Delta wing for supersonic aircraft
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: delta wing has top and central chord arranged in wing mirror plane, straight leading edges extending from said top, and uneven mid surface. Said mid surface consists of two elements adjoining said mirror plane and feature elliptically taper shape bulged leeward and two elements adjoining leading edge and feature flat shape and are smoothly conjugated with elliptically taper elements along arms extending from wing top. Mid surface is expressed by mathematical relationship.
EFFECT: lower drag in supersonic flight.
The invention relates to the field of aircraft, and more particularly to a bearing elements supersonic aircraft, and can be used mainly for the wings of a triangular shape when in the plan.
One of the main ways to increase performance is to reduce the aerodynamic resistance of the aircraft as a whole and its wing in particular. In the range of supersonic flight speeds distinguish the following main components of resistance: the resistance of surface friction associated with the thickness of the wave resistance and is caused by creating a lifting force resistance, including wave and vortical components (Kucheman D., the Aerodynamic design of aircraft. Moscow. The engineering. 1983). The frictional resistance largely depends on the area washed by the surface of the aircraft. One of the ways to reduce surface friction is to increase the surface area of the wing, which is implemented laminar boundary layer (Laminar flow wing optimized for supersonic cruise aircraft. Patent US 0095137 A1, IPC VS 3/10, 2011 Wing with supersonic free laminar flow (options) and control system laminar flow on the wing surface. RF patent 2133692, IPC VS 3/10, 1994). To reduce wave resistance associated with tol the other apply the redistribution of volume (Methods for incorporating area rules surfaces in a supersonic aircraft. Claim US 2005/0224640 A1, IPC VS 1/38. Supersonic aircraft. RF patent 2036822, IPC VS 30/00, 1992). Aerodynamic drag reduction which aims presents a technical solution associated with creating a lifting force and depends mainly on wing shape in plan and from the middle surface of the wing. With increasing elongation of the wing vortex resistance decreases, and the wave resistance increases. Want optimal from the point of view of minimization of the resistance ratio between the longitudinal and transverse dimensions of the apparatus. One of the overall limitation is the forward Mach cone. With the aim of increasing the load-bearing properties, it is advisable to use the apparatus, which is close to a triangular shape in plan. Known aircraft with a Delta wing, running long flight at supersonic speed (Supersonic aircraft with a delta wing. Patent US 3900178, IPC VS 30/00, 1975 Supersonic aircraft with the engines disposed under the delta wing middle portion. Patent US 3955781, IPC VS 30/00, 1976).
In the case of a triangular wing associated with creating a lifting force resistance is only weakly dependent on elongation on the modes corresponding to aerodynamically supersonic forward edges (the component of velocity normal to the leading edge, more RMS the spine of sound) and sharply increases with a decrease in elongation at modes with aerodynamically subsonic front edges (subsonic component of velocity normal to the leading edge). Thus, the smaller the elongation of the wing, the greater the gain in resistance at a given lifting force achievable by means of the conical twist of the middle surface. The transition to the spatial deformation of the wing does not give a noticeable improvement in the aerodynamic characteristics (Kogan mathematical SCIENCES. On the bodies of the minimum drag in supersonic gas flow. PMM. 1957. T. V.2. Smith J.H.B., Mangler K.W. The use of conical camber to produce flow attachment at the leading edge of a delta wing and to minimise lift-dependent drag at sonic and supersonic speeds. Aeronaut. Res. Council. Rept. and Mem. No. 3289. 1957).
To provide the required aerodynamic characteristics at different flight modes used device that changes the curvature of the supporting elements of the aircraft. It can be both mechanisms, the deflecting elements in the vicinity of the edges of the wing (Delta wing with lift enhancing flap. Patent US 5062595, IPC VS 23/06, 1991 Hypersonic waverider variable leading edge flaps. Patent US 6634594, IPC VS 3/10, 2003), and mechanisms for deforming the wing and the fuselage. Known aircraft having a triangular shape in plan and wherein the variable curvature of the bearing surface (Delta-shaped aircraft with variable camber fuselage and wing. Patent US 2000/6129308, IPC VS 3/48, 2000). The deviation of the leading edge of the wing on the more efficiently in the range subsonic speeds. Poor enforcement of wings with variable surface curvature is to increase the weight of the wing and reducing the useful volume. In the case of aircraft, running long cruising flight, you can use the wings with a fixed curvature. Known wing, formed on the basis of non-planar middle surface (high-Speed swept wing. RF patent №2228282, IPC VS 3/14, 2002). This wing allows to increase the maximum balancing aerodynamic as in the subsonic speed range. Known supersonic aircraft with low sonic boom, containing the wing, the root of which has a large V-shape than the console part (Aircraft (options). RF patent №2212360 C1 IPC VS 30/00, 2002). However, this wing does not provide reduce drag associated with lift.
The prototype of the present invention is a wing upper and lower surfaces of which are profiled in a special way in order to reduce the aerodynamic resistance (Natural flow wing. Patent US 5112120, IPC VS 3/10, 1992). The essential features of the prototype, coinciding with the essential features of the proposed technical solution is that the wing has a sweep (in the particular case has a triangular shape)made with non-planar middle of the second surface and can be used in the supersonic speed range. The required curvature of the lower and upper surfaces is achieved by changing the position of the lines of maximum thickness of the wing. Compared with the wing having a flat middle surface, decrease the area of the adverse distribution of aerodynamic loads. The decrease in resistance is provided by increasing the inclination of the upper surface in the vicinity of the leading edge, forming an area of low pressure, and decrease the inclination of the surface in the Central part of the wing with uniform load distribution.
However, the lower and upper surfaces of the specified wing built separately, without taking into account the mutual influence of the flow on the windward and leeward side of the wing. This approach is unfair in the case of wings with subsonic front edges. These wings are of the most interest for practical use. In addition, the deviation of the median surface from a reference plane of the wing is limited by the thickness of the wing. The thinner wing, the smaller the deformation of the middle surface. Edge of a wing slightly deviate from the reference plane of the wing. Requires a comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of the flow on the windward and leeward side of the wing and solving geometric constraint, which is achieved by constructing directly the middle surface of the wing.
For the of ACA and the technical result of the invention is to develop a high-performance supersonic aircraft with a Delta wing, that reduce aerodynamic drag while maintaining the lifting force.
The solution of the problem and the technical result is achieved by the fact that in a triangular wing for a supersonic aircraft having a top and a Central chord, located in the symmetry plane of the wing, straight front edges leaving vertices, and non-planar middle surface middle surface of the wing is made of four elements, two of which are adjacent to the plane of symmetry and are convex in the leeward side of the elliptically conical shape, and the other two are adjacent to the front edges, have a flat shape and smoothly connected with elliptically conical elements along leaving the top of the wing beams. The median surface is expressed by the following mathematical dependencies
Here the ordinate Y is the distance to the plane perpendicular to the plane of symmetry and passing through the Central chord of the longitudinal coordinate X is the distance to the plane perpendicular to the Central chord and passing through the top of the wing, the lateral coordinate of the Z - distance to the plane of symmetry. Positive values of the ordinate Y correspond to the displacement of the middle surface in the leeward side of the longitudinal coordinate ranges 0≤X≤L, lateral coordinate is limited to the absolute value of
The invention is illustrated figure 1-4.
Figure 1 shows a flat middle surface of the wing is triangular in plan and the axis of the coordinate system.
Figure 2 shows the non-planar middle surface of the wing.
Figure 3 presents the pressure distribution in the cross section of the wing with M∞=2, χ=60°.
4 shows the pressure distribution in the cross section of the wing with M∞=4, χ=75°.
Geometrical parameters of the middle surface 1 of a wing is defined in the associated coordinate system (figure 1). The origin of coordinates aligned with the top of the wing 2, the X axis is directed along the Central chord 3 downstream, the Y-axis is in the plane of symmetry and sent to the leeward side, the Z axis is on the right when viewed from the front half of the wing, and together with the X-axis defines the reference plane Y=0. The median projection surface 1 on the reference plane is determined by the sweep angle χ of the leading edge 4. The angle of attack α is defined as the angle between the velocity vector V∞incident on the eye and the Central chord 3.
The proposed triangular wing has a non-planar Central surface 1 (figure 2). Each half of the median surface 1 is formed by two elements: element elliptic cone 5 and the flat element 6, smoothly abutting along leaving the top of the wing 2 of the beam 7. In the projection on the reference plane of the wing both elements have a triangular shape. Half of the median surface 1 is convex in the leeward side.
Wrap and aerodynamic characteristics of wings with planar and non-planar conical median surface 1 is investigated in the framework of the system of Euler equations. The following combinations of control parameters, Mach number free-stream and the sweep angle of the leading edge 4: M∞=2, χ=60° and M∞=4, χ=75°. The angle of attack was determined from the conditions for the achievement of lift coefficient withy=0.1, when calculating which as a characteristic square was equal to the projected area of the wing to the base plane. In both cases, the wings are aerodynamically subsonic front edge.
Calculated the flow field in the transverse plane X=const. Lines of equal values of pressure parts pressure flow shown in figure 3 for the wing flat (left) and non-planar (right) median surfaces 1 for the case of M∞=2, χ=60° (isobars are given in increments of 0.05). Figure 4 of the bars are presented for the case of M ∞=4, χ=75° (isobars are given in increments of 0.1). The front edges of the wings are streamed with detached shock wave. In the vicinity of the edges on the leeward side of the flow is accelerated in the fan of rarefaction waves. The transition to a non-planar median surface 1 is accompanied by a reduction of the aerodynamic loads in the vicinity of the front edge 4 of the wing. Pressure redistribution occurs on the surface of the wing, and in the shock layer. Weakened transverse shock wave on the leeward side of the wing. In General, the non-planar wings with median surface 1, the pressure is distributed more evenly along the span in comparison with flat wings.
The main integral characteristics is associated with the formation of the lifting force of the drag of the wing. For this characterization in both considered cases obtained similar results. The decrease in resistance at a fixed lifting force amounted to about 8%.
The essential distinguishing features of the proposed solution lies in the fact that the median surface of the wing is formed by the elements of the planes and surfaces of elliptical cones. When the wing elements joined along rays emanating from the top of the wing.
Due to the presence of these distinctive features is achieved by the following technical result - the use of chosen to replace the items with the median surface, formed by planes and elliptical cones, reduces wind resistance while maintaining the lifting force.
The proposed solution can be used in the manufacture and modernization of the bearing elements supersonic aircraft, mostly triangular wings.
Triangular wing for a supersonic aircraft having a top and a Central chord, located in the symmetry plane of the wing, straight front edges leaving vertices, and non-planar middle surface, wherein the middle surface is made of four elements, two of which are adjacent to the plane of symmetry and are convex in the leeward side of the elliptically conical shape, and the other two are adjacent to the front edges, have a flat shape and smoothly connected with elliptically conical elements along leaving the top of the wing beams, while the median surface is mathematically expressed as dependencies
where Y is the distance to the plane perpendicular to the plane of symmetry and passing through the Central chord, X is the distance to the plane perpendicular to the Central chord and passing through the top of the wing, Z - distance to the plane of symmetry, positive values of the ordinate Y correspond to the displacement of the middle surface in the leeward side of the longitudinal coordinate ranges 0≤X≤L, lateral coordinate is limited to the absolute value of
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Proposed wing tip has end plate with aerodynamic sweep of light elongation and sharp leading edge arranged at end plate end outer side. Aerodynamic surface trailing edge is aligned with end plate rear edge. Tip is located at end plate front edge, below rear edge while sweep make 60-85 degrees. There is lower vertical aerodynamic surface of small elongation coupled with end plate so that its leading edge coincides with leading edge of end plate aerodynamic surface. Angle between end plate aerodynamic surface and lower vertical aerodynamic surface makes 125-30 degrees.
EFFECT: higher aerodynamic efficiency, decreased fuel consumption.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. invention relates to aircraft engineering. Proposed wing tip has end plate with aerodynamic sweep of light elongation and sharp leading edge arranged at end plate end outer side. Tailing edge of extra aerofoil is aligned with rear edge of end plate while nose flap is located at leading edge of end plate under the level of tailing edge, sweep making 60-85 degrees. Proposed wing tip has end plate with aerodynamic sweep of light elongation and sharp leading edge arranged at end plate end outer side. Tailing edge of extra aerofoil is aligned with rear edge of end plate while nose flap is located at leading edge of end plate under the level of tailing edge, sweep making 60-85 degrees. Angle between end plate and aerofoil makes 175-180 degrees. Wing tip is arranged at 2 to 3 degrees to wing tip chord.
EFFECT: higher aerodynamic efficiency, reduced fuel consumption.
SUBSTANCE: version of every hybrid aircraft consists of fuselage, turboprop and wings. First version incorporates bearing devices arranged on both sides of fuselage and consisting of aircraft transverse wing root with engine fan ahead of front edge at fuselage nose and wings arranged there behind, several wings at top or bottom side, along fuselage. Second version incorporates top and bottom pairs of cantilever straight wings with spacing between pairs for gas-air flow from engine nozzles. Turboprop et engine incorporates shaped confuser and diffuser sections of propfan ring inner surface. Wing versions feature availability of bearing section and airfoil section. Methods comprises using said aircraft and engine.
EFFECT: higher safety, lower costs.
13 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relate to an aircraft with a mixed solution with aerodynamic and space flight and how it is flying. The aircraft includes a fuselage, wing, air-jet engines and rocket engines. The wing holds still, essentially straight and elongated in the lateral direction fuselage. Wingspan makes the length of the fuselage. Wing tanks and rocket fuel are located in the rear fuselage. In front of the fuselage, located cabin. The method of piloting an aircraft contains four phases of flight. The first stage of aerodynamic flight at subsonic speeds, corresponds to 0.5 M-O, 8 M, with the use of jet engines without air refueling. In the second stage of exit in outer space rocket engines are used after giving the command to change the tilt of the aircraft between the first stage and second stage. In the third stage of descent by planning mode to the fuselage, oriented substantially perpendicular to the trajectory. The fourth step is provided by aerodynamic flight and landing after bringing the aircraft into position on the merits in the direction of the trajectory between the third phase of flight and the fourth stage of the flight.
EFFECT: reduced fuel consumption.
14 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Wing 1 comprises wing center section made up of shaped bearing disk 2 with front and rear edges along generatrix of bearing disk. Panels 3 are jointed with wing center section bearing disk 2 on its sides so that the shape of front and rear edges of said disk 2 are unchanged along said generatrix in plan. Wing panels 3 feature trapezoidal and sweep and/or rectangular aerodynamic shape. Wing 1 has aerodynamic extensions 4 made along wing lengthwise axis at wing front on both sides that feature triangular and ogival aerodynamic shape in plan.
EFFECT: higher maneuverability.
5 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device intended for generation of propellant forces for vehicles. Proposed method is characterised by drag effects on wing front surface or screw front surface wherein ram inflow on plane periphery is turned and tangential flow is created on rear plane with speed smaller than that of ram flow. Flow on rear surface front edge is directed from the root to plane lateral edge and intersect it with flow swirled long lateral edge of the plane read surface for their interaction to create force oriented along the plane. Ram flow is used to stabilise boundary layer on the plane rear surface rear edge. In compliance with the first version, aircraft cuts in propellers. Peripheral plane of propeller blade accommodates the structure of profiles with its elements. Another version of aircraft comprises wings. Structure of profiles is located on wing plane periphery.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of converting drive power into propellant power.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft comprises airframe, swept wing, tail unit and jet engine. Airframe is characterised by selection of coordinates of outer surface outline points. Swept wing comprises cantilever parts and wing center section defined by coordinates of the upper and lower outlines of aerodynamic profiles located in wing basic sections.
EFFECT: reduced weight, higher comfort for passengers.
6 cl, 27 dwg, 13 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to long-range executive aircraft. Proposed aircraft comprises airframe, sweptback wing, vertical tail unit, running gear and power plant made up of engines, air intakes and nozzles. Airframe front has flatted nose cone smoothly aligned with cockpit and passenger cabin with circular sections. Wing root front edge is rounded and smoothly aligned with airframe. Wing root rear edge has a break. Vertical rudder integrated with horizontal tail unit is arranged on tip of vertical tail extension. Wing features crosswise V angle. Supersonic air intakes are arranged above wing top surface on both sides of airframe, while, ahead of air intakes, both wing and airframe are a bit contracted. Ahead of air intakes, there are perforated sections for intake of boundary layer. Supersonic air intakes comprise mechanism of controlled air cross flows from boundary layer discharge channel into channel feeding air into engine. Supersonic nozzle critical section is arranged above airframe top surface between two vertical tail fins. Flat nozzle has rotary top flap. Airframe tail section changes into flat surface to smoothly terminate in elevation rudder. Tail elevation rudder comprises mechanism of down-displacement in take-off-landing conditions. Reverse rotary panel is arranged ahead of elevation rudder above airframe top surface. Channels for reverse lower jets are arranged below said panel.
EFFECT: minimised effects on ecology at high cruising speeds.
14 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft with low noise at take-off and landing. Proposed aircraft comprises airframe, two wings arranged on both sides of airframe ant carrying engines, and tail unit. Vertical tale consists of at least two fins to make with airframe rear end a channel on airframe top. Airframe top accommodates at least one engine to make airflows created by it come into said channel and to engine rear noise is shut off by said channel in lateral and bottom directions. Sweep forward wings have their butt joints arranged behind airframe, nearby engine air intake, to shut off front noise in lateral and bottom directions by wings.
EFFECT: aircraft reduced noise.
FIELD: air transport.
SUBSTANCE: airplane includes nose, front, central, rear and tail sections and fast-speed arrow wing with jet engines. Fast-speed arrow wing is characterised by change of maximum relative profile thickness, geometric twist angle, angle of lateral V wing under wing semispan and middle surface curvature both along semispan and profile chord. Fuel system includes reservoir of the airplane central section and reservoirs in outer wings near the central section at middle part and at the periphery. The central section is equipped with expandable walls. Fuel system provides initial use of fuel from central section reservoir, then from fuel tanks of outer wings located near central section and then from tanks at the periphery of outer wings, and after all the others - from the middle part of the wing by fuel transfer between tanks.
EFFECT: improvement of aerodynamic characteristics for planes with different weight and hull length.
22 cl, 54 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft wing has inner load-bearing primary structure and upper and lower skins. Wing is made in form of chute of varying section in plan smoothly narrowing from aircraft nose to tail.
EFFECT: updated wing differing from tear-shaped wing; enhanced efficiency of creating lifting force.
SUBSTANCE: proposed flying vehicle wing is sweep-back wing with tips of the same sweep. Tips are directed forward against flow in sweep-forward position Xt.l.ed.<0 at retained geometric parameters of wing: wing area, span, aspect ratio and parallelism of tip chord of wing plane of symmetry, where Xt.l.ed. is sweep angle over leading edge of wing tips.
EFFECT: increased carrying properties of wing sweep over entire range of velocity head; enhanced efficiency of ailerons at moderate and high velocity heads.
FIELD: aeronautical engineering; various flying vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed tip has end plate and is provided with additional swept aerodynamic surface of low aspect ratio with sharp leading edge mounted on the outside of end plate. Trailing edge of additional aerodynamic surface is combined with trailing edge of end plate. Nose is located on leading edge of end plate below level of trailing edge; sweep ranges from 60° to 85°.
EFFECT: enhanced aerodynamic efficiency at high subsonic speeds.
FIELD: aeronautical engineering; lifting surfaces of various-purpose flying vehicle.
SUBSTANCE: proposed tip has swept aerodynamic surface whose lower plane is formed by smooth extension of generatrices of wing lower surface. Nose of root chord of end aerodynamic surface is located on lower contour of wing end profile at point of intersection with line of maximum thicknesses. Leading edge of end aerodynamic surface is sharp in contour and is located on one line with wing trailing edge; upper plane of end aerodynamic surface is made with smooth change at point of connection with wing. End aerodynamic surface has low aspect ratio and its sweep ranges from 60 to 85°.
EFFECT: improved aerodynamic property at high subsonic flight speeds.
SUBSTANCE: proposed swept-forward wing has tips of the same sweep. Tips are turned backward in flow to sweep-back position at retained parameters of swept wing and parallelism of tip chord of wing plane of symmetry.
EFFECT: reduction of aeroelastic deformation and avoidance of divergence at high velocity heads on metal swept-forward wing.
FIELD: aeronautical engineering; lifting surfaces of various flying vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed flying vehicle wing has additional aerodynamic surface in form of plate mounted on it. Plane is triangular in plan and its end edge is sharp and is parallel to wing axis of symmetry. Plate is located at distance from tip chord equal to 0.05-0.1 of wing span and its length is equal to 0.1-0.15 of wing chord at point of location of end edge of additional aerodynamic surface. Trailing edge of additional aerodynamic surface is rectilinear in form. Its upper surface is formed by extension of upper surface of wing and lower surface is smoothly conjugated with lower profile of wing tail section.
EFFECT: extended field of application; improved aerodynamic properties.
SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft has fuselage, engines, landing gear and control cabin. Aircraft is provided with trough-shaped wing, vertical fins with rudders, stabilizer and elevons. Wing is mounted on fuselage which has no tail section. Vertical fins with rudders are mounted underneath the wing. Stabilizer and elevons are mounted on trailing edge of wing.
EFFECT: reduced mass; reduced drag; improved aerodynamic properties.
SUBSTANCE: proposed high-speed swept wing consists of center-wing section and outer-wing panel. Wing is formed as single spatial system on base of non-planar middle surface having S-shaped profile of center lines at negative concavity in tail sections at X>0.7-0.8 and positive concavity f=0.015-0.02 at X> 0-0.7. At change from side sections in span, negative concavity disappears gradually and positions of maximum positive concavity smoothly shift backward by chord from magnitude X=0.3 at side to magnitude X=0.5 in end sections. Aspect ratio of wing λ=9-11, taper ratio η=3.5-4.2 and leading-edge sweep angle is up to Xl.ed.=35o. Upper generatrices of profiles are so made that at rated conditions, maximum rarefaction does not exceed permissible limits Cmax.perm.. Thickness ratio of profiles is formed according to two laws: from leading edge up to X=0.3, at range of C=0-8% and from X=0.3 to the trailing edge at range C=0-17%; maximum thicknesses of profiles are found at X=0.56-0.66.
EFFECT: increased flying speed.
FIELD: aeronautical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed wing has skin and under-wing pylons. Skin is made from smoothly engageable parts at positive and negative curvature of median surface. At change from side section of wing to end section, profiles of sections are made at change of angle of geometric twist of sections, maximum thickness ratio of profiles, dihedral angle of wing and relative nose radius. Magnitude of dihedral angle of wing along its semispan has maximum between side section and plane of installation of engine. Under-wing pylon has inner side wall directed to fuselage and outer side wall which are flat in larger part of first half of pylon; they are located symmetrically relative to plane of installation of engine. Side walls of pylon are bent towards fuselage in its tail section. Maximum deflection of inner side wall from plane of installation of engine at change from lower sections of pylon to upper ones reduces and its position smoothly shifts in direction opposite to flight.
EFFECT: improved aerodynamic characteristics.
15 cl, 35 dwg
FIELD: aeronautical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed wing is formed as integral spatial system on base of rear spar at zero sweep and integral base profile which is modified in span in such way that root profile is mounted at angle of plus 1.0-1.5 degrees ensuring maximum of magnitudes Mk* and Mzo at moderate magnitudes Cymax and tip profile is mounted at angle of minus 1.5-2 degrees ensuring maximum magnitude Cymax. Profiles have maximum negative concavity f=0.15-0.2 in tail sections of profile whose position changes in span from X=0.6 for root profile to X=0.9 for tip profile. Wing thickness ratio changes from 0.16 to 0.13.
EFFECT: enhanced lift and speed qualities.