Disc used in agriculture in particular disc used for plowing

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: metal disc comprises a plastic central part (10) and an outer peripheral part (12). The central part (10) is designed in particular for mounting the disc on the chassis or analogous element. The outer peripheral part (12) is designed in particular for treatment of soil, and has a higher hardness than the central part (10). The disc additionally comprises a transition zone (14) between the central part (10) and the peripheral part (12). The transition zone (14) has a hardness gradient in the radial direction. At least in its central part the disc has a hardness gradient in thickness. The method of manufacturing the disc described above comprises the following steps. Making the workpiece by cutting from steel sheet. Making fixation zone in the center of the workpiece by sewing. If necessary, extraction of the workpiece is carried out. Implementation of heat treatment of the obtained detail by the operation of quenching in water or in a polymer. Implementation of tempering at variable temperature, for example, with use of means of induction heating.

EFFECT: claimed manufacturing technique and the disc produced using it enable to increase the wear resistance of the disc and increase its life of service.

10 cl, 2 dwg

 

The present invention concerns a disk used in agriculture, in particular, the disk used for tillage.

When tillage, to limit soil erosion, as is known, instead lemenih plows use disks. Disks mounted on the chassis, designed for attachment behind a tractor or a similar tool. The disks, which may be flat, but may contain concavity in the working position are essentially vertical, or, if necessary, have the inclination and can be rotated around an essentially horizontal axis. You can install multiple drives still on the shaft, a pivotable relative to the chassis, or each drive can be set independently can be rotated relative to the supporting bearings.

The disks penetrate the soil to its periphery and allow, therefore, to treat the top layer of soil. The shape of the periphery of the disc and the General shape of a disk adapted to the soil type and type of work. So, there are disks of flat, concave, corrugated, etc. and their peripherals can be round, gear, radar, etc. basically these disks are used for activities such as plowing, tillage to conservation tillage or seeding.

Known disks contain the Central part, which is designed for mounting on the Assi, and the peripheral part, which must penetrate into the soil. Most often, the disks are made of steel alloy. This steel is heat treated to increase its hardness, in order to limit the wear of the disk, in particular, at the level of its periphery. However, the hardness limit that the disk was not fragile and to avoid cracks between the Central mounting part and the periphery, manufacturing soil. Thus, the known disks have a hardness generally in the range of 49 to 53 HRC (C Rockwell hardness), and this hardness in the disk is uniform. The hardness of 49° HRC corresponds to about 1600 MPa (or 160 kg/mm2), and the hardness of 52° HRC corresponds to about 1750 MPa (or 175 kg/mm2) (an exact match between the measurements of hardness in the international system and Rockwell hardness does not exist).

In the document US-4305272 opened the drive for agricultural use, which contains the outer edge higher hardness than the Central portion of the disk. This difference in hardness is obtained by differential heat treatment, during which the periphery of the disc include a thermally conductive ring detail. The method described in this document, it is difficult to apply on an industrial scale, and, to the extent known to the applicant, none of the disk described in this document, was not the issue the ene on sale. We can talk only about the steel rims of small thickness. In addition, this disc after manufacturing has a hardness only at its periphery.

The present invention is to develop a drive that has less wear compared with the known drives not being more fragile, and which has improved performance from the standpoint of increasing the service life. Preferably the present invention can be applied to discs large thickness (for example, more than 4 mm).

In this regard, an object of the present invention is a metal disc that is intended, in particular, for use in agriculture, containing plastic Central portion intended, in particular, for mounting the disk on the chassis, and an outer peripheral portion intended in particular for soil and with a higher hardness than the Central part.

According to the present invention, the disk drive further comprises a transition zone between the Central part and the peripheral part, which has a hardness gradient in the radial direction and has, at least in the Central part of the gradient of hardness in the thickness of the disk.

The peripheral part of the high hardness can improve the durability of the disk. As for the plastic Central part and transient the second zone, they provide sufficient deflection of the disk, allowing it to withstand high voltages, without breaking. In addition, due to the hardness gradient in the thickness of the disk, at least in the Central part in the thickness of the disk can be obtained variable hardness. For example, in the middle of the disk thickness can be formed with high hardness, and surface area, forming a plastic layer of lower hardness. You can also include, for example, to one side of the disk has a higher hardness than the other side of the disk, with a hardness gradient in the direction from one side to the other in its thickness.

In the disk in accordance with the present invention, the difference of hardness between the Central part and the peripheral part is preferably not less than 20 kg/mm2. This difference in hardness between the peripheral part and the Central part of the disk can significantly improve the characteristics of the disk in accordance with the present invention compared to the same disk homogeneous hardness.

To improve durability, it is preferable that the hardness of the peripheral part was, at least, 1900 MPa (or 190 kg/mm2). The hardness of the Central part is preferably in the range from 1500 to 1700 MPa (150 to 170 kg/mm2), which provides sufficient prog the b drive when operating at him voltages and high fatigue strength and resistance to deformation.

The disk in accordance with the present invention can be performed, for example, from a steel alloy, doped with boron and containing manganese, chromium and silicon. Due to the heat treatment of this alloy allows to obtain the above-mentioned hardness values. Preferably, this alloy contains from 0.35 to 0.42% of carbon and/or at least 0,16% chromium.

In the disk in accordance with the present invention, the differential hardness in the thickness of the disk in the area with a gradient of hardness in the thickness can be, for example, from 2 to 15 kg/mm2. This gradient of hardness in the thickness of the disk preferably is present simultaneously in the Central part of the disk and in the transition zone.

Preferably, the disk contained flat Central zone, used for mounting on the chassis and covered by the concave area. In this embodiment, the Central plastic part preferably is located outside the flat Central zone. Thus, the plastic zone surrounding the portion of the disk that is intended for fixed mounting on the chassis.

The present invention applies to all sizes and all forms of disks agricultural use. However, the present invention is preferably used for disks with a diameter of from 400 to 1100 mm and/or discs of a thickness exceeding 3 mm, preferably more than 4 mm

In anastasimatarion a method of manufacturing the above-described disk moreover, this method contains the following steps:

- by cutting them from sheet steel fulfill the workpiece,

by firmware in the center of the workpiece to perform the connection area,

- if necessary, carry out the hood billet,

- produce thermal processing of items received through the quenching in water or polymer, and

- provides vacation at a variable temperature, for example, using means of induction heating.

Vacation carried out by heating the part. This leave is carried out at variable temperatures, since the item is not heated uniformly, and the resulting temperature changes from one zone part to another, as well as in the part thickness. The use of means of induction heating allows you to control the heat and, consequently, the temperature in the details. Thus, the gain variations of hardness in the disk obtained using the method in accordance with the present invention.

Distinguishing features and advantages of the present invention will be more apparent from the following description given with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:

Figure 1 depicts a top view of the disc according to the embodiment of the present invention.

Figure 2 is a view in section of the disc along the line II-II of Figure 1.

The drawings show a flat-bottomed disk d is I agricultural use in accordance with the present invention. The outer shape of the disk is identical to the form of the familiar flat-bottomed disk. We are talking about the metal disk made in the form of a spherical dome with a flat bottom 2. This bottom is in the center of the spherical dome and has a diameter D. There are also disks for agricultural use, having a shape other than shown on the drawings. The present invention can also apply to these discs other form that can be used, in particular, for ploughing, seeding and/or for operations tillage with stubble preservation.

In its centre a flat bottom 2 contains 4 hole, designed for fastening the disk to the chassis (not shown). The free edge of the disk corresponding to the periphery of the disc contains a beveled chamfer 6 used for tillage, for example, to cut off the remains of plants.

In an embodiment shown in the drawings, the disk has an axis of symmetry, which in this case is also the axis of rotation 8. Between the beveled chamfer 8 and a flat bottom 2, the disk has a radius of curvature R and a thickness that is, for Example, the value of F can vary from 3.5 to 8 mm, the Height of the disc labeled F: it is measured along the axis of rotation 8.

According to the present invention, presents the disk has a hardness that is changing, on the one hand, depending on the distance to the rotation axis 8 and, on the other hand, as bodø is explained below, the hardness gradient exists in some areas in the thickness E of the disk. Thus, receive a first radial gradient of hardness (change of hardness relative to the axis of rotation 8) and then cross the hardness gradient or a gradient in the thickness of the disk.

Thus, the radial gradient of hardness this CD contains two different zones of hardness and the transition zone. Thus, figure 1 shows the Central part 10 and the peripheral portion 12 separated by a transition zone 14. In figure 1 the dotted lines show the sections between each of the parts 10 and 12 and the transition zone 14. In the described embodiment, the transverse gradient of hardness affects the Central part 10 and the transition zone 14.

The Central part 10 is plastic zone and the peripheral portion has a higher hardness than the Central part 10. With regard to the transition zone 14, it has a radial gradient of hardness and transverse gradient of hardness.

The Central part 10 is, in particular, for mounting the drive in the chassis. In an embodiment shown in the drawings, this Central part 10 is located outside the flat bottom 2. The diameter of the Central part 10 is, for example, from D+75 mm up to D+120 mm

The hardness of the Central part 10 is, for example, from 1550 to 1650 MPa (or from 155 kg/mm2up to 165 kg/mm2on the surface of the disk. E is and the hardness is essentially constant, but it can also slightly vary, increasing from the center to the transition zone 14.

In this Central part 10 hardness changes in the thickness of the disk. For example, the hardness may be higher with the core thickness of the disk and less high on the disk surface. The difference in hardness between the core thickness of the disk and the disk surface is, for example, from 20 to 150 MPa (or from 2 to 15 kg/mm2), preferably from 30 to 80 MPa (or from 3 to 8 kg/mm2). Thus, in this first example there are two gradient of hardness: one gradient from the core to the thickness of the disk in the direction of each of the surfaces of the disk. This first variant is used, for example, a flat disc (which contains no concavity in contrast to disk, shown in the drawings), which both parties can work on the trough.

According to another example, the hardness varies from one side of the disk to another: in this case there is only one transverse gradient of hardness from one disk surface to another. The variations in hardness from one side to the other are the same as in the first example, i.e. the range from 20 to 150 MPa (or from 2 to 15 kg/mm2), preferably from 30 to 80 MPa (or from 3 to 8 kg/mm2).

Change of hardness in the thickness of the disk depends on how to operate the drive. The side of the disc at the level of the Central part, to area subjected to the maximum force deflection, is the most plastic, it has the lowest value of hardness. Similarly, where the drive works primarily in compression, hardness will be the greatest.

With regard to the peripheral portion 12, the hardness is, for example, from 2000 to 2100 MPa (200 kg/mm2up to 210 kg/mm2). Preferably the hardness is maximum at the level of the beveled chamfer 6. The width of this peripheral part 12, which has a ring shape, usually ranges from 50 to 300 mm At the level of this peripheral part of the hardness in the thickness of the disk does not change or changes very slightly.

In the transition zone 14 hardness varies, for example, essentially linearly from hardness values outside the Central part 10 to the hardness values within the peripheral portion 12. In the above is not restrictive numerical example, the hardness goes from about 1600 MPa (or 160 kg/mm2) up to 2000 MPa (200 kg/mm2). This transition zone is, for example, a width of the order of several centimeters, depending on the outer diameter of the disk.

In this transition zone 14 of the transverse gradient of hardness similar to the gradient of hardness specified for the Central part 10. If in the Central part of the hardness is higher in the core of the disk thickness, the hardness in the transition zone 14 will also be more than you is the eye in the core of the disk thickness. If one side of the Central part 10 is more rigid than the opposite side, similar to the transverse gradient of hardness present in the transition zone 14.

Most drives have a uniform hardness. As a rule, it is about 1600 MPa (or 160 kg/mm2), which corresponds to about 49° HRC. Compared to such well-known disk drive in accordance with the present invention has a very significant improvement at the same time durability and resistance to mechanical stress about a threefold excess of these characteristics compared with known disk of the same size.

The disk in accordance with the present invention are made of steel. Preferably, the content of carbon (C) is from 0.35 to 0.42%. Preferably the steel alloyed with boron, and it further contains manganese, chromium and silicon. As for the content of chromium (Cr), it is preferably less than 0,20% and more preferably less than 0.16 per cent.

To obtain a variable hardness on the surface of the disk, you can use several methods of manufacture. Below is a description of the preferred method. According to this method, first, a disk made of steel (for example, as described above), in the form of a sheet or in roll. The first cut operation can get the billet. Using firmware perform the Central fastening element. This element provides the connection to the chassis. For example, using firmware get the 4 hole. In this case, it is possible to envisage other ways of execution. Instead of one Central openings can be provided with several holes. Then on the periphery perform rough beveled chamfer. In this case, depending on the desired shape of a disk, the periphery of the disc can, for example, to perform teeth and/or other forms. Hood, for example, hot exhaust can give the workpiece a concave shape.

Finally, carry out heat treatment. This treatment can give the disc hardness. In this case we are talking about quenching in water or in the polymer. The item received has a high hardness. To obtain plastic Central part 10 produce a vacation, choosing the temperature of vacation depending on the area of the disk. This vacation allows you to get a lower hardness in the center and in the transition zone 14 between the Central part 10 and the peripheral part 12, which has a radial and, if necessary, the transverse gradient of hardness. To achieve this result carry out heating of the workpiece, adjusting the temperature in different zones of the disk. Thus, the Central part 10 is heated to a greater extent than the peripheral is paying part 12. If necessary, the latter will powerhaul vacation to relieve stresses due to quenching. During this operation, the change in hardness can be observed at the level of the peripheral zone 12.

Through this vacation by means of induction heating, it is possible to obtain, on the one hand, the gradient of hardness by means of a positioning means of heating and by using, if necessary, means of cooling in some areas, and, on the other hand, the above-described transverse gradient of hardness, for example, by changing the frequency used by the current.

In a preferred embodiment of the method in accordance with the present invention can provide a vacation for a whole disk, but without going over the castles of the invention, it is possible to envision leave only the Central part 10 and, if necessary, also the transition zone 14. The funds induction heating allows vacation disk with variable temperature with good control of the heating of the disk as used depending on the radial position and the thickness of the disk. This control of heating zones allows you to manage the variations of hardness in the disk, as by the radial gradient of hardness and transverse gradient of hardness.

Thus, the disk in accordance with the present invention contains the VOA the periphery of the high hardness, featuring a very good durability. This part of the disk is intended to enter into contact with the treated soil and may encounter various obstacles in the soil, in particular, on the stones.

In the center of the disk is fixed to the chassis. This mount is similar to the connection in the groove, so within this attachment are slight mechanical stress. Mechanical stresses, in particular, the voltage of the deflection face portion of the disc located between the mount and its active part, which is in the soil. Due to the transverse gradient of hardness obtained in the Central part (and, if necessary, in the transition zone), the disc in accordance with the present invention also has the best fatigue strength in bending and resistance to deformation amplitudes, that is, when the fixed clamping the center of the disc and repeated exposure of the load deflection of the periphery of the disk. For disks of the same size disk in accordance with the present invention will have a much higher strength (up to threefold)than the well-known disk with uniform hardness.

Thus, the present invention allows to achieve higher hardness, better wear resistance and allows the disk to deform to a greater extent These characteristics, which until now was considered mutually exclusive, managed to get on one disc, thanks to the present invention.

Thus, an advantage of the present invention is the ability to adapt to any types of disks, such as flat disks, curved discs, in the form of a truncated cone, flat or corrugated round plow knives. The center of the disc may be flat, convex, concave, etc. the periphery of the disk may be round, gear, flap, and so on

The invention can be adapted for all sizes of drives, but for professionals it seems clear that the most preferred it is for large diameter discs, which should be subjected to greater stresses than smaller drives. Thus, preferably, but not restrictive of the invention can be applied to disks, the diameter of which exceeds 40 or 50 cm, and also for disks with a thickness of more than 3.5 or 4 mm

The present invention is not limited to the preferred implementation described above as a non-restrictive example, and the proposed method of manufacture. It can cover all variants of execution available to the specialist and not beyond the scope of the following claims.

1. A metal disk, in particular, for use in the Yelsk agriculture, containing plastic Central part (10), intended in particular for mounting the disk on the chassis or similar element, and the outer peripheral portion (12), intended in particular for soil and with a higher hardness than the Central part (10), characterized in that it further comprises the transition zone (14) between the Central part (10) and the peripheral part (12), which has a hardness gradient in the radial direction, and, at least in its Central part of the disk has a hardness gradient in thickness.

2. The disk according to claim 1, characterized in that the difference in hardness between the Central part (10) and the peripheral part (12) is not less than 200 MPa (20 kg/mm2).

3. The disk according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the hardness of the peripheral portion (12) is at least 1900 MPa (or 190 kg/mm2).

4. Drive according to one of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that the hardness of the Central part (10) is preferably in the range from 1500 to 1700 MPa (150 to 170 kg/mm2).

5. Drive according to one of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that it is made of steel alloy, doped with boron and containing manganese, chromium and silicon, and containing from 0.35 to 0.42% of carbon and at least 0,16% chromium.

6. Drive according to one of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that the differential hardness in the thickness is not disk in the zone with a gradient of hardness thickness ranges from 20 to 150 MPa (or from 2 to 15 kg/mm 2).

7. Drive according to one of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that the hardness gradient through the thickness of the disk is present in the Central part (10) of the disk, and also in the transition zone (14).

8. Drive according to one of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that it contains a flat Central zone (2)used for securing it to the chassis and covered by the concave area, and plastic Central part (10) is outside the flat Central zone (2).

9. Drive according to one of claims 1 or 2, characterized in that it has a diameter of from 400 to 1100 mm

10. A method of manufacturing a disk according to one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that it contains the following stages:
- by cutting them from sheet steel fulfill the workpiece,
by firmware in the center of the workpiece to perform the connection area,
- if necessary, carry the hood billet,
- produce thermal processing of items received through the quenching in water or polymer, and
- provides vacation at a variable temperature, for example, using means of induction heating.



 

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SUBSTANCE: metal disc comprises a plastic central part (10) and an outer peripheral part (12). The central part (10) is designed in particular for mounting the disc on the chassis or analogous element. The outer peripheral part (12) is designed in particular for treatment of soil, and has a higher hardness than the central part (10). The disc additionally comprises a transition zone (14) between the central part (10) and the peripheral part (12). The transition zone (14) has a hardness gradient in the radial direction. At least in its central part the disc has a hardness gradient in thickness. The method of manufacturing the disc described above comprises the following steps. Making the workpiece by cutting from steel sheet. Making fixation zone in the center of the workpiece by sewing. If necessary, extraction of the workpiece is carried out. Implementation of heat treatment of the obtained detail by the operation of quenching in water or in a polymer. Implementation of tempering at variable temperature, for example, with use of means of induction heating.

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