Leading edge flap and method of its flowing

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: aircraft leading edge flap coupled with main wing and including streamlined surface comprising tail lower edge. Part of said rail lower edge is shaped with even wavy line or wavy line with angular points along wing span. Proposed method consists in using proposed aircraft leading edge flap.

EFFECT: lower aerodynamic noise in takeoff and landing.

4 cl, 7 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of aviation, in particular to reduce the aerodynamic noise of the plane formed by the wrapping surface of the wing with rejected slat and flap on the modes of approach and landing.

Recent advances in the creation of the modern turbojet engines with high bypass ratio resulted in a significant reduction of the noise of the power plant. As shown by flight experiments conducted by Boeing and Airbus, the noise power plants modern aircraft ceases to be dominant among the other sources of noise during approach of the aircraft on landing when the engines are idling, and there is the problem of noise generated by the flow produced chassis and rejected wing high-lift devices (slats, flaps and spoilers). Thus, the development of advanced civil aircraft with superior acoustic characteristics that would satisfy the increasingly stringent standards of the ICAO noise, requires a significant reduction of noise around the airframe components. In today's modern aircraft generally do not apply any measures to reduce this source of noise. Therefore, increased attention has recently been paid to methods that reduce the aerodynamic noise of different cell battery (included) is of the airframe. The present invention relates to noise reduction, occurs when the flow around the flow of air wing with released items mechanization: slat and flap.

There is a method of reducing aerodynamic noise generated when the flow around the rear edge of the blade, whereby the reduction of aerodynamic noise is achieved by changing the surface shape of the rear edge of the blade (Patent DE 102006043462, 27.03.2008,, VS 21/02). According to the method of the level of noise generated by the stream flow over the rear edge of the blade, reduce by creating a corrugated surface near the rear edge, initially having a flat shape. This noise reduction is achieved through the formation of longitudinal vortices and change in the structure of turbulence in the flow, flowing formed area. However, this method is not applicable to the slat, as on the mode of cruising flight, when the slat is in the retracted position, it is impossible to ensure a snug fit corrugated surface of the slat 1 to the flat surface of the main wing element 2, which will inevitably lead to the deterioration of the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing.

Known additional structural elements of the slat (US Patents 2010084508 publ. 2010, IPC VS 9/24, US 6457680, publ. 2002, IPC VS 9/16), designed to reduce noise when the flow in the gap between the pre is grilcom and nose of the main wing. The main shortcoming of the above-mentioned method, and elements of the slat is the use of additional components, deflecting the stream that is associated with weight gain devices, the complexity of its design, operation and maintenance and, as a consequence, leads to an increase in its cost and operating costs.

Known Chevron exhaust nozzle of a gas turbine engine (Patent RF №2310766, 20.11.2007,) which makes use of chevrons to create longitudinal vortices formed due to the appearance of the bevel two threads: the main thread of gas flowing from the nozzle, and the flow of air flowing along the outer side of the nozzle. According to this patent, the formation of longitudinal vortices in the jet leads to noise reduction by 1.2 dB. This method cannot be used to reduce noise slat, since around the slat no two miscible gas streams and the presence of chevrons does not lead to the formation of longitudinal vortices.

There is a method of reducing noise slat (RF Patent No. 22966695, 22.11.2002,, VS 9/24), relatively easy to implement and effective from the point of view of noise reduction, which was to use special brushes placed on the bottom edge of the slat. This patent is selected as a prototype. Was the effect of noise reduction. However, this method leads to an unacceptably high reduces the structure of the lift coefficient and complexity to the operation of the aircraft, during which it is necessary to replace the wear out or jammed brush.

The objective of the invention is to provide an effective reduction of the level of aerodynamic noise generated by flow air flow wing passenger aircraft with released items mechanization (slat and flap) at planting without compromising the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing.

The technical result consists in reducing aerodynamic noise around the wing, without a significant loss of lifting force.

The technical result is achieved in that the slat wing of the plane containing the aerodynamically streamlined surface, including the back bottom edge, movably connected to the main wing, and at least part of the rear lower edge of the slat is made in the form of a smooth wavy lines or wavy lines with angular points along the span of the wing.

The technical result is also achieved by the fact that the slat wing aircraft mentioned edge has the shape of a sine wave.

The technical result is also achieved by the fact that the slat wing aircraft mentioned flange made in the form of plates.

The technical result is also achieved by the fact that in the method of wrapping slat wing aircraft, which consists in changing the nature of the flow of the rear lower is her edge slat, at least part of the rear lower edge of the slat is made in the form of a smooth wavy lines or wavy lines with angular points along the span of the wing.

Figure 1. The cross-section of the wing with the rejected elements of mechanization.

Figure 2. Flow space between the slat and the main wing element.

Figure 3. Mechanisms vukobratovi in the area of flow between the slat and the main wing.

Figure 4. The slat with herringbone edge of a triangular shape.

Figure 5. Various forms of chevrons lower edge of the slat.

Figa. The slat with a mounting seat for herringbone lining.

Figb. Herringbone lining.

7. The spectra of the noise model of the wing with conventional and modified slats.

Figure 1 shows a cross-section of the wing with the rejected elements of mechanization, consisting of a slat 1, the main wing 2, the flap 3.

The task of reducing the aerodynamic noise generated when the flow in the gap (2) between the slat 1 and the fore part of the wing 2, no significant reduction of the lift coefficient decides to offer the slat and method of wrapping.

As a result of studies concerning the slat noise, managed to identify the main mechanisms of its generation. They are schematically presented in figure 3. Among the known mechanisms of occurrence of noise can enumerate the trail is the following: secondary gap 4, the vortex in the cavity 5, the unsteady force due to shock vortexes 6, unsteady connection thread 7, the turbulence of the boundary layer 8, the vanishing vortex sheet 9, the effect of the piston 10, sharp deformation of coherent structures secondary flow 11, the merging of vortices 12, the noise of the cavity 13, the scattering at the edge 14.

Slat wing contains aerodynamically streamlined surface, which can be divided into upper and lower, front and rear edges, and movably connected to the main wing. Modification of the slat is to change the shape of the lower edge on the Chevron (notched) (figure 4). Under Chevron shape (Chevron) refers to the wavy line in the plane of the edge, which may be as corner points and smooth shape.

Chevron may have any shape with angular points, as triangular, rectangular or another, and smooth, for example, in the form of a sine wave (figa). In addition, Chevron may have a nonuniform step S along the span slat and non-uniform height H (figb).

The slat may have a seat for the cover plate (figa)and the bottom edge of the slat may be made as separate herringbone lining, which is then attached to the slat (figb).

Experimental studies in acoustic anechoic chamber on the model wing mechanization has shown that the way red eye reduction is of noise, based on the change in geometry of the lower edge of the slat, a reduction of narrowband noise slat to 10 dB, and herringbone lower edge of the slat leads to a significant reduction of noise. In figure 7a, 7b, 7C, 7G provides noise spectra, respectively, for observation angles 70, 90, 110, 130 degrees in the lower hemisphere under the wing. It is the sound propagation in this direction is determined by the noise of aircraft on the ground, including when the certification tests of the noise. The upper curve corresponds to the rectilinear edge of the slat, the two lower curves correspond to the V-shaped edges with different step and the height of the Chevron. The effect of reducing noise without significantly reducing the lifting force has a place for different geometrical parameters of Chevron, as it follows from Fig.7.

The proposed method reduce the aerodynamic noise of the plane is to change the nature of the flow around the lower edge of the slat along the span of the wing due to the formation of phase delay in the descent of the vortices with the lower edge of the slat and violations of the homogeneity of the source of the noise emitted when the flow of air between the slat 1 and the fore part of the main wing 2, by bending the lower edge of the slat along the wing span.

Turbulence, more precisely, nonstationarity, is formed on the shift (in the limit - tangentia enom break), descending from the lower edge. She further developed, enhanced and falls on the flight part of the system. As a result of interaction with a solid surface is generated sound. The main idea of the method is to reduce the scale of the correlation of the sound source (decorrelation) in the direction of the wing span and, consequently, in reducing the radiated sound energy.

The decorrelation due to the curvature of the edges of the slat is as follows. After stall with edges occur eddies that propagate downstream with a speed of order α~0,6÷0,8V, where V is the velocity of flow to the edges. The propagation velocity of the vortices depends on the nature of the flow in the gap. Because of this, vortices, breaking from different parts of the curved edges, at the approach to the surface of the wing have different amplitudes and, most importantly, different phases. Thus, instead of a uniform scale correlated source of the sound produced many uncorrelated sources, which together emit less sound.

For the bending edge is formed at least on part of the surface of the slat, the lower edge of the V-shape (figure 4).

This method has the development, allowing to optimize its use in private use cases.

We offer slat and method of wrapping provide an effective reduction in the level of what I aerodynamic noise, created by the flow when the flow in the gap between the slat and the main wing, without a significant reduction in the lifting force.

1. Slat wing aircraft, movably connected to the main wing and containing aerodynamically streamlined surface, including the back bottom edge, wherein at least part of the rear lower edge of the slat is made in the form of a smooth wavy lines or wavy lines with angular points along the span of the wing.

2. Slat wing aircraft according to claim 1, characterized in that the edge has the shape of a sine wave.

3. Slat wing aircraft according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the edge is made in the form of plates.

4. The method of wrapping slat wing aircraft, consisting in changing the character of the flow around the rear lower edge of the slat, wherein at least part of the rear lower edge of the slat is made in the form of a smooth wavy lines or wavy lines with angular points along the span of the wing.



 

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