Method of making fuel briquettes

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of making fuel briquettes, which involves mixing carbon filler with ground coal, adding a binding substance and briquetting the mixture under pressure. The carbon filler, which is in form of aluminium wastes, anode paste and electrodes in amount of 25.1-85.00 wt %, is dry-mixed with ground brown coal until a 100% dry mass is obtained, followed by addition of the binding substance to the dry mass. The binding substance used is bitumen or polyvinyl alcohol in amount of 2-10 wt %, in excess of 100% of the dry mass. If polyvinyl alcohol is used as the binder, hydrophobic additives are added to the obtained mixture in amount of 1-5 wt %, in excess of 100% of the obtained mixture.

EFFECT: improved properties.

3 cl, 3 tbl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of non-ferrous metallurgy, in particular to the processing of carbon-containing waste aluminum and electrode industry, and can be used in the production of alumina, cement and heat flow meters.

In aluminium production and electrodes produce large amounts of carbon-containing waste, which are used sparingly and are being transported to the landfill for industrial and household waste. The material composition of a number of waste presents mainly of amorphous carbon, more than 90%. This predetermines the possible niche of carbon waste as a component of the charge in the manufacture of fuel briquettes. Because of the low content of volatile combustion of carbon-containing waste in oxidative conditions begins at temperatures above 500C, which makes the ignition of the material and limits its use for energy purposes without mixing with the more highly reactive fuels such as brown coal.

Known methods for producing fuel briquettes on the basis of mixed compositions of brown coal, various types of waste and binder.

There is a method of briquetting coal slurries and small classes of brown coal, comprising mixing sludge or coal with a water-soluble binder and subsequent packing is th, while drying and subsequent curing of the pellets occurs during heating and subsequent burning of briquettes (1). The disadvantages of this method are the necessity of using expensive packaging and creation of conditions during transportation to ensure tightness.

There is a method of producing fuel briquettes from coal and hydrolytic lignin in the ratio of coal/lignin 70/30%, while briquetting is carried out at a temperature of 270-330C and a pressure of 90-110 MPa (2). The disadvantage of this method is the high energy consumption for production.

The known method for the production of fuel briquettes, comprising pressing under pressure disposed sawdust saturated with oil, wastewater contaminated with petroleum products, which add wood flour. The disadvantage of this invention is a low calorific value, low strength characteristics of the briquette (3).

There is a method of producing fuel briquettes from lignite, where as a binder used household waste polyethylene in the form of ground particles of size less than 7 mm, the number of 6-7% by weight of dry coal, briquetted mixture is heated to a temperature of 90-130C. and pressing briquettes produced at a pressure 98-99 MPa. The disadvantage of this invention is low the traveler calorific value, low strength characteristics of the briquette and carcinogenic emissions from the combustion of polyethylene (4).

The closest technical solution is a method of producing fuel briquettes, comprising impregnating a porous carbon filler hydrocarbon binder under stirring and heating, followed by mixing crushed coal and bracing mixture with the addition of the received material to powdered brown coal in the amount of 5-25 wt.%, their mixing and pressing at 40-80C and 80-120 MPa.

The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of preliminary impregnation of the carbon filler with stirring and heating to avoid lubrication channel matrix stamp press binder, which reduces the strength of the briquette (5).

The objective of the proposed technical solution is the utilization of industrial waste production and improving environmental protection.

The technical result of the invention is the obtaining of high-strength carbon-containing waste fuel briquettes without prior impregnation of the carbon material, which ensures its higher efficiency and lower the cost of production of briquettes.

The technical result is achieved by a method for the production of fuel briquettes, kiuchumi mixing the dry components of the mixture, adding a binder and pressing is carried out using carbon waste from aluminum production, anode mass and electrodes having a high calorific value at high temperature ignition and brown coal with low calorific value and a low ignition temperature in the following ratio, wt.%:

- Carbon waste 25,0185,00%;

- Brown coal - 15,0074,99%.

The invention consists in mixing the carbon waste aluminum, anode mass and electrodes (suction dust, screenings fine fractions) with brown coal, followed by the addition of binder (bitumen, polyvinyl alcohol) in the ratio 25,0185,00 wt.% carbon waste, 15,0074,99 wt.% brown coal, 210 wt.% spanning over 100% dry matter.

The method complements private hallmark, also contributing to the achievement of the technical result.

The composition of the mixture can be introduced on 15% hydrophobic additives (oil) in excess of 100% of the resulting mass, when used as a binder of polyvinyl alcohol.

Hydrophobic additives are used to improve the moisture resistance of the briquettes.

Increasing the strength of briquettes is achieved due to uniform distribution of fine particles (dust) carbon filler (carbon ododo the aluminium production) and crushed particles of brown coal in the step of dry mixing, which further adding a binder contributes to obtaining the maximum density of the layout of components of the briquettes and to achieve the desired strength required minimum amount of binder. The minimum content of brown coal briquettes and the amount of the binder are selected in such a way as to ensure maximum penetration of the binder into the pores of brown coal and the formation of a solid briquette when filling in the space between the particles of the minimum amount of binder. Thereby, eliminates the possibility of wetting channel stamp press excess binder and leveled factor contributing to the decrease in strength of the briquettes.

Pre-mixing of the carbon filler and a binder, the prototype, will not solve the problem of wetting of the matrix channel stamp press due to the low porosity of the carbon filler.

The method is illustrated by drawings, where Fig. 1 shows the estimated net calorific value of fuel briquettes without regard to the binder, depending on the content of carbon-containing waste, figure 2 - dynamics of mass and release of volatile compounds by heating pulverized coal briquettes

(Part No. 83:50 wt.% - brown coal + 50 wt.% - suction dust + 8 wt.%(over 100%) - bitumen.

In the process of making briquettes etc is taken off, the dry mixing of brown coal, pre-crushed to a fraction - 13 mm, with pulverized carbon waste, followed by mixing the mixed composition with the binder and hydrophobic additives at a temperature of 4090C. Next, the resulting mixture is fed to the briquetting at 50120 MPa. These briquettes are cooled naturally during transportation to the site of unloading.

To achieve a technical result in the increase of the heat of combustion and ensure economic efficiency in the combustion of briquettes on the basis of the carbon waste their calorific value should not be below 20 000 kJ/kg (Figure 1). To ensure this condition the number of carbon-containing waste into briquettes should not be less than 25%. From the analysis of the curves of TG and DSC, it follows that the suction dust has a lower reactivity in oxidative heating in comparison with that of brown coal. It follows that the reactivity of coal briquettes will also vary and depend on the content of dust in the fuel briquettes.

The effect of changing the mass of coal briquettes with increasing temperature and isolation of the intermediate products are shown in figure 2. As can be seen from the drawing, the process of thermo-oxidative degradation of the sample starts in the region of 200-300C. the combustion Process describes a wide ectotherm the economic effect with maxima at 457,8 and 652,2C. To 700C, the mass loss is 43,63% of the initial mass. Upon further heating (region 700-1100C) process the mass loss of the sample continues through the main products of the combustion of the mixture: CO2and SO2.

Analysis of the data shows that the maximum content of carbon-containing waste briquette, which is ignited by burning brown coal, is limited to 85%.

Analysis of volatile compounds during oxidative heating of the briquettes shows that the combustion of the suction dust no additional emissions compared to coal does not occur.

The novelty of the claimed proposal due to the fact that due to the use of carbon waste aluminum, anode mass and electrodes increases the heat of combustion of the briquettes reduced the percentage of ash content and solved the environmental problem of waste disposal.

Since the proposed solution can be applied to the manufacture of fuel briquettes with a calorific value above coals brand T, and the cost is lower, it can be argued that the proposal meets the criterion of "industrial applicability". In the case of use as a filler of carbon waste with a high content of fluorine, briquettes suitable for use in CEM is nteu industry as a fuel, and as mineralizer, lowering the temperature of formation of clinker.

Table 1 shows the physico-mechanical properties of briquettes on the basis of various variants of mixed compositions with different types of binders. As follows from table 1, the best physical and mechanical properties of the briquettes adding bitumen and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA).

Example 1: Composition of the briquette: 50 wt.% brown coal; 50 wt.% carbon wastes; 6 wt.% (over 100%) - bitumen.

Table 2 presents the test results of fuel briquettes.

Table 2
Name and designation of indicatorUnitND on test methodThe results of the test specimen (sample)
General moisture,Wtr%GOST R 52911-082,4
Ash, dry condition, Ad% GOST 11022-954,0
The release of volatile substances, dry ashless, Vdaf%GOST 6382-200125,5
The sulfur content, the dry state,Std%GOST 8606-931,15
The carbon content, dry ashless, Cdaf%GOST 2408.1-95at 88.1
The hydrogen content, dry ashless, Hdaf%GOST 2408.1-952,5
The higher heat of combustion, dry state,QsdkJ/kgGOST 147-9530942
The higher heat of combustion, dry ashless,Qsdaf kJ/kgGOST 147-9532240
The lower heat of combustion, working status,QtrkJ/kgGOST 147-9529602
Compressive strengthMPaGOST 21289-75a 12.7
The strength dropping%GOST 2128987
Apparent densitykg/m3GOST 2160-921295
Water absorption%GOST 21290-751,3

Example 2: the composition of the briquette: 50 wt.% brown coal; 50 wt.% carbon wastes; 3 wt.% (over 100%) - polyvinyl alcohol.

Table 3 presents the test results of fuel briquettes.

Table 3
Least the Finance and designation of indicator UnitND on test methodThe results of the test specimen (sample)
General moisture,Wtr%GOST R 52911-087,3
Ash, dry condition, Ad%GOST 11022-954,4
The release of volatile substances, dry ashless, Vdaf%GOST 6382-200123,2
The sulfur content, the dry state,Std%GOST 8606-930,97
The carbon content, dry ashless, Cdaf%GOST 2408.1-95to 85.2
The hydrogen content, dry ashless, Hdaf% GOST 2408.1-952,5
The higher heat of combustion, dry state,QsdkJ/kgGOST 147-9529560
The higher heat of combustion, dry ashless,QsdafkJ/kgGOST 147-9530942
The lower heat of combustion, working status,QtrkJ/kgGOST 147-9526713
Compressive strengthMPaGOST 21289-75the 5.7
Water absorption%GOST 21290-753,4

Sources of information

(1) Patent No. 94034400.

(2) Patent No. 94024381.

(3) Patent No. 2309976.

(4) the Patent number 2296794.

(5) Patent No. 2005770.

1. Method of producing fuel briquettes, comprising a mixture of carbon filler with crushed coal, adding a binder and briquetting the mixture under pressure, characterized in that provide a dry mixture of carbon filler, which represents a waste of the production of aluminum, the anode mass and electrodes in the number 25,01-85,00 wt.% crushed brown coal to obtain 100% of dry mass, and then add to the dry weight of the binder, in the amount of 2-10 wt.% in excess of 100% of dry mass.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that is used as a binder bitumen or polyvinyl alcohol.

3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that the composition of the mixture are introduced hydrophobic additives in quantities of 15 wt.% in excess of 100% of the mixture when used as a binder of polyvinyl alcohol.



 

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