding current frequency), phase-shift discriminator 16 with reference voltage generated by another amplifier 17 connected to output of modulator 18. Inputs of the latter are connected to welding current source and master oscillator 13 of frequency 2ω, and smoothing filter 19. Proposed device isolates signal proportional to mismatch between electrode and butt on frequency (2ω+Ω).
EFFECT: higher noise immunity and tracking stability.
SUBSTANCE: set of steel rope cross sectional loss simulators is made, where each simulator consists of a bundle of steel calibrated wires bound together, having different diameter and corresponding to 0; 10; 15; 20 and 25% of cross sectional wear of steel ropes. Each simulator is made from instrument steel U8, which first undergoes thermal treatment until achieving magnetic permittivity of 19-21 SI units. The steel wires have diameter 1 mm and 5 mm, length of not less than 1 m, and a layer of dielectric coating with thickness of not less than 0.1 mm is deposited on their surface. Thermal treatment is carried out by placing the simulators into a furnace heated to temperature 750°C, and holding at that temperature for 10 minutes and then cooling in water to room temperature. The dielectric coating layer is deposited by open sputtering. The wires are bound together by epoxy resin.
EFFECT: high reliability of monitoring wear of different types of ropes and minimising the effect of different types of steel of the ropes on monitoring their wear and operating conditions.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device has eddy current transducers arranged in magnetic gap between appropriate poles of permanent magnets and walls of controlled pipe. Excitation coils of eddy current transducers are supplied by alternating current using two or more signal coils arranged inside excitation coils with their axes aligned. Because of low frequency of transducer system, flaw detector speed if adjusted by bypass system with gas bypassing outside of said flaw detector using easily deformable ribbed fan-type collar that doubles as gas bypass cross-section regulator. Collar is deformed by pressing its ribs to flaw detector by means of electric drive. In case of power supply failure and to allow spontaneous travel of proposed device from point of failure to receiving chamber, electromagnetic coupling is used with its winding supplied from generators built-in bearing wheels. Eddy current transducer signals are detected by amplitude or phase detectors and registered by onboard recorders together with coordinate pickup signals.
EFFECT: improved operating performances, simplified design.
SUBSTANCE: article is magnetised with successive formation of two pronounced magnetic poles on the axis of symmetry of the cross-section profile on the entire length of the analysed article in order to form a symmetrical magnetic field relative the axis of symmetry of the cross-section profile of the article. The magnetic field induction value is measured at points on boundaries of the cross-section of the article, symmetrical to each other relative the axis of symmetry of the cross-section of the article along the length of the article. The point, direction and estimate of the bending stress in the article are determined from the difference in magnetic induction values at said symmetrical points.
EFFECT: ensuring a rapid process of detecting and estimating bending stress in structural material using stationary or mobile equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device to diagnose technical condition of a pipeline, comprising a source of magnetic field and a receiver to receive a signal installed outside the pipeline as capable of displacement, at the same time in the pipeline there is an additional source of magnetic field capable of displacement. Besides, the additional source of magnetic field capable of displacement is made of a toroid with a source of magnetic field filled with liquid or gas.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of pipeline defects detection.
4 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: drive belt monitoring system comprises a belt having at least one reinforcing element containing a conducting reinforcing material. The conducting reinforcing material is interweaved with non-conducting reinforcing material; a belt monitoring device lying near said belt, said belt monitoring device having a field inductor which is excited by an applied signal; and apparatus for monitoring electrical characteristics of at least part of said field inductor, which is affected by change in electrical properties of said conducting reinforcing element so as to determine the physical state of said conducting reinforcing element and therefore monitor the physical characteristics of said belt. Disclosed also is a method of monitoring the drive belt.
EFFECT: wider field of use.
26 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: four-arm caliper- flaw detector is equipped with electromagnetic flaw detector, centralisers with spring-loaded levers and four-arm caliper with converter of mechanical movement of levers to electrical signal. Four-arm caliper is combined with one of centralisers with levers tracking irregularities of the well walls. Four-arm caliper includes constant magnets installed in the middle of diametrically opposite levers and Hall transducer located on the flaw detector axis inside the centraliser housing made from non-magnetic material. At that, axes of constant magnets, when levers are folded, are perpendicular to flaw detector axis, and axis of maximum sensitivity of Hall transducer is directed perpendicular to flaw detector axis and lies in one and the same plane with axes of magnets. Besides, hall transducer is electrically connected to electronic circuit of flaw detector providing the reception and processing of signals from Hall transducer and their transmission to the surface.
EFFECT: improving measurement accuracy of inner diameter, reducing overall dimensions, simplifying the design of the instrument and enlarging its application field.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with proposed method, moment of wheel flange approach to rail head and time before their collision are fixed using frame rate fps to determine gap between wheel flange and rail head. Registered data are used to calculate railway car wheel displacement speed in transverse direction before collision. Time of contact in stroke of wheel flange at rail head from time whereat aforesaid gap value does not vary is defined. Defined said time of contact is used to calculate car wheel displacement speed in transverse direction is used to calculate railway car wheel displacement speed in transverse direction at the moment of collision. Force of stroke of wheel flange at rail is defined from relationship: product of difference in speeds of displacement before and at stroke at unsprung mass of track and rail referenced to time of contact between wheel flange and rail head at collision.
EFFECT: definition to determine force of stroke and to forecast points of rail side wear nucleation.