Fuel additive and fuel containing said additive

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel additive based on aliphatic alcohols, carbamide (urea) and water, characterised by that it further contains boric acid, with the following ratio of components, wt %: C2-C4 aliphatic alcohols 10-97.99; carbamide (urea) 1-30; boric acid 0.01-3; water 1-85. The invention also relates to a fuel composition based on liquid or solid fuel with addition of said additive in amount of 0.0001-0.1 wt %.

EFFECT: additive improves the fuel combustion process, has high solubility in any type of fuel and high catalytic capabilities; due to its high efficiency, the additive can be added to fuel in a concentration which is several times lower than that of similar additives.

4 cl, 4 tbl

 

The invention relates to the petrochemical industry, particularly to additives to various fuels and fuel compositions of this additive.

Known additives that increase the octane number of gasoline, improve fuel economy and increase engine efficiency, as well as allow you to obtain emulsion of water and hydrocarbon (patent RU №№2128209, 2132359, 2139914, U.S. patent No. 5752992, 5792223, patents EP 0134380 A2, EP 0229089 A1 and others).

In addition, the increasing application has a liquid fuel, representing at least two-phase emulsion with water (patent RU№№2010842, 2109797, 2134715, 2144059, 3592779 and others).

However, stricter requirements for environmental protection and high energy prices require the development of additives that increase the efficiency of combustion of fuel.

The prototype of the present invention is a universal additive to fuels for internal combustion engines, which contains aliphatic C1-C4alcohol, characterized in that it further contains urea, acetic acid and water in the following ratio of components, wt.%:

acetic acid
aliphatic C1-C4alcohol52-84
urea (carbamide)4-12
4-12
water8-24 (patent RU 2034905)

This additive improves the fuel combustion process, thanks to reduced fuel costs and reduced the amount of pollutants generated by the combustion of fuel.

The disadvantage of the described additives is highly corrosive and extremely low solubility in hydrocarbon fuels, which complicates its use and reduces the scope.

The task of the invention is the development of fuel additives are less corrosive, high solubility in any type of fuel and increased catalytic abilities.

The problem is solved by the improvement of the formulation additives. To reduce the corrosiveness of the additive on the basis of aliphatic alcohols, urea and water in its composition a reduced content of acid, and acetic acid is replaced by boric acid, and an insertion tool in increased urea concentration in the following ratio of components, wt.%:

aliphatic alcohols With2-C410-97,99
carbamide (urea)1-30
boric acid0.01 to 3
water1-85

The additive may further comprise a fatty acid and glycerol or ethylene glycol in the following ratio of components, wt.%:

aliphatic alcohols With2-C410-97,99
carbamide (urea)1-30
boric acid0.01 to 3
fatty acid0,1-3
glycerin or ethylene glycol0,1-30
water1-85

The inventive additive may be used to improve the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels (gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil or jet fuel) or products or petrochemical by-product coke manufacturing, or food processing plant materials, or aqueous oil or coal-water fuel, or solid fuel, or gaseous fuel.

As the solid fuel may be coal, peat or briquettes of any plant materials.

Another object of the invention is the development of the refuse fuel, that increases the combustion temperature, and also increases the efficiency and completeness of fuel combustion, thereby reducing the toxicity of the combustion products while reducing the corrosive effects of the fuel on the details of the fuel system.

The purpose of the invention is achieved with a fuel composition based on solid, hydrocarbon-water or aqueous oil fuel with the addition of 0.0001-0.1% of additives, including aliphatic alcohols With2-C4, carbamide (urea), boric acid and water in the following ratio of components, wt.%:

aliphatic alcohols With2-C410-97,99
carbamide (urea)1-30
boric acid0.01 to 3
water1-85

The inventive fuel composition may also contain additives, including additional fatty acid in an amount of 0.1-3 % wt. and glycerin or ethylene glycol in an amount of 0.1-30 wt.%.

As fuel can be a hydrocarbon fuel (gasoline, diesel fuel, fuel oil or rocket fuel) or products or petrochemical by-product coke manufacturing, or selling the points of processing of vegetable raw materials, or aqueous oil or hydrocarbon fuel, or solid fuel. The claimed composition improves the stability of two-phase liquid emulsions in the production of aqueous oil or coal-water fuel. In addition, the introduction of the additives appreciable quantities of ethylene glycol lowers the freezing temperature of the aqueous fuel and allows you to use it in the winter in the far North.

It was made 6 samples of the proposed additives, and 6 samples of fuel with this additive, which were tested in comparison with a known additive known and fuel.

Examples of the composition of the prepared samples of the inventive additives and known additives of the prototype are shown in table 1.

Examples of the composition of the claimed fuel and fuel additive-prototype are shown in table 2.

Tests of the additive in diesel fuel was conducted on a once-through boiler CSR capacity of 100 kW, and testing additives for solid fuels was conducted in a certified test stand with thermal power of 10 kW, which is designed to study the combustion of solid fuel in a combustion device.

The test results diesel fuel are shown in table 3, and coal and wood briquettes in table 4.

The test results show that the proposed additive and fuel offer the additive significantly increases the combustion temperature, due to which more effectively reduce the CO content in the exhaust compared to a net fuel and fuel additive-prototype.

Additional stationary water boiler DKVR 6,5/13 evaluation of the impact of our additives on the combustion efficiency of natural gas. Tests have shown that the introduction into the zone of combustion gas sample No. 4 of the inventive additives changes the color of the flame with a dark pink to light yellow (almost white) and there is an increase in boiler efficiency by 0.8%.

Table 1
Samples of the additive, component content, % wt.
ComponentsThe placeholder123456
Carbamide (urea)81330225
Ethanol1,99 2
Butyl alcohol91
Isopropyl alcohol729610911010
Acetic acid4
Boric acid0,01130,811
Butyric acid10,11
Somalina Isleta 3
Glycerin11
Ethylene glycol0,130
Water16155548551

Table 3
The test results diesel fuel additive
IndicatorsWithout additivesThe placeholder12 4
The temperature of the torch flame, °C560730860900870
The CO content in the exhaust, mg/m3139313
Fuel consumption for heating water in the boiler from 70°C to 90°C, grams12901210118511601180

Table 4
The test results of solid fuel with additive
IndicatorsWithout additivesExamples
CoalBriquettes356
The temperature in the boiler furnace, °C280311512326
The CO content in the exhaust, mg/m3108458738613361087161
The efficiency of the furnace, %77,369,1of 76.881,186,8

1. Additive to the fuel on the basis of aliphatic alcohols, urea and water, characterized in that it further contains boric acid in the following ratio, wt.%:

aliphatic alcohols With3-C410-97,99
carbamide (urea)1-30
boric acid0.01 to 3
water1-85

2. Additive according to claim 1, characterized in that it further contains 0.1 to 3 wt.% fatty acid and 0.1-30 wt.% glycerol or ethylene glycol.

3. Fuel composition based on liquid or solid fuel with additive, characterized in that it contains is 0.0001-0.1 wt.% additives containing aliphatics is their alcohols, carbamide (urea), water and boric acid in the following ratio of components in the insertion tool, wt.%:

aliphatic alcohols C2-C410-97,99
carbamide (urea)1-30
boric acid0.01 to 3
water1-85

4. The composition according to claim 3, characterized in that it contains an additive, further comprising 0.1 to 3 wt.% fatty acid and 0.1-30 wt.% glycerol or ethylene glycol.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

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FIELD: power engineering.

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FIELD: chemistry.

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2 tbl, 1 ex

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5 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex

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4 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: machine building.

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2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

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EFFECT: improved ecological properties, simplified production process.

11 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: solid fuel technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for application in production of solid fuel in metallurgy and for domestic necessities. Method of restoring sieve composition of coke comprises mixing off-grad coke with binder, such as various cement brands and Portland cement, moistening, briquetting of mix followed by heat treatment, and cooling. Off-grad coke utilized is coke fines fraction 0-10 mm and/or coke nut fraction 10-25 mm belonging to a certain types, which are mixed with binder at ratio (60-95):(5-40), respectively. Moistening is provided by adding water to 35% based on the weight of mix. Heat treatment is effected with steam. Cooling proceeds at ambient temperature to residual moisture content 5%. Mix is completed with filler in the form of organic or inorganic naturally occurring or man-made substances. Briquetting is effected on either vibration or press equipment. Coke briquette contains 60 to 95% of above-defined off-grade coke and 5 to 40 % of binder. Size of thus manufactured briquettes corresponds to required sieve composition of coke.

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8 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: solid fuels.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fabrication of hydrocarbon moldings in the form of briquettes or granules. Which can be used as natural solid fuel substitutes for municipal and industrial needs but also as fertilizers and/or soil structure improvers. Carbon-containing moldings contain (i) ground peat and/or lignin (5-50%), (ii) wood-vegetable components in the form of sawdust and/or wood chips, and/or bark, and/or straw, and/or chaff, and/or seed shells, and/or oilcake, and/or plant stems and leaves, and/or animal components in the form of poultry dung and/or manure (1-10%), and (iii) binder in the form of burnt lime, sodium hydroxide, or potassium hydroxide (balancing amount). Method of fabrication comprises dispensing, mixing, grinding, and activation of peat and/or lignin with binder, after which is added above-indicated wood-vegetable and/or animal components and resulting mixture is remixed. Final mixture is converted into moldings, which are then compacted by lying during 2 to 30 h.

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6 cl, 9 ex

The invention relates to the production of carbonaceous fuel and can be used in the manufacture of briquettes (pellets) for residual units of low and medium energy

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to functional fluids which are suitable for use in an internal combustion engine, particularly a gasoline composition which is suitable for use in a spark-ignition engine. The composition contains: (a) a large amount of gasoline basic fluid, (b) 10-1500 ppmw of a poly-substituted alkanolamine derivative, which is obtained via a thermal condensation reaction of (i) a carboxylate compound of formula I - R1COOR2 with (ii) an alkanolamine of formula II - NHR3R4, and (c)10-5000 ppmw of a detergent additive which is a polyalkene-monoamine. The molar ratio of the -COO-groups of the carboxylate compound of formula I to the total number of moles of OH and NH groups of the alkanolamine of formula II ranges from 1.8:3 to 3:3. The method of producing a gasoline composition involves preparation of a mixture from a gasoline basic fluid (a), a reaction product (b) and a detergent additive (c).

EFFECT: obtained gasoline composition is stable during storage, has improved lubricating power, improves fuel saving and spark-ignition engine starting time.

11 cl, 4 tbl, 6 ex

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