System and method to produce ceramic tiles not requiring filling paste

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: ceramic tiles contain a strong component arranged on the surface of the base and the first connection element arranged on the side of the base edge. At least a section of the base surface may continue outside the strong component. The base prevents contact of strong components of adjacent ceramic tiles, not requiring a filling paste, with each other, and may look like a filling paste. The first connection element and the appropriate second connection element of the adjacent ceramic tile, not requiring a filling paste, are made as capable of connection of two adjacent ceramic tiles, not requiring a filling paste.

EFFECT: tiles not requiring a filling paste.

26 cl, 4 dwg

 

The present invention relates in General to ceramic tiles for floor and wall-coverings.

More specifically, it refers to the system of ceramic tiles that do not require rubbing composition to ceramic tiles after installation.

Ceramic tiles are widely used for floor and wall coverings, residential and office use. Ceramic tile is versatile, and is used for floor and wall coverings for centuries. Ceramic tiles are available in virtually unlimited colors and can also be installed in an unlimited number of designs. Ceramic tile is often the best choice for floor and wall coverings, due to its durability and aesthetic qualities. Although many ceramic tiles are made of ceramic compositions (burned clay), they can be made from various natural and synthetic materials, including, but without limiting this, granite, quartz, marble, m, plastic, wood or other suitable material.

Ceramic tile creates a solid component and may have a coating to be essentially impervious to water and other liquids. When ceramic tile set, they, in General, are placed side by side on a surface such as the floor or wall. Typically, the adhesive composition is used, as a basis for attaching the tiles to the surface and then placing grout on top of and between ceramic tiles for additional bonding of ceramic tiles with the surface and fill the gaps between adjacent ceramic tiles. Although it is not impervious to water and moisture, grout creates a barrier that reduces the humidity between ceramic tiles and behind them. The specified stage grouting of ceramic tiles is time consuming and represents a significant part of the work, which includes typical installation of ceramic tile.

Due to the large investment of time and effort required for installation of ceramic tile, installing tile skilled workers is usually very expensive. However, many homeowners need to install ceramic tiles in their own homes. Unfortunately, the installation process is extremely long, and many homeowners don't want to spend the time required for satisfactory installation.

In recent years, manufacturers have attempted to develop solutions for the production of ceramic tiles for easy self-installation. One such attempt is described in patent publication U.S. No. US 2004/0031226, entitled "Flooring with pre-glued ridge and groove", the authors Millr and other It is disclosed a multilayer ceramic tile using a pre-applied adhesive for bonding together the ceramic tiles. Although such a system is easier to install than traditional ceramic tiles, it still requires the superposition of the individual grout and uses multilayer material instead of a solid ceramic tiles. Multilayer material may not be as strong as traditional materials such as ceramic or stone tile. In addition, the installer requires the overlay is not an ordered composition of grout on ceramic tile as part of the installation process.

A previous attempt to produce simple to install ceramic tile is described in U.S. patent No. 2693102 called "tongue-and-groove wall ceramic tiles. Patent 102 describes the synthetic ceramic wall tiles snap together. Unfortunately, this ceramic tile is practically not applicable essentially to corrugated materials, such as ceramic, granite or marble. In the patent 102 ceramic tiles are obtained by casting in the same structure of the same material and hard material cannot be tformat used in reference to the structure proposed in the patent. This restriction may limit the aesthetic quality of the existing ceramic tiles.

According to the government, in engineering there is a need for a system of ceramic tile, easy to install.

In addition, in engineering there is a need for a system of ceramic tile without grout ceramic tile after installation.

Additionally, in engineering there is a need to create a simple installation system for ceramic tiles using a durable ceramic material.

In addition, in engineering there is a need for a system of ceramic tiles, which mainly uses traditional ceramic tile materials, but eliminates the need for grout.

Described briefly, ceramic tile can have at least one connection element with a combination of connecting with the connecting element adjacent ceramic tiles, so that adjacent ceramic tiles could be securely fastened or connected to each other without the use of grout. A coincidental connection elements may include plug-in connecting elements and covering the connecting elements for fastening adjacent ceramic tiles.

You can use a variety of tiled system. For example, in one tiled system, which is an example, separate ceramic tile mightcreate only plug-in connecting elements and only covering the connecting elements. In another example, separate ceramic tile may include two detachable connecting element and two covering the connecting element placed either adjacent or on the opposite edges of ceramic tiles. In another example, a single ceramic tile can have other combinations of plug and covering the connecting elements located on one or more edges of ceramic tiles. The above examples are intended for illustration only and are not restrictive on the contrary, many different embodiments, which examples should be clear to a person skilled in the technical field.

System ceramic tiles that do not require grout, includes many of ceramic tiles that do not require grouting. Each of the ceramic tiles that do not require grout, may include a solid component or layer, located on the upper surface of the substrate, the first connecting element located on the edge or side surface of the substrate, and the second coupling element located on the other side of the substrate surface. At least the plot basics can continue outside of the solid component. The core can maintain the spacing between the solid components of adjacent ceramic tiles, not requiring the x grout. The first coupling element and a corresponding second coupling element adjacent ceramic tiles can be configured to connect two adjacent ceramic tiles that do not require grouting. At least the plot of the first coupling element may be positioned, at least under section solid component adjacent ceramic tiles, when two adjacent ceramic tiles that do not require grout, are connected.

In other embodiments, ceramic tiles do not require grout, may include a solid component, located on the substrate surface, the first connecting element located on the edge of the base, and the second coupling element located on another edge, such as the opposite edge, the basics. The first coupling element and second coupling element basis can continue outside of the solid component. The first coupling element and second coupling element ceramic tiles that do not require grouting can be performed to connect the ceramic tiles do not require grout, with adjoining ceramic tiles that do not require grouting. At least the area of the base can be held vertically for the formation of essentially continuous surface with durable component.

Various other variations which you carry out the invention is directed to a method of manufacturing ceramic tiles, does not require grouting. One such method involves creating a solid component, casting of foundations, at least, the plot solid component, binding solid component basis, and milling at least part of the basis for the creation of the first connecting element on the side edge of the base and a second coupling element at the other edge of the canvas.

Other embodiments of the invention are directed to receive floor coverings. Examples of floor coverings include elements of floor coverings having at least a synthetic support structure and a decorative element. A decorative element, you can choose from natural stone, terracotta, ceramic tiles or artificial stone. The decorative element can be supported, both directly and not directly on the support structure and at least partly form the upper side of the element of the floor covering. The supporting structure may have at least first pair of opposite sides, which includes fittings that can be implemented essentially as part of the plug connection and the part covering the connection. The fitting can be fitted vertically active locking sections, which, when the connecting part of two such element is in the flooring interact with each other, are fixed in the vertical direction. The connecting part may be fitted horizontally active locking sections, which, when the connecting parts of two such elements flooring interact with each other, are fixed in the horizontal direction. The connecting portions may be of the type providing for connection of two such elements of flooring with each other on the sides by connecting one of the data elements of the floor covering with the appropriate plug-in part, through rotary or flat move to the outer connecting portion of the other element of the floor covering. Plug-in connecting part may be at least partially beyond the upper edge of this side. In some cases, horizontally acting clamping area in the United state of two such elements flooring or ceramic tiles, placed vertically under a heavy component, at least one of the ceramic tiles. A solid component can be formed decorative element. Vertically active locking parts can, essentially, be in the form of ridge and groove, which in the United state of two such elements flooring or ceramic is of litak, preferably, completely or partially connected vertically beneath the site synthetic support structure or framework, this section of the framework continues horizontally beyond the mentioned solid component or referred to a decorative element, at least one of the above-mentioned ceramic tiles. The formation of the contact surfaces between the ridge and groove. The contact surface can prevent or restrict the vertical movement of the two ceramic tiles or elements of the floor covering in their United state. At least one of the contact surfaces, is placed on the upper side of the ridge, can sleep on the plane (i.e., horizontal plane)crossing a decorative element that forms a solid component. Instead of posting on the plane, the treated surface may also show the point of contact, is placed closest to the solid component and placed in a horizontal plane intersecting a decorative element that forms a solid component.

Other embodiments of the invention is aimed at creating ways of making elements of the floor covering. The method may include creating a semi-finished product comprising at least a support structure and decorative the th element, and perform machining operations, at least on the part of the cutting edge of the semi-finished product. More specifically, machine processing can be performed on parts of the edge of the reference patterns of the semi-finished product for manufacturing at least part of the connecting parts, to be executed on edge.

These and other aspects, features and advantages of the present invention should become clear after reading the following detailed description, given with the accompanying drawings.

The subject invention specifically identified and accurately stated in the claims following the detailed description. The above and other objectives, features and advantages of the invention become apparent from the following detailed description, with appropriate drawings, in which:

Figure 1 schematically shows a ceramic tile according to a variant implementation of the present invention;

Figure 2 schematically shows the cross-section of ceramic tiles according to one variant of implementation of the present invention;

Figure 3 schematically shows two adjacent ceramic tiles according to a variant implementation of the present invention; and

Figure 4 schematically shows the method of manufacturing a ceramic tile according to a variant implementation of the present invention, which is an example.

Detail is the first description explains embodiments of the invention, together with advantages and features, in the form of example, with reference to the drawings.

When used in this document, the term "located" in General, means posted by or about or on. In addition, the term is intended to include in its element, integral or removable connected to another element, as well as items just posted on another item. Additionally, it should be understood that when an element is referred to as "located on" another element, it can be directly on the other element or intervening elements may be present between them. In contrast, when an element is referred to as "located directly on" another element, the intermediate element is missing.

In Figure 1, the ceramic tiles do not require grout according to a variant implementation of the present invention, which example is, in General, shows the position 100. Ceramic tiles 100, which does not require grout, includes a sturdy surface or component 102, located on the base 104. Durable surface 102 can be bonded with the base 104 using a variety of different ways (e.g., glue). Durable surface 102 may be a ceramic composition (burned clay), or may be made of various natural or synthetic materials, including,but without limiting this, granite, quartz, marble, m, plastic, wood, or other suitable material. The base 104 can be constructed of a suitable material, which is chemically stable, resistant to stains, non-porous and being formed with sufficient accuracy in the range. Options for implementation, which examples, the base 104 is made of a polymeric material. Although ceramic tiles 100, which does not require grout, shown is square, it should be clear that the ceramic tiles, eliminating grout alternative forms (e.g., hexagonal, octagonal, triangular, and the like) can also be offered.

Options for implementation, which examples, the base 104 is designed with a size larger than the size of the solid surface 102 so that you can have a solid surface 102 within grooves formed in the base 104. The upper surface of the solid surface 102 and the upper surface of the base 104 may form a continuous surface, if necessary. The base 104 includes a regional section 106 located along the side edges or walls of the bases 104. Regional section 106 additionally includes a first coupling element (not shown) and the second coupling element (not shown), which can be located on opposite or adjacent sides of the ceramic watch, which tion of tile 100, does not require grouting. The first connecting element and second connecting element are designed such that they can be used to connect together one or more adjacent ceramic tiles 100, which does not require grouting.

Ceramic tiles 100, which does not require grout may also include a layer of screed, which can act as a barrier to moisture or soundproofing. In addition, the coupler may perform the function of smoothing the surface. Additionally, the coupler may be a place using glue, or itself be an adhesive for attaching ceramic tiles on the mounting surface such as the floor or wall. The composition of the layer screed may depend on the purpose of the layer of screed. For example, a layer of screed can be multi-layered, composed of several distinct layers, each of which is designed to perform a specific function. The coupler may be attached to the base 104 ceramic tiles 100, which does not require grout using glue or other suitable means.

In the embodiment, which is an example of at least the plot boundary plot 106 may be made of a polymeric material and preferably of a polyurethane material, such as ELASTOCASTr70654 production BASF®. ELASTOCASTr70654 is non-pigmented, hardness 77-79 scale Shore D urethane is the first elastomer, designed for sections of thickness up to 3 inches (76 mm)with internal stickiness. Also proposed the use of another polyurethane material in the regional section 106. The data shown in Table 1, can be useful for the production of material used in the regional section 106 according to a variant embodiment of the invention, which is an example. Data are presented only as examples and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.

Table 1
Example polymer mixture for the main and regional area of ceramic tiles that do not require grout
Mixing ratio
if the index is 105:
100 parts of resin ELASTOCASTr7065R
771 part of the WUC 3192T ISOCYANATE
Specific weight:Resin 1/048f/cc, 8,72lbs/gal (872 kg/m3) at 77°F (25°C)
ISO 1,22g/cc 10,2lbs/gal (872 kg/m3) at 77°F (25°C)
Viscosity:Resin 1220 cps (1220 MPa·s) at 77°F (25°C)
ISO 200cps (200 MPa·s) at 77°F (25°C)
Standard
reaction
ability:
Mixed manually at 86°F (30°C) With index 105
The gelation time: 180-240 seconds
Featured
mode
production:
The temperature of the components: Resin: 75-95°F (24-35°C)
ISO 75-95°F (24-35°C)
Mold temperature of 130-160°F (54-71°C)
Time demoulded 10-20 minutes

Alternatively, it is possible to use other polymers, such as polyamides, vinyl polymers and polyolefins. As for the base 104, the edge section 106 may be made of a material which is chemically resistant, resistant to stains, non-porous, and being formed with sufficient accuracy. In addition, for the regional area 106 may be necessary sealing properties to prevent the penetration of moisture between ceramic tiles and tile and/or property of bonding to minimize prevent movement or shifting of ceramic tiles.

To minimize the use of plastic material in the base 104 and/or the regional section 106, can be used, if necessary, a filler. Specific fillers that can be used include carbonates such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and the like; metal oxides such as aluminum (Al2O3), zirconium (ZrO2), sand or silicon oxide (SiO2), and the like; and similar materials. In addition, pieces or particles of secondary materials, such as ceramic tiles, known the bone-sodium glass, and the like, can also be used as filler. You can also use combinations of fillers.

In addition to simply reducing the manufacturing cost and/or weight of the finished product, the use of filler material in the base 104 and/or the regional area 106 can give many useful properties of ceramic tiles that do not require grout, and the system disclosed in this document. For example, one or more of the following positions: coefficient (α) of thermal expansion, resistance to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, the color and tensile strength bases 104 and/or regional area 106 can perform a specific practical application, or preference by adding the filler in the polymer composition used for manufacturing these components.

In Figures 2-3, shows the connection of the first ceramic tiles 200, which does not require grout, with the second ceramic tiles 300 that does not require grouting. The first connecting member 220 and the second connecting element 340 performs the function of connection of the first ceramic tiles 200, which does not require grout, and the second ceramic tiles 300 that does not require grouting. The first coupling element 220 of the first ceramic tiles 200, which does not require grouting includes the first measurable bending section 222 and the tongue 224. The second is soedinitelny element 340 of the second ceramic tiles 300, does not require grout, includes comb 346 and Cabinet section 348. The groove 224 of the first coupling element 220 is made with the possibility of placing the body section 348 and ridge 346 of the second connecting element 340. When installed in the groove 224 of the first coupling element 220, Cabinet section 348 and groove 346 in contact with the first measurable bending section 222 and groove 224, respectively. In one embodiment of the invention the ridge 346 and the first measurable bending section 222 is configured to bend at least the first measurable bending station during the connection of ceramic tiles 200, which does not require grouting and second ceramic tiles 300 that does not require grouting. In addition, the ridge 346 and the first measurable bending section 222 is designed so that at least the first measurable bending section 222 returns to its normal not curved position after the ceramic tiles 200, which does not require grout, and the second ceramic tiles 300 that does not require grout, incorporate, to prevent the separation of the ceramic tiles. The contact surface between the said comb 346 and the above-mentioned groove 224 is also performed on the upper side of the above-mentioned ridge 346, however, referred to the contact surface is placed in a horizontal plane crossing the decor of the active element, forming referred durable surface 102.

As shown in Figure 3, the first measurable bending section 222 includes an enlarged section at its far end, with an inclined inner surface. In addition, Cabinet section 348 of the second connecting element 340 also includes an inclined surface at its near end. The inclined inner surface of the first measurable bending section 222 is designed to be essentially an additional angle to this vessel section 348 of the second connecting element 340. The first measurable bending section 222 is made with the possibility of sliding contact with the body section 348 during the connection, the ceramic tiles 200, which does not require grout, and the second ceramic tiles 300 that does not require grouting. In addition, the inclined surface of the first measurable bending section 222 and the body section 348 can be used for proper installation of ceramic tile 200, which does not require grout, and the second ceramic tiles 300 that does not require grout at the time of connection. In embodiments of the invention, which examples, the inclined surface of the first measurable bending section 222 and the body section 348 performs the function of retaining the ceramic tiles 200, which does not require grouting and second ceramic tiles 300 does not require grout, installed properly, when ceramic tiles are connected to each other. Mentioned inclined inner surface, as mentioned body section 348, and referred to the enlarged portion 342 form a horizontally active locking sections, which in the United state is placed vertically under a solid surface 102, at least one of the above-mentioned ceramic tiles 200-300.

In embodiments of the invention, which examples, comb 346 is placed at the far end of the second connecting element 340 and runs essentially horizontally and outward from the second ceramic tiles 300 that does not require grouting. The above-mentioned ridge 346 mentioned second connecting element 340 and the above-mentioned groove 224 of the first coupling element 220 are vertically active locking parts and a fully connected vertically beneath the site synthetic support structure or base 104, while the plot basics 104 continues horizontally beyond the mentioned solid surface 102 or referred to a decorative element, at least one of the above-mentioned ceramic tiles 200-300.

In embodiments of the invention, which examples, the first ceramic tiles 200, which does not require grout, can connect with the second Kera is practical tile 300, does not require grout snap or vtalkivaniya second connecting element 340 of the second ceramic tiles 300 that does not require grout, the first coupling element 220. In one embodiment of the invention, the transverse or horizontal element required to connect properly the first ceramic tiles 200 does not require grout, and the second ceramic tiles 300 that does not require grouting. Additionally, during the connection, the ceramic tiles 200, which does not require grout, and the second ceramic tiles 300 that does not require grout, the second connecting member 340 of the second ceramic tiles 300 that does not require grout can be fixed in position after insertion in the groove 224 of the first coupling element 220. In addition, during the first connection, ceramic tile 200, which does not require grout, and the second ceramic tiles 300 that does not require grout, the first curable bending section 222 may be bent to accommodate the insertion of the first body section 348 in the groove 224. After connecting the first ceramic tiles 200, which does not require grout, and the second ceramic tiles 300 that does not require grout, the first measurable bending section 222 returns to its normal not curved position and remains in contact with the body section 348. In embodiments of the invention, the two is relating to examples the first ceramic tiles 200, which does not require grout, and the second ceramic tiles 300 that does not require grout, can be separated from each other turning ressidential first ceramic tiles 200, which does not require grout, from the second ceramic tiles 300 that does not require grout, preferably without damaging the respective ceramic tiles and their connecting elements. Note that in the state of complete connection of the respective ceramic tiles 200-300, do not require grout is possible bump to the outside of the first measurable bending section 222 above the level of the under surface of the aforementioned ceramic tiles 200-300. This dish can create additional sealed connection, especially in the horizontal direction, while securely preventing the separation of the two United ceramic tiles in said horizontal direction.

The Figure 4 shows the marked position 400 of the method of manufacture of ceramic tiles according to a variant implementation of the present invention, which is an example. During the first step of the method 400 creates a durable surface 402 and insert in the form 404. After installing a solid surface 402 in the form 404 around the site a solid surface 402 can be formed the basis of 406. In one embodiment of the invention, the base 406 is plastic is, manufactured by injection molding or reactive injection molding (RIM) around a solid surface 402. The base 406 is formed around the solid surface 402 to create a ceramic tile 408, which does not require grouting. Then ceramic tile 408, which does not require grout, handled a number of tools 410 that is used to create one or more flanges 412 around the edges of ceramic tiles 408. In one embodiment of the invention the tools 410 can perform milling, one or more cutters mounted in different positions and at different angles with respect to ceramic tile 408, which does not require grouting. As shown in Figure 4, the flanges 412, which includes first and second connecting elements may extend along the entire length of one side of the Foundation 406, thereby simplifying the process of milling.

Although the described embodiments of the invention, which examples, it should be clear that the experts in the art, both now and in the future, can perform various improvements and enhancements which fall under the scope the following claims. This invention involves maintaining adequate protection for the first time described inventions.

1. System ceramic tiles that do not require grout containing
many of the ceramic watch is such tiles does not require grout, and each of the ceramic tiles that do not require grout, contains
durable component located on the surface of the substrate; and
the first connecting element located on the side surface of the substrate;
thus, at least a portion of the surface of the Foundation continues beyond the solid component;
the first coupling element and a corresponding second coupling element adjacent ceramic tiles are designed to connect two adjacent ceramic tiles that do not require grout;
in this case, between the first connecting element and the corresponding second connecting element adjacent ceramic tiles formed by the contact surface, which is located on a horizontal plane crossing the solid component, and at least a section of the first coupling element is located at least under section solid component adjacent ceramic tiles, when two adjacent ceramic tiles that do not require grout, connected.

2. The system according to claim 1, in which the first connection element further comprises a first curable bending section and a tongue that is used to connect the first coupling element with the second connecting element.

3. The system according to claim 2, in which the second with denitely element further comprises a comb and Cabinet area, used to connect the first coupling element with the second connecting element.

4. The system according to claim 1, in which the first coupling element, a solid component and a second coupling element ceramic tiles that do not require grout, form an essentially continuous surface.

5. The system according to claim 1, in which at least the area of the bases are made with a texture and color similar to the texture and color of the grout.

6. The system according to claim 1, in which at least the area of the base, at least a section of the first coupling element, at least part of the second connecting element or 2 or more of the above positions contain a filler.

7. The system according to claim 6, in which the filler contains a carbonate, an oxide, a product of secondary processing, or a combination of 2 or more of the above positions.

8. The system according to claim 7, in which the filler contains calcium carbonate (caso3), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), zirconium oxide (ZrO2), sand, silicon dioxide (SiO2), recycled ceramic tile, recycled soda-lime glass, or a combination containing 2 or more of the above positions.

9. The system according to claim 1, in which a solid component is partially encapsulated in the base through technology, reactive injection molding (RIM).

ITm according to claim 1, in which each of the ceramic tiles that do not require grout further comprises laying a layer located on the substrate surface opposite to the solid component.

11. The system according to claim 3, in which the first measurable bending section of the first coupling element is used for connection with a pressurized area of the second coupling element.

12. The system according to claim 1, in which the transverse force is used to connect the first connecting element and second connecting element.

13. Ceramic tiles do not require grout containing
durable component located on the surface of the substrate;
the first connecting element located on the edge of the base;
and the second connecting element located on another edge of the base;
the first coupling element and second coupling element fundamentals continue beyond the side surface of the solid component;
the first coupling element and second coupling element ceramic tiles that do not require grout, used for connection of ceramic tiles that do not require grout with adjoining ceramic tiles that do not require grout;
on the upper side of the second connecting element is formed by a contact surface that is in a horizontal square is skoti, crossing a solid component, and at least the plot basics passes vertically for education, essentially continuous surface with durable component.

14. Ceramic tile in item 13, in which the first coupling element also includes a first measurable bending section and the tongue, while the second coupling element also contains the crest and Cabinet area.

15. Ceramic tile in item 13, in which the first coupling element, a solid component and a second coupling element ceramic tiles that do not require grout, form an essentially continuous surface.

16. Ceramic tile in item 13, in which at least the area of the bases are made with a texture and color similar to the texture and color of the grout.

17. Ceramic tile in item 13, in which at least the area of the base, at least a section of the first coupling element, at least part of the second connecting element or 2 or more of the above positions contain a filler.

18. Ceramic tile through 17, in which the filler contains a carbonate, an oxide, a product of secondary processing, or a combination of 2 or more of the above positions.

19. Ceramic tile in item 13, in which the filler contains calcium carbonate (caso3), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), who led Zirconia (ZrO 2), sand, silicon dioxide (SiO2), recycled ceramic tile, recycled soda-lime glass, or a combination containing 2 or more of the above positions.

20. A method of manufacturing a ceramic tile that does not require grout, which
provide a solid component; perform casting framework to accommodate it, at least plot a solid component; fasten a solid component basis by injection molding basics around at least plot a solid component; and milled, at least the part of the basis for the creation of the first connecting element on the edge of the substrate and a second coupling element at the other edge of the base, between the first connecting element and the corresponding second connecting element adjacent ceramic tiles forms a contact surface that is on a horizontal plane crossing the solid component, and at least a section of the first connecting element is located at least under section solid component adjacent ceramic tiles, when two adjacent ceramic tiles that do not require grout, connected.

21. The method according to claim 20, in which the first connection element further comprises a first curable bending plot and spun and in which the second coupling element further comprises a comb and Cabinet area.

22. The method according to claim 20, in which the mounting and casting are performed simultaneously.

23. The method according to claim 20, in which the casting basics contains casting via reactive injection molding (RIM), at least partially, a solid component encapsulate in a cast and/or secure a solid component to cast basis.

24. System ceramic tiles that do not require grout containing
many ceramic tiles that do not require grout, each ceramic tiles that do not require grout, contains
durable component, located on the base; a first connecting element located at least on one edge of the base, and the first coupling element includes the first measurable bending of land and the groove; and a second connecting element located at least on another edge of the base, and the second coupling element includes a ridge and Cabinet area; however, at least the plot basics continues beyond the solid component; a first coupling element on the first ceramic tiles that do not require grout, and the second coupling element adjacent the second ceramic tiles that do not require grout, made with the possibility of connection of the first and second ceramic tiles that do not require grout; between the first comb ceramic tile, n is requiring grout, and the corresponding groove adjacent the second ceramic tiles that do not require grout, formed by the contact surface, which is located in a horizontal plane crossing the solid component; and at least a section of the first curable bending section of the first coupling element is at least off the field a strong component of the second ceramic tiles that do not require grout, when the first and second ceramic tiles that do not require grout, connected.

25. The system of paragraph 24, in which the first coupling element and second coupling element is arranged to prevent both horizontal and vertical movement of the first and second ceramic tiles that do not require grout, when they are connected.

26. The system of paragraph 24, in which the first coupling element and second coupling element pass through the entire length of the edge Foundation.



 

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11 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to erect structures includes making the main skeleton frame of the structure, a lining net, transparent and opaque mosaics, sealing cords. The net is installed on the frame, ventilation holes are made in the net, as well as openings for windows and doors, cells of the lining net are filled with mosaics, installing transparent mosaics in those areas, where a view is required, and in other areas - a non-transparent one with the selected colour mosaic pattern, sealing cords are installed. The device comprises a net made of a wire rigidly connected in points of contact, and mosaics has locks for fixation on the net and slots for installation of a sealing cord.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify assembly of a structure due to the improved technology of structure elements manufacturing.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: facade system (1) with an air gap for fixation of fine-sized facing boards comprises at least two guides (2), fixed on appropriate brackets installed on a bearing base; at least two horizontal shapes (3) of "П"-shaped section with two supports (4 and 5) to fix the top (4) and bottom (5) of appropriate fine-sized facing boards (6); fine-sized facing boards (6), containing grooves (7 and 8) on their upper and lower ends for installation into appropriate specified shapes (3); at least one tape (10) for its installation into specified grooves of facing boards; and a cement-containing composition (9), having hydraulic insulation properties.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce weight, develop a ventilated gap, reduce cost and increase heat and hydraulic insulation properties of a building with preservation of appearance of brickwork.

14 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: set for dry installation of facing tiles includes at least one substrate, the first side of which contacts with a substance (F), and the second one - at least with one facing tile (R). Strip liners are arranged along the perimeter of facing tiles (R), which fill gaps between neighbouring tiles. Angle elements level liners relative to each other, fixing them along the perimetre of the appropriate facing tile.

EFFECT: reduced labour inputs in installation of facing tiles.

61 cl, 30 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: facade hinged ventilated enclosure of buildings includes facade boards, thermal and hydraulic insulation protection and bearing elements of enclosure pulled without a gap through the thermal and hydraulic insulation protection and made in the form of anchor rods arranged in vertical rows. Anchor rods are screwed through dowels into a building wall and has fixing elements at free ends, providing for installation and fixation of boards. In order to increase reliability of facade boards fixation, to make it possible to line multi-storey buildings and to increase barrier drift by increasing stiffness of bearing elements, anchors of vertical rows are connected to each other by means of traction rods so that traction rods with anchors create vertical power structures. Upper free ends of traction rods are fixed to an enclosed building wall.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase reliability of facade enclosure fixation and to reduce labour intensiveness of performed works.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes arrangement of a panel on a heat insulated surface of a building, its positioning relative the heat insulated surface of the building with the help of the device for positioning suspended heat insulated panels and fixation of the panel on the building surface. The device for positioning comprises a guide part in the form of a bushing with an internal thread, stiffly joined with the panel body, and a support part in the form of a screw with an external thread joined with it by a threaded joint. One end of the screw contacts with the heat insulated surface of the building and engages with it, and the second one has the shape suitable for engagement with a tool for screw rotation. The screw is made with the possibility to arrange an additional fixing element in it to fix a suspended panel to the facade. The panel comprises a process hole, arranged with the possibility of provision of tool insertion for rotation of a screw. After additional positioning of the panel position the cavity between the panel and the heat insulated surface of the building and the process hole in the panel are filled with a foam filler.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to ensure easy and reliable assembly of suspended heat insulation panels on the heat insulated surface with compensation of its irregularities, and also adjustment of position of the installed panels without necessity of their dismantling.

9 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: building units, particularly coverings or linings for buildings with vented facades.

SUBSTANCE: device has support profile connected to wall to be covered, intermediate member cooperating with support profile and bearing member having U-shaped profile. U-shaped profile shoulder is connected to intermediate member surface. Free ends of U-shaped profile have projections extending at 90° from sides thereof. There is a gap for opposite panel edges installation formed between inner surface of each projection and intermediate member surface. Shoulder of U-shaped profile is provided with tong embedded in window formed on intermediate member. Tong is folded relative one side of U-shaped profile for 90° angle. Tong length exceeds that of projection extending in the same direction. Tong has through orifice for securing member insertion. Orifice mates to through orifice made in intermediate member. Shoulder of U-shaped profile has zigzag area formed in tong direction. Each bend of zigzag area has angle of not more than 90°. Distance d between bend apex adjoining side of bearing member opposite to tong and inner tong surface corresponds to intermediate member thickness. Intermediate member window width and length exceed tong thickness and width by 1 - 2 mm.

EFFECT: improved service conditions, simplified mounting, reduced material consumption and increased reliability of panel securing.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: building units, particularly to protect buildings and structures and for wall covering.

SUBSTANCE: covering includes a number of finish tiles secured to surface to be covered by fastening strips having bearing hooks and securing hooks uniformly distributed along strip length. Bearing hooks have fasteners directed towards surface to be covered. Securing hooks include fasteners oriented in opposite direction relative fasteners of bearing hooks. Each tile has two longitudinal grooves formed on two joining surfaces. One groove has cross-section mating to bearing hook fastener, another one is located on opposite joining surface and has cross-section corresponding to securing hook fastener. Fasteners of adjacent securing hooks used for one tile installation are bent out of strip hooks at 30°-40° during their forming. Joining surfaces of each tile are arranged on upper and lower tile ends. Longitudinal groove cooperating with bearing hook fastener is formed on lower tile end. Longitudinal groove of joining surface contacts with securing hook fastener formed on upper tile end. Each pair including bearing and securing hooks is made as a single plate. Method of covering securing involves rigidly connecting fastening strips to surface to be covered, seriously connecting finish tiles to rows of bearing hooks of two adjacent fastening strips; mating joining surfaces of each tile fasteners of bearing and securing hooks, wherein fasteners of adjacent securing hooks used for one tile installation are bent at 30°-40° outwards. Tiles are secured in down-top direction. Each tile is placed on fasteners of lower row of adjacent bearing hooks of two adjacent strips by lower tile end and secured by upper end thereof. Fasteners are bent above row of adjacent fixing hooks in direction towards longitudinal strip axis up to bringing fastener into contact with longitudinal groove of joining surface on upper tile end.

EFFECT: increased accuracy and reliability of covering fixation, improved structural integrity.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly for new building construction and existent ones repair and reconstruction.

SUBSTANCE: facade enclosure is composed of single blocks. Each block comprises frame with fastening members and inner lining. Inner lining and facade facing define sealed cavity with the use of sealing material. The sealed cavity communicates with atmosphere through channel and is provided with at least one heat-insulation screen and at least two heat-insulation layers. The blocks are connected to the building by supports rigidly secured to building frame by the first ends thereof. The second support ends are connected to blocks.

EFFECT: increased air-tightness and reliability of facade enclosure.

21 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: industrial and civil building, particularly to attach facing panels used for wall protection against climatic and atmospheric action and to improve building appearance.

SUBSTANCE: fastening set comprises a number of support units, load-bearing U-shaped profiles, hanging members and fastening members. Each support unit is made as telescopically connected holder and sliding insert with end plate. The holder has support plate formed at free end of holder shoulder and adapted to connect the holder to building wall. The end plate of the sliding insert is adapted for load-bearing profile connection. Each hanging member is provided with mounting orifices to secure thereof to load-bearing profile. At least one orifice grouping for hanging member connection to load-bearing profile and one orifice grouping for load-bearing profile connection to support unit are created on bottom part of load-bearing profile. Each orifice grouping includes at least three elongated orifices. Number of orifices formed in end plate and hanging member is equal to that made in load-bearing U-shaped profile and the orifices have major axes crossing each other during U-shaped profile connection to the support unit and hanging member fastening to load-bearing profile. Distance between orifice groupings is not less than 40 mm. Larger axes of U-shaped member orifices define closed polygon outlining cross-sectional stability area.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity, possibility to use any panel materials for building facing without substantial structure debugging, reduced labor inputs and costs of set unit and facing panel assemblage due to reduced technological operations necessary for facing panels finishing during assemblage, extended range of facing panel fastener adjustment and increased resistance to transversal load action.

14 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: industrial and civil building, particularly to attach facing panels used for wall protection against climatic and atmospheric action and to improve building appearance.

SUBSTANCE: fastening set comprises load-bearing U-shaped profiles, hanging members, fastening members and a number of support units. Each support unit is made as telescopically connected holder and sliding insert with end plate. The holder has support plate formed at free end of holder shoulder and adapted to connect the holder to building wall. The end plate of the sliding insert is adapted for load-bearing profile connection. Each load-bearing member is provided with mounting orifices to secure thereof to load-bearing U-shaped profile. Bottom part of load-bearing U-shaped profile is provided with at least three elongated orifices for load-bearing profile connection to support unit and for hanging member connection to load-bearing U-shaped profile. Number of orifices formed in end plate and hanging member is equal to that made in load-bearing U-shaped profile. Orifices in end plate, hanging member and load-bearing U-shaped profile are similar in shape. Load-bearing U-shaped profile orifices have major axes crossing each other during U-shaped profile connection to the support unit and hanging member fastening to load-bearing U-shaped profile.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity, possibility to use any panel materials for building facing without substantial structure debugging.

5 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly coverings or linings for walls or ceilings.

SUBSTANCE: facing structure comprises parallel carrying profiles each formed of metal or polymeric material by extrusion operation or by sheet material bending. Each profile has hollow post. Orifices to connect carrying profiles to bearing structure are formed in carrying profile base. The carrying profile base also has clamp. Opposite side of the base is defined by partitions having free ends creating gap along carrying profile of the second post. Partitions are located between carrying profile posts and extend transversely to the posts. The partitions are made as posts of carrying profile having H-shaped cross-section and located between the posts. Posts of H-shaped carrying profile are defined by flanges and post of thrust profiles having U-shaped cross sections connecting the flanges. The thrust profiles face cladding panels by opened cavities thereof. Free end of each flange defined by thrust profile cross-section is bent inside the cavity so that acute angle is created in-between. Extensions of longitudinal mounting profile ridges are arranged between trust profile bends. The mounting profile has longitudinal extensions. Mounting profile strip touches free end of each mounting profile flange at bends. Longitudinal extension of face side ribs are directed one towards another. Adjacent cladding panels create cladding panel fixing profile at joint between grooves thereof in which longitudinal mounting profile rib extension are inserted.

EFFECT: simplified facing structure, increased manufacturability, reduced labor inputs for facing structure assemblage, prevention of panels to be connected misalignment.

10 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly coverings or linings for walls or ceilings composed of a number of similar elements.

SUBSTANCE: support panel has rectangular shape and is provided with four fastening members arranged on inner surface thereof. The fastening members are made as mounting hooks formed so that distance between inner panel surface and hook end L is equal to heat insulation layer thickness H. Horizontal and vertical distances between the hooks correspond to distance between ears connected to load-bearing structure of building.

EFFECT: simplified structure and assembly operation.

3 dwg

FIELD: construction engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method and device can be used for external system of heat protection (ventilated facades) and it is intended for forming external wall enclosures with increased thermo-technical characteristics. Method includes preliminary mounting of window modules a t construction site, height of modules doesn't exceed three floors; window modules are built in form of frame carcasses. Window modules are mounted in form of frame carcass of design architectural window opening. Then vertical beacons are mounted later along line of designed joints of wall enclosures, while taking compensation spaces in mentioned joints into account, and along line of side slopes of designed window openings. Openings disposed in relation to vertical beacons are marked and drilled in coverings for making fixing units; fixing units are mounted in pairs and tied together preliminary by threaded pins through openings in support paws of units and openings in coverings. Pullout console are removed outside contours of coverings. Separate posts and window modules are mounted in fixing units due to bringing openings in embrace fork of fixing unit with corresponding oval openings at ends of separate posts and posts of window modules and they are fastened by threaded connection. Compensation spaces are provided at edges of posts at level of coverings b subjecting separate posts and window modules to shift. Plane of façade is graded due to subjecting separate posts and window modules to shift at direction being perpendicular to plane of façade. Designed joints of wall enclosures and side slopes of designed architectural window openings relatively vertical beacons are checked through horizontal shift of separate posts and window modules. Fixing units are coupled finally by means of thread pins through additional fixing openings inside their carrier consoles and through preliminary drilled openings in coverings. Horizontal beacons are installed on line of top and low slides of designed architectural window openings. Reliability of horizontal tying of window openings is inspected due to sifting horizontal cross stapling along posts of window modules. Window units are installed inside designed architectural window openings and inter-level wall enclosures are formed by fixing sandwich-type panels to back sides of separate posts and posts of window modules due to L-shaped fixing elements and self-tapping screws. Then inter-level gaps among wall enclosures are made habitable to winter due to fixing warm-keeping stuff by plate dowels to coverings at side of faced; then members for fixing facing are mounted. Device for realization of the method is also described.

EFFECT: quicker mounting and dismounting of wall enclosures; higher efficiency of warming.

7 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly for tile laying on wall enclosures, namely on vented facades, to create relief architecture compositions (architectural orders) arranged in single plane.

SUBSTANCE: facing structure comprises the first facing tile set including tiles having flat interior surfaces, which define common facade plane. Facing structure includes horizontal profiles fastened to vertical ones and connection members, which are secured to vertical profiles and provide visible or concealed facing tile connection. The connection members fix upper, lower tile parts or two adjacent tiles. Facing structure also comprises support flanges of tile edge fastening members. Tile edge fastening members adapted for concealed tile fastening are to be inserted in corresponding grooves made in tile edges. The facing structure additionally has arch module projecting out of common building facade plane. The arch module is preliminarily assembled at building site and retained over arch formed in building wall by means of anchoring bolts passing through orifices of the supports. The facing structure also has the second tile set including tiles projecting out of common facade plane and having different cross-sections. Edges of the second tiles are supported by support flanges, which provide visible or concealed tile connection and have similar grooves adapted to receive wings of fastening members for concealed tile fastening. Arch module including facing tiles, connection members for visible or concealed tile connection, which secure lower tile parts and two adjacent tiles, and support flanges for tile edge fixation. The support flanges, which provide concealed tile fastening pass in corresponding grooves made in tile edges. The arch module is made as frame including holders with box-like cross-sections and connected one with another by means of stiffening components. The holders have support for holder connection to wall. At least two members to secure lower tile parts and at least one member to retain two adjacent tiles are fastened to facial holder sides and define pockets for radially formed tiles receiving made in exterior frame part between the holders. Members for lower tile part fixation extend along longitudinal holder axes. Members for simultaneous fastening of two adjacent tiles are transversal to longitudinal holder axes.

EFFECT: possibility to change appearance of buildings including ones having arch openings.

5 cl, 21 dwg

FIELD: construction, particularly coverings or linings, for instance, for walls or ceilings composed of a number of similar elements.

SUBSTANCE: composite bracket comprises holder connected to building wall and provided with longitudinal guiders. The holder is adapted to fix reinforcing member from building wall side. The reinforcing member is made as box with flanges having rounded ends and extending vertically upwards and downwards with respect to the holder. Oval orifices are made in upper and lower parts of box wall. Oval orifices have major axes extending in horizontal plane. Box is provided with sub-stamping located in area of box joining with holder. The sub-stamping extends for holder end wall thickness and provides close fitting of outer box wall and outer holder end surface to building wall.

EFFECT: increased strength, reliability, air-tightness and rigidity of hanged panel connection to building wall.

4 dwg

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