Leading edge flap and method of its flowing
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: aircraft leading edge flap coupled with main wing and including streamlined surface comprising tail lower edge. Part of said rail lower edge is shaped with even wavy line or wavy line with angular points along wing span. Proposed method consists in using proposed aircraft leading edge flap.
EFFECT: lower aerodynamic noise in takeoff and landing.
4 cl, 7 dwg
The invention relates to the field of aviation, in particular to reduce the aerodynamic noise of the plane formed by the wrapping surface of the wing with rejected slat and flap on the modes of approach and landing.
Recent advances in the creation of the modern turbojet engines with high bypass ratio resulted in a significant reduction of the noise of the power plant. As shown by flight experiments conducted by Boeing and Airbus, the noise power plants modern aircraft ceases to be dominant among the other sources of noise during approach of the aircraft on landing when the engines are idling, and there is the problem of noise generated by the flow produced chassis and rejected wing high-lift devices (slats, flaps and spoilers). Thus, the development of advanced civil aircraft with superior acoustic characteristics that would satisfy the increasingly stringent standards of the ICAO noise, requires a significant reduction of noise around the airframe components. In today's modern aircraft generally do not apply any measures to reduce this source of noise. Therefore, increased attention has recently been paid to methods that reduce the aerodynamic noise of different cell battery (included) is of the airframe. The present invention relates to noise reduction, occurs when the flow around the flow of air wing with released items mechanization: slat and flap.
There is a method of reducing aerodynamic noise generated when the flow around the rear edge of the blade, whereby the reduction of aerodynamic noise is achieved by changing the surface shape of the rear edge of the blade (Patent DE 102006043462, 27.03.2008,, VS 21/02). According to the method of the level of noise generated by the stream flow over the rear edge of the blade, reduce by creating a corrugated surface near the rear edge, initially having a flat shape. This noise reduction is achieved through the formation of longitudinal vortices and change in the structure of turbulence in the flow, flowing formed area. However, this method is not applicable to the slat, as on the mode of cruising flight, when the slat is in the retracted position, it is impossible to ensure a snug fit corrugated surface of the slat 1 to the flat surface of the main wing element 2, which will inevitably lead to the deterioration of the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing.
Known additional structural elements of the slat (US Patents 2010084508 publ. 2010, IPC VS 9/24, US 6457680, publ. 2002, IPC VS 9/16), designed to reduce noise when the flow in the gap between the pre is grilcom and nose of the main wing. The main shortcoming of the above-mentioned method, and elements of the slat is the use of additional components, deflecting the stream that is associated with weight gain devices, the complexity of its design, operation and maintenance and, as a consequence, leads to an increase in its cost and operating costs.
Known Chevron exhaust nozzle of a gas turbine engine (Patent RF №2310766, 20.11.2007,) which makes use of chevrons to create longitudinal vortices formed due to the appearance of the bevel two threads: the main thread of gas flowing from the nozzle, and the flow of air flowing along the outer side of the nozzle. According to this patent, the formation of longitudinal vortices in the jet leads to noise reduction by 1.2 dB. This method cannot be used to reduce noise slat, since around the slat no two miscible gas streams and the presence of chevrons does not lead to the formation of longitudinal vortices.
There is a method of reducing noise slat (RF Patent No. 22966695, 22.11.2002,, VS 9/24), relatively easy to implement and effective from the point of view of noise reduction, which was to use special brushes placed on the bottom edge of the slat. This patent is selected as a prototype. Was the effect of noise reduction. However, this method leads to an unacceptably high reduces the structure of the lift coefficient and complexity to the operation of the aircraft, during which it is necessary to replace the wear out or jammed brush.
The objective of the invention is to provide an effective reduction of the level of aerodynamic noise generated by flow air flow wing passenger aircraft with released items mechanization (slat and flap) at planting without compromising the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing.
The technical result consists in reducing aerodynamic noise around the wing, without a significant loss of lifting force.
The technical result is achieved in that the slat wing of the plane containing the aerodynamically streamlined surface, including the back bottom edge, movably connected to the main wing, and at least part of the rear lower edge of the slat is made in the form of a smooth wavy lines or wavy lines with angular points along the span of the wing.
The technical result is also achieved by the fact that the slat wing aircraft mentioned edge has the shape of a sine wave.
The technical result is also achieved by the fact that the slat wing aircraft mentioned flange made in the form of plates.
The technical result is also achieved by the fact that in the method of wrapping slat wing aircraft, which consists in changing the nature of the flow of the rear lower is her edge slat, at least part of the rear lower edge of the slat is made in the form of a smooth wavy lines or wavy lines with angular points along the span of the wing.
Figure 1. The cross-section of the wing with the rejected elements of mechanization.
Figure 2. Flow space between the slat and the main wing element.
Figure 3. Mechanisms vukobratovi in the area of flow between the slat and the main wing.
Figure 4. The slat with herringbone edge of a triangular shape.
Figure 5. Various forms of chevrons lower edge of the slat.
Figa. The slat with a mounting seat for herringbone lining.
Figb. Herringbone lining.
7. The spectra of the noise model of the wing with conventional and modified slats.
Figure 1 shows a cross-section of the wing with the rejected elements of mechanization, consisting of a slat 1, the main wing 2, the flap 3.
The task of reducing the aerodynamic noise generated when the flow in the gap (2) between the slat 1 and the fore part of the wing 2, no significant reduction of the lift coefficient decides to offer the slat and method of wrapping.
As a result of studies concerning the slat noise, managed to identify the main mechanisms of its generation. They are schematically presented in figure 3. Among the known mechanisms of occurrence of noise can enumerate the trail is the following: secondary gap 4, the vortex in the cavity 5, the unsteady force due to shock vortexes 6, unsteady connection thread 7, the turbulence of the boundary layer 8, the vanishing vortex sheet 9, the effect of the piston 10, sharp deformation of coherent structures secondary flow 11, the merging of vortices 12, the noise of the cavity 13, the scattering at the edge 14.
Slat wing contains aerodynamically streamlined surface, which can be divided into upper and lower, front and rear edges, and movably connected to the main wing. Modification of the slat is to change the shape of the lower edge on the Chevron (notched) (figure 4). Under Chevron shape (Chevron) refers to the wavy line in the plane of the edge, which may be as corner points and smooth shape.
Chevron may have any shape with angular points, as triangular, rectangular or another, and smooth, for example, in the form of a sine wave (figa). In addition, Chevron may have a nonuniform step S along the span slat and non-uniform height H (figb).
The slat may have a seat for the cover plate (figa)and the bottom edge of the slat may be made as separate herringbone lining, which is then attached to the slat (figb).
Experimental studies in acoustic anechoic chamber on the model wing mechanization has shown that the way red eye reduction is of noise, based on the change in geometry of the lower edge of the slat, a reduction of narrowband noise slat to 10 dB, and herringbone lower edge of the slat leads to a significant reduction of noise. In figure 7a, 7b, 7C, 7G provides noise spectra, respectively, for observation angles 70, 90, 110, 130 degrees in the lower hemisphere under the wing. It is the sound propagation in this direction is determined by the noise of aircraft on the ground, including when the certification tests of the noise. The upper curve corresponds to the rectilinear edge of the slat, the two lower curves correspond to the V-shaped edges with different step and the height of the Chevron. The effect of reducing noise without significantly reducing the lifting force has a place for different geometrical parameters of Chevron, as it follows from Fig.7.
The proposed method reduce the aerodynamic noise of the plane is to change the nature of the flow around the lower edge of the slat along the span of the wing due to the formation of phase delay in the descent of the vortices with the lower edge of the slat and violations of the homogeneity of the source of the noise emitted when the flow of air between the slat 1 and the fore part of the main wing 2, by bending the lower edge of the slat along the wing span.
Turbulence, more precisely, nonstationarity, is formed on the shift (in the limit - tangentia enom break), descending from the lower edge. She further developed, enhanced and falls on the flight part of the system. As a result of interaction with a solid surface is generated sound. The main idea of the method is to reduce the scale of the correlation of the sound source (decorrelation) in the direction of the wing span and, consequently, in reducing the radiated sound energy.
The decorrelation due to the curvature of the edges of the slat is as follows. After stall with edges occur eddies that propagate downstream with a speed of order α~0,6÷0,8V, where V is the velocity of flow to the edges. The propagation velocity of the vortices depends on the nature of the flow in the gap. Because of this, vortices, breaking from different parts of the curved edges, at the approach to the surface of the wing have different amplitudes and, most importantly, different phases. Thus, instead of a uniform scale correlated source of the sound produced many uncorrelated sources, which together emit less sound.
For the bending edge is formed at least on part of the surface of the slat, the lower edge of the V-shape (figure 4).
This method has the development, allowing to optimize its use in private use cases.
We offer slat and method of wrapping provide an effective reduction in the level of what I aerodynamic noise, created by the flow when the flow in the gap between the slat and the main wing, without a significant reduction in the lifting force.
1. Slat wing aircraft, movably connected to the main wing and containing aerodynamically streamlined surface, including the back bottom edge, wherein at least part of the rear lower edge of the slat is made in the form of a smooth wavy lines or wavy lines with angular points along the span of the wing.
2. Slat wing aircraft according to claim 1, characterized in that the edge has the shape of a sine wave.
3. Slat wing aircraft according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the edge is made in the form of plates.
4. The method of wrapping slat wing aircraft, consisting in changing the character of the flow around the rear lower edge of the slat, wherein at least part of the rear lower edge of the slat is made in the form of a smooth wavy lines or wavy lines with angular points along the span of the wing.
SUBSTANCE: system providing high lift for aircraft with main wing and wing slat contains device for positioning wing slat in various states. Between wing slat rear side (1b) facing main wing and main wing (2), slot (5) forms the size of which results from repositionable state of wing slat (1) relative to main wing (2). Inside the wing slat, air duct (11) with air duct inlet (20) and one air duct outlet. Air duct inlet (20) is located on rear side (1b) facing the main wing to act on air flow through slots (5).
EFFECT: invention is focused on flow noise attenuation.
25 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Proposed device comprises extending rail mounted in guides secured at wing frame. Said extending rail is secured to slat by front and rear ear-yoke hinges. Rear hinge is composed of clevis with one end secured to slat center by said hinge and second end hinged to said extending rail by bal joint. Joint between clevis and extending rail allows adjusting the distance between rail and slat to provide negotiation between slat and wing theoretical contour. Front hinge is arranged at slat front and rail front and composed of ear-yoke hinge with ball joint. Front hinge ear is provided with bush fitted therein and provided with limit collars to interact with front hinge ball joint outer ring.
EFFECT: perfected performances, decreased strain at slat.
3 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering, particularly, to aircraft aerofoil. Proposed drive system comprises tie rod 4 coupled with wing at first pivot point 3 and lift augmenter 1 at second pivot point 7, first drive mechanism 5 to drive augmenter 1 around first pivot point 3 and second drive mechanism to turn augmenter 1 about second pivot point 7. Second drive mechanism 8 may be actuated irrespective of said first drive mechanism to create sealing force between augmenter 1 and aircraft wing leading edge 2. Method of actuating lift augmenter 1 at wing leading edge 2 using aforesaid system comprises turning augmenter 1 about pivot point 3 by drive mechanism 5 and downward about leading edge from retracted position into mid position, turning said element 1 around point 7 by second drive mechanism 8 to displace augmenter 1 into extended position. Note here that second drive 8 creates sealing force in retracted and mid positions of element.
EFFECT: complex displacement of element 1.
18 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system providing high lift at aircraft airfoil comprises main wing (H) which has curved leading-edge (N) of main wing and wing slat (V) which is positioned on the main wing (H) with possibility to be taken back using system of levers (a, b, c) so that wing slat is able to move from retracted position (I) with elongation of airfoil towards chord and increase in its curvature and opening gap (g) which directs energy airflow from under wing slat (V) to top side of main wing (H) right up to fully deployed position (III). System of levers (a, b, c) is configured as four-link mechanism. Length and mutual layout of levers (a, b, c) and curvature of fore end (N) of main wing are mutually matched so that during the first phase of releasing movement from retracted position (I) to intermediate position (II) the rear edge (K) of wing slat (V) essentially blocks gap (g) between wing slat (V) and the main wing (H). During the next phase of releasing movement, following the intermediate position (II), the rear edge (K) of wing slat opens gap (g) more and more.
EFFECT: invention is focused on raising lifting force.
15 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed device is movably articulated to may the wing and is extended from it. Inner section of slat has concave bend of profile aligned with outer contour of main wing; this bend is made in form of rounded-off adapter lengthwise the slat. Lower edge of slat is provided with separating surface at inlet of concave bend of profile and/or upper edge of slat is provided with separating surface at inlet of concave bend of profile; this separating surface consists of several brush hairs distributed along length of slat and arranged in one row.
EFFECT: reduction of aerodynamic noise on passenger aircraft slats which is induced during takeoff and landing of aircraft by flow of air through slat profile.
8 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: aircraft comprises wing 5 with positive dihedral angle, edge and wing edge device 7 secured in the area of edge. Wing edge device extends, generally, downward and has area 7d beveled at more than 180°C. Area 7d serves to create lift in flight. Said area 7d beveled at more than 180°C may be arranged at distal end 11 of wing edge device 7. Part of wing edge device located in proximal end has no area beveled at more than 180°C. Wing edge may be swept and elastically strained in flight.
EFFECT: higher operating performances.
15 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: aircraft comprises fuselage, two wings arranged in symmetry on fuselage sides, and jet engine nacelle secured by means of pylon 18 to every wing. Every said pylon is provided with shaped bearing housing 20, 30 arranged to create resultant propulsion by oblique airflow. Housing 20, 20 extends from end 20a, 30a secured on jet engine pylon 18 toward elongation inclined for 30° with respect to wide wing top surface.
EFFECT: lower drag.
8 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Proposed flap 11 incorporates stall affecting device arranged on flap side edge with wing sections 13 extending along wing span to form air passages for incoming air to pass there through. High-efficiency flap comprises channel extending onto flap side edge through which compressed air may be fed into noise-generating vortex. Stall affecting device comprises compressed air feed device, side edge outlet channel and jointing element.
EFFECT: reduced noise.
18 cl, 5 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: aircraft drag flap arranged either atop wing or on fuselage is fitted at angle to airflow flowing there over. Flap 20 comprises free edge 21 arranged at angle is shifted from aircraft outer skin create wing-tip vortex in said airflow. Said free edge 21 comprises some separate sections 22 with their edges dividing edge vortex into some partial vortices and are formed with the help of recesses on free edge 41 of drag flap 40 that do not penetrate thought flap.
EFFECT: reduced noise.
6 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft 10 comprises fuselage 12, two wings 14, 16 whereto engine nacelles are attached, each being secured by central fairing 18, 20 to fuselage on its both sides. Said central fairing comprises two opposed surfaces jointed to wing upper and lower surfaces arranged along fuselage. One of said surfaces has local deformation of shape geometry to create aero dynamical lateral disturbances of airflow from central fairing to wing to control airflow over wing surface.
EFFECT: perfected aircraft design.
14 cl, 21 dwg
SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to aircraft engineering. Proposed system comprises a device secured to aircraft tail part to periodically rotating about the axis located at, approximately, right angle to flight direction. Said device is arranged on wing upper surface 4 and comprises stationary element 6 and first 7, 9 and second 8, 10 wing elements pivoted behind said stationary element 6 and can be spaced apart along flight direction. Method is distinguished by using aforesaid device that prevents swirling of airflow nearby outer wing in swinging about axis of rotation.
EFFECT: reduced turbulence in aircraft wake.
5 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft wing tip comprises generator of vortex with direction of rotation originating at wing and casing. Vortex generator represents nacelle with inlet and outlet swirlers. Casing represents a thin-wall structure with constant-radius inner surface extending along wing end chord with unclosed cross section that forms lengthwise cutout. Swirler is furnished with diffuser. Said casing lengthwise cutout is made so that cutout top edge forms central angle on casing axis, while its bottom edge forms that on casing axis. Inlet device can have confuser deflected from wing chords lane downward, while casing tail end is inclined upward.
EFFECT: higher aerodynamics and ring load bearing properties.
10 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft wing tip comprises channel with inlet and outlet holes. Inlet hole represents an air intake arranged on lower front surface and communicated with conical channel with end cross section with diametre of 0.05 to 0.2 of the length of chord of wing tip section and is located at the distance of 0 to 0.2 of chord length from rear edge along flow direction. Channel axis is located on 0 to 0.2 of chord length above the plane of chords. Channel midsection accommodates disk-like rotary flap with its axis perpendicular to channel axis. Flap can be rotated by airflow.
EFFECT: higher lift and reduced drag.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device to control vortex street comprises control device (8) mounted on clamping element (11) of elongated element (5) and on control surface (4) so that its base (12) comes in contact with front edge (6) of its aforesaid control surface. Said control device (8) features triangular shape in the plane perpendicular to its lengthwise axis and having two adjacent sides forming lateral surfaces interconnected by rounded edge. Aircraft incorporates vortex street control device.
EFFECT: reduced drag.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: mechanics; aircraft construction.
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to aeromechanics, mainly to friction reduction method for axisymmetric body and related devices. Toroidal vortex with controlled parametres is generated in a boundary layer of axisymmetric body by periodic air flow blowing/suction through the circular slot available in axisymmetic body wall. The related device includes periodic vibrations source coupled with flow running over axisymmetric flow. The above mentioned circular slot in the wall of axisymmetric body is made so that it is directed to the longitudinal axis x at a negative angle. The longitudinal axis x is directed along generatix of axisymmetric body, wherethrough air is blown/drawn off at controlled amplitude and frequency by means of periodic vibrations source, for example dynamic loud-speaker.
EFFECT: reduced effect of superficial friction component in axisymmetric body by controlling vortex by frequency and intensity.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: device comprises vortex pipe with a scroll for supplying and accelerating air and cold and hot end sections. The cold end section of the vortex pipe is provided with a ring plate. The diameter of the inner opening in the plate should be chosen to allow it to be fit on the vortex pipe with interference for increasing the area of the face of the cold section. The vortex pipe can be mounted in the guiding member which defines the inclination of the vector of the propulsion to the horizon. The hot section of the vortex pipe should be provided with a valve.
EFFECT: improved design.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: reduction of vortices behind aircraft.
SUBSTANCE: aircraft has starboard and port wings for forming lifting force; wings are provided with landing flaps for forming considerable lifting force. Vortex generator for forming controllable disturbance vortex is made in form of additional flap whose base is located in area of 10-% semispan to the right and to the left from external end of landing flap and beginning at 60% of depth of lifting wing profile. During flight, additional flap is kept in extended position; it may be retracted in wing when not in use. Controllable vortex is formed with this device.
EFFECT: reduction of vortices behind aircraft at landing approach.
15 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: rocketry and space engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device has nose section 1 and central and additional aerodynamic needles 3 made in form of thin cylindrical rods which are stowed in special passages made in nose section of flying vehicle. One passage is located along axis of symmetry and other passages are located at some distance from axis of symmetry smoothly over circumference whose center lies at axis of symmetry. Each passage is provided with mechanism for delivery of aerodynamic needles towards incoming flow; provision is made for extension of each needle through definite length for forming special configuration of set of needles which is necessary for their joint operation in airflow control.
EFFECT: possibility of obtaining constant coordinate of center of pressure of hypersonic flying vehicle; reduced force of drag; possibility of forming control forces and moments for manoeuvring in atmosphere.
FIELD: devices for creation of aero- or hydrodynamic forces for transport facilities with the aid of rotating members.
SUBSTANCE: proposed engine has housing and two cones with surfaces rotating in opposite directions. Rotating surfaces are provided with cells in form of tooth spaces and teeth. Teeth on surface of front cone are bent in way of flow around the cell and teeth on surface of rear cone are bent towards incoming flow which is circular in shape and is caused by rotation of surfaces of cones. Surface of each tooth space has form of question-mark in section. As a result, reduced pressure is built-up in cells of rotating surface of front cone and increased pressure is built-up in cells of rotating surface of rear cone, thus creating the thrust along axis of rotation of cones.
EFFECT: extended field of application of thrust creating devices for various vehicles running in air and water media.
FIELD: aeronautical engineering; rocketry and space engineering; technology of control of flow around flying vehicle.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in delivery of gas to incoming flow in front of nose section of flying vehicle. Density of this gas is lesser than density of medium; gas is fed to points of aerodynamic drag of flying vehicle where porous coat is formed; pores of this coat are open to surface; scale of these pores is lesser than that of vortex generation. Gas is delivered at periodicity of generation of turbulent vortices to turbulence generation zone at phase shifted by 45-135 degrees. In realization of this method coat may be formed at points where shock wave is formed. It is good practice to feed gas to porous coat from reservoir containing sorbent separating gas till gas desorption temperature has been attained. Gas is mainly fed to upper edge of wing. It is good practice to make coats from catalytically active heat-accumulating material and to realize endothermic process during passage of gas through it. Front surfaces of wings and nose sections of flying vehicles may be covered with coats of low electron emission energy from the following series: barium oxide, titanium carbide, zinc oxide, copper oxide rare-earth metal oxide and n-semiconductors.
EFFECT: possibility of changing aerodynamic properties in turbulence generation zone.
FIELD: aerodynamics; designing of flying vehicles, organization of aircraft motion in water.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in forming regular structures for finding the conditions when axis of natural vortices is directed not in way of flow but at any angle required by conditions of flow. Infinite sequence of artificial vortices is similar to roller bearing located between body and medium. Proposed method provides for creating the lifting force for flying vehicle on base of proposed model of flowing around solid bodies by continuous media. Proposed method consists in forming the determined vortices on upper surface of wing which are directed to overwing flap where they are broken. Vortices rolling over upper surface of wing without sliding increase in size. Their destruction within overwing flap results in increase of pressure, thus creating lifting force for aircraft.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
8 cl, 8 dwg