Delta wing for supersonic aircraft

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: delta wing has top and central chord arranged in wing mirror plane, straight leading edges extending from said top, and uneven mid surface. Said mid surface consists of two elements adjoining said mirror plane and feature elliptically taper shape bulged leeward and two elements adjoining leading edge and feature flat shape and are smoothly conjugated with elliptically taper elements along arms extending from wing top. Mid surface is expressed by mathematical relationship.

EFFECT: lower drag in supersonic flight.

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The invention relates to the field of aircraft, and more particularly to a bearing elements supersonic aircraft, and can be used mainly for the wings of a triangular shape when in the plan.

One of the main ways to increase performance is to reduce the aerodynamic resistance of the aircraft as a whole and its wing in particular. In the range of supersonic flight speeds distinguish the following main components of resistance: the resistance of surface friction associated with the thickness of the wave resistance and is caused by creating a lifting force resistance, including wave and vortical components (Kucheman D., the Aerodynamic design of aircraft. Moscow. The engineering. 1983). The frictional resistance largely depends on the area washed by the surface of the aircraft. One of the ways to reduce surface friction is to increase the surface area of the wing, which is implemented laminar boundary layer (Laminar flow wing optimized for supersonic cruise aircraft. Patent US 0095137 A1, IPC VS 3/10, 2011 Wing with supersonic free laminar flow (options) and control system laminar flow on the wing surface. RF patent 2133692, IPC VS 3/10, 1994). To reduce wave resistance associated with tol the other apply the redistribution of volume (Methods for incorporating area rules surfaces in a supersonic aircraft. Claim US 2005/0224640 A1, IPC VS 1/38. Supersonic aircraft. RF patent 2036822, IPC VS 30/00, 1992). Aerodynamic drag reduction which aims presents a technical solution associated with creating a lifting force and depends mainly on wing shape in plan and from the middle surface of the wing. With increasing elongation of the wing vortex resistance decreases, and the wave resistance increases. Want optimal from the point of view of minimization of the resistance ratio between the longitudinal and transverse dimensions of the apparatus. One of the overall limitation is the forward Mach cone. With the aim of increasing the load-bearing properties, it is advisable to use the apparatus, which is close to a triangular shape in plan. Known aircraft with a Delta wing, running long flight at supersonic speed (Supersonic aircraft with a delta wing. Patent US 3900178, IPC VS 30/00, 1975 Supersonic aircraft with the engines disposed under the delta wing middle portion. Patent US 3955781, IPC VS 30/00, 1976).

In the case of a triangular wing associated with creating a lifting force resistance is only weakly dependent on elongation on the modes corresponding to aerodynamically supersonic forward edges (the component of velocity normal to the leading edge, more RMS the spine of sound) and sharply increases with a decrease in elongation at modes with aerodynamically subsonic front edges (subsonic component of velocity normal to the leading edge). Thus, the smaller the elongation of the wing, the greater the gain in resistance at a given lifting force achievable by means of the conical twist of the middle surface. The transition to the spatial deformation of the wing does not give a noticeable improvement in the aerodynamic characteristics (Kogan mathematical SCIENCES. On the bodies of the minimum drag in supersonic gas flow. PMM. 1957. T. V.2. Smith J.H.B., Mangler K.W. The use of conical camber to produce flow attachment at the leading edge of a delta wing and to minimise lift-dependent drag at sonic and supersonic speeds. Aeronaut. Res. Council. Rept. and Mem. No. 3289. 1957).

To provide the required aerodynamic characteristics at different flight modes used device that changes the curvature of the supporting elements of the aircraft. It can be both mechanisms, the deflecting elements in the vicinity of the edges of the wing (Delta wing with lift enhancing flap. Patent US 5062595, IPC VS 23/06, 1991 Hypersonic waverider variable leading edge flaps. Patent US 6634594, IPC VS 3/10, 2003), and mechanisms for deforming the wing and the fuselage. Known aircraft having a triangular shape in plan and wherein the variable curvature of the bearing surface (Delta-shaped aircraft with variable camber fuselage and wing. Patent US 2000/6129308, IPC VS 3/48, 2000). The deviation of the leading edge of the wing on the more efficiently in the range subsonic speeds. Poor enforcement of wings with variable surface curvature is to increase the weight of the wing and reducing the useful volume. In the case of aircraft, running long cruising flight, you can use the wings with a fixed curvature. Known wing, formed on the basis of non-planar middle surface (high-Speed swept wing. RF patent №2228282, IPC VS 3/14, 2002). This wing allows to increase the maximum balancing aerodynamic as in the subsonic speed range. Known supersonic aircraft with low sonic boom, containing the wing, the root of which has a large V-shape than the console part (Aircraft (options). RF patent №2212360 C1 IPC VS 30/00, 2002). However, this wing does not provide reduce drag associated with lift.

The prototype of the present invention is a wing upper and lower surfaces of which are profiled in a special way in order to reduce the aerodynamic resistance (Natural flow wing. Patent US 5112120, IPC VS 3/10, 1992). The essential features of the prototype, coinciding with the essential features of the proposed technical solution is that the wing has a sweep (in the particular case has a triangular shape)made with non-planar middle of the second surface and can be used in the supersonic speed range. The required curvature of the lower and upper surfaces is achieved by changing the position of the lines of maximum thickness of the wing. Compared with the wing having a flat middle surface, decrease the area of the adverse distribution of aerodynamic loads. The decrease in resistance is provided by increasing the inclination of the upper surface in the vicinity of the leading edge, forming an area of low pressure, and decrease the inclination of the surface in the Central part of the wing with uniform load distribution.

However, the lower and upper surfaces of the specified wing built separately, without taking into account the mutual influence of the flow on the windward and leeward side of the wing. This approach is unfair in the case of wings with subsonic front edges. These wings are of the most interest for practical use. In addition, the deviation of the median surface from a reference plane of the wing is limited by the thickness of the wing. The thinner wing, the smaller the deformation of the middle surface. Edge of a wing slightly deviate from the reference plane of the wing. Requires a comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of the flow on the windward and leeward side of the wing and solving geometric constraint, which is achieved by constructing directly the middle surface of the wing.

For the of ACA and the technical result of the invention is to develop a high-performance supersonic aircraft with a Delta wing, that reduce aerodynamic drag while maintaining the lifting force.

The solution of the problem and the technical result is achieved by the fact that in a triangular wing for a supersonic aircraft having a top and a Central chord, located in the symmetry plane of the wing, straight front edges leaving vertices, and non-planar middle surface middle surface of the wing is made of four elements, two of which are adjacent to the plane of symmetry and are convex in the leeward side of the elliptically conical shape, and the other two are adjacent to the front edges, have a flat shape and smoothly connected with elliptically conical elements along leaving the top of the wing beams. The median surface is expressed by the following mathematical dependencies

Y={A((Xtgx)2-Z2C-Xtgx)+B|Z|,|Z|CXt gxA(Xtgx-|Z|1-C-Xtgx)+B|Z|,CXtgx|Z|Xtgx

Here the ordinate Y is the distance to the plane perpendicular to the plane of symmetry and passing through the Central chord of the longitudinal coordinate X is the distance to the plane perpendicular to the Central chord and passing through the top of the wing, the lateral coordinate of the Z - distance to the plane of symmetry. Positive values of the ordinate Y correspond to the displacement of the middle surface in the leeward side of the longitudinal coordinate ranges 0≤X≤L, lateral coordinate is limited to the absolute value of|Z|Xtgx, L is the length of the wing, χ is the angle of sweep of the leading edge. Geo is etnicheskie parameters a, In, To determine the curvature of the V-shape and relative sizes of elements of the middle surface. The geometrical parameters are chosen from the condition of minimizing resistance while maintaining the lifting force of the wing. The following ranges of geometric parameters: 0<A≤1, 0≤B≤1, 0.4≤C≤0.9.

The invention is illustrated figure 1-4.

Figure 1 shows a flat middle surface of the wing is triangular in plan and the axis of the coordinate system.

Figure 2 shows the non-planar middle surface of the wing.

Figure 3 presents the pressure distribution in the cross section of the wing with M=2, χ=60°.

4 shows the pressure distribution in the cross section of the wing with M=4, χ=75°.

Geometrical parameters of the middle surface 1 of a wing is defined in the associated coordinate system (figure 1). The origin of coordinates aligned with the top of the wing 2, the X axis is directed along the Central chord 3 downstream, the Y-axis is in the plane of symmetry and sent to the leeward side, the Z axis is on the right when viewed from the front half of the wing, and together with the X-axis defines the reference plane Y=0. The median projection surface 1 on the reference plane is determined by the sweep angle χ of the leading edge 4. The angle of attack α is defined as the angle between the velocity vector Vincident on the eye and the Central chord 3.

The proposed triangular wing has a non-planar Central surface 1 (figure 2). Each half of the median surface 1 is formed by two elements: element elliptic cone 5 and the flat element 6, smoothly abutting along leaving the top of the wing 2 of the beam 7. In the projection on the reference plane of the wing both elements have a triangular shape. Half of the median surface 1 is convex in the leeward side.

Wrap and aerodynamic characteristics of wings with planar and non-planar conical median surface 1 is investigated in the framework of the system of Euler equations. The following combinations of control parameters, Mach number free-stream and the sweep angle of the leading edge 4: M=2, χ=60° and M=4, χ=75°. The angle of attack was determined from the conditions for the achievement of lift coefficient withy=0.1, when calculating which as a characteristic square was equal to the projected area of the wing to the base plane. In both cases, the wings are aerodynamically subsonic front edge.

Calculated the flow field in the transverse plane X=const. Lines of equal values of pressure parts pressure flow shown in figure 3 for the wing flat (left) and non-planar (right) median surfaces 1 for the case of M=2, χ=60° (isobars are given in increments of 0.05). Figure 4 of the bars are presented for the case of M=4, χ=75° (isobars are given in increments of 0.1). The front edges of the wings are streamed with detached shock wave. In the vicinity of the edges on the leeward side of the flow is accelerated in the fan of rarefaction waves. The transition to a non-planar median surface 1 is accompanied by a reduction of the aerodynamic loads in the vicinity of the front edge 4 of the wing. Pressure redistribution occurs on the surface of the wing, and in the shock layer. Weakened transverse shock wave on the leeward side of the wing. In General, the non-planar wings with median surface 1, the pressure is distributed more evenly along the span in comparison with flat wings.

The main integral characteristics is associated with the formation of the lifting force of the drag of the wing. For this characterization in both considered cases obtained similar results. The decrease in resistance at a fixed lifting force amounted to about 8%.

The essential distinguishing features of the proposed solution lies in the fact that the median surface of the wing is formed by the elements of the planes and surfaces of elliptical cones. When the wing elements joined along rays emanating from the top of the wing.

Due to the presence of these distinctive features is achieved by the following technical result - the use of chosen to replace the items with the median surface, formed by planes and elliptical cones, reduces wind resistance while maintaining the lifting force.

The proposed solution can be used in the manufacture and modernization of the bearing elements supersonic aircraft, mostly triangular wings.

Triangular wing for a supersonic aircraft having a top and a Central chord, located in the symmetry plane of the wing, straight front edges leaving vertices, and non-planar middle surface, wherein the middle surface is made of four elements, two of which are adjacent to the plane of symmetry and are convex in the leeward side of the elliptically conical shape, and the other two are adjacent to the front edges, have a flat shape and smoothly connected with elliptically conical elements along leaving the top of the wing beams, while the median surface is mathematically expressed as dependencies
Y={A((Xtgx)2-Z2C-Xtg x)+B|Z|,|Z|CXtgxA(Xtgx-|Z|1-C-Xtgx)+B|Z|,CXtgx|Z|Xtgx
where Y is the distance to the plane perpendicular to the plane of symmetry and passing through the Central chord, X is the distance to the plane perpendicular to the Central chord and passing through the top of the wing, Z - distance to the plane of symmetry, positive values of the ordinate Y correspond to the displacement of the middle surface in the leeward side of the longitudinal coordinate ranges 0≤X≤L, lateral coordinate is limited to the absolute value of|Z|Xtgχ , L is the length of the wing, χ is the angle of sweep of the leading edge, and the geometrical parameters defining the curvature of the V-shape and relative sizes of elements median surface changes in the ranges of 0<A≤1, 0≤≤1, 0,4≤C≤0,9.



 

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