Composite coating from metal and cnt and/or fullerenes on strip materials

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: metal strip contains a coating from carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes soaked with metal chosen from the group consisting of Sn, Ni, Ag, Au, Pd, Cu, W or their alloys. Method for obtaining metal strip with the coating from carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes and metal involves the following stages: a) application of diffusion barrier layer from transition metal Mo, Co, Fe/Ni, Cr, Ti, W or Ce onto a metal strip, b) application of a nucleation layer from metal salt containing metal chosen from the group Fe, the 9-th or the 10-th subgroup of the periodic table onto the diffusion barrier layer, c) introduction after stages a) and b) of treated metal strip to hydrocarbon atmosphere containing organic gaseous compounds, d) formation of carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes on metal strip at temperature of 200°C to 1500°C, e) soaking of carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes with metal chosen from the group containing Sn, Ni, Ag, Au, Pd, Cu, W or their alloys.

EFFECT: obtained metal strip with the coating has improved friction coefficient, increased transition resistance of a contact, increased resistance to friction corrosion, improved resistance to abrasion and increased ability to be deformed.

26 cl

 

The invention relates to a composite coating of metal and carbon nanotubes (CNT) and/or fullerene on the metal tape, which has an improved coefficient of friction, good transient contact resistance, good resistance to frictional corrosion, good resistance to abrasion and good ability to warp. In addition, the invention relates to a method for producing a metal strip coated according to the invention.

Carbon nanotubes (CNT) were discovered Sumio Iijama in 1991 (see S. Iijama, Nature, 1991, 354, 56). Iijama under certain reaction conditions found in soot generator fullerene-like tube formation with a diameter of only a few tens of nanometers, but lengths up to several microns. He found the connection consisted of several concentric graphite tubes, which are called multi-walled carbon nanotubes (multi-wall carbon nanotubes, MWCNT). Shortly thereafter Iijama and Ichihashi were found single-walled CNT with a diameter of only about 1 nm, which were respectively called single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) (cm.. S. Iijama, T. Ichihashi, Nature, 1993, 363, 6430).

The distinctive properties of CNT include, for example, their mechanical tensile strength and stiffness of about 40 GPA, respectively, 1 TPA (20, respectively, 5 times harder than steel).

Among the CNT has both conductive and semiconductor mater is Aly. Carbon nanotubes belong to the family of fullerenes and have a diameter of from 1 nm to several hundred nm. Carbon nanotubes are microscopically small tubular formations (molecular nanotubes from carbon. Their walls, as the walls of the fullerene or the plane of graphite, is composed solely of carbon, where the carbon atoms have a honeycomb structure with six vertices and respectively with the three partners of the connection (which is defined as sp2-hybridization). The diameter of the tubes lies mostly in the range of 1 to 50 nm, but were also received from a tube with a diameter of only 0.4 nm. Have already been achieved length of several millimeters to individual tubes and up to 20 cm for beam tubes.

Synthesis of carbon nanotubes is carried out usually by deposition of carbon from the gas phase or plasma. For the electronic industry of interest primarily to the load current and the conductivity. Allowable load current is approximately 1000 times higher than copper wires, thermal conductivity at room temperature of about 6000 W/m·K, almost twice higher than that of the diamond - the best of the natural materials of the heat conductor.

As already described above, carbon nanotubes belong to the group of fullerenes. Fullerenes are called spherical molecules of carbon atoms with high symmetry, which represent the a third modification of the element carbon (in addition to diamond and graphite). Getting fullerenes is usually carried out by evaporation of graphite under reduced pressure and in an atmosphere of protective gas (e.g. argon) using resistive heating, or electric arc. As a by-product often formed already discussed above carbon nanotubes. Fullerenes have properties from a solid state to a superconducting.

In the prior art it is known that carbon nanotubes can be mixed with conventional synthetic material. Thanks to dramatically improve the mechanical properties of synthetic materials. In addition, it is possible to obtain a conductive synthetic materials, for example, carbon nanotubes have been used to impart conductive properties of the antistatic film.

The problem of modern designs Electromechanical components, such as connectors, switches, panels, relays, plug-in frame with the pins and the like, with a coating of tin, or silver, or Nickel is often poor coefficient of friction, and/or transient contact resistance, low abrasion resistance and/or poor deformability. The application of carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes to improve these properties in the prior art is still unknown.

Thus, the present invention is to provide an Electromechanical part that is devoid of the above-mentioned n the flaws, it has improved coefficient of friction, and/or good transient contact resistance and/or good resistance to abrasion, and/or a good ability to warp.

This problem is solved with a metal strip containing a coating of carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes, and metal.

As the metal strip in the spirit of the present invention preferably refers to a metal tape or Electromechanical part, which preferably consists of copper and/or copper alloys, aluminum and/or aluminum alloys or iron and/or iron alloys.

Preferably, the metal tape contains a diffusion barrier layer, which is advantageous to apply on both sides of the metal strip. Metal tape should not be dielectric. Therefore, preferably, when the diffusion barrier layer is a transition metal or contains it. Preferred transition metals are, for example, Mo, B, Co, Fe/Ni, Cr, Ti, W or Ce.

Carbon nanotubes are located on the metal strip in the form of columns that can be achieved is described further method according to the invention. Carbon nanotubes can be single walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes that can be controlled by the method according to the invention. Fullerenes are located on the metal ribbon prefer is Ino in the form of spheres.

The coating may preferably also contain graphene.

The graphenes are called monatomic layers of carbon atoms in sp2hybrid state. Graphenes have a very good electrical and thermal conductivity along its plane. Obtaining graphene by cleavage of graphite in the lower plane. In this first integrated oxygen. Oxygen is partially reacts with carbon and leads to outright layer on one side. Then the suspended graphene and, depending on the purpose of application, enter, for example, polymers or, as in the present invention, used as a component of coatings for metal bands.

Another possibility of obtaining a single layer of graphene is to heat the surface of hexagonal silicon carbide to a temperature above 1400°C. because Of the high vapor pressure of silicon, the silicon atoms evaporate faster than the carbon atoms. Then is formed on the surface a thin layer of monocrystalline graphite, which consists of several monolayers of graphene.

In one preferred form of implementation of the graphene and/or carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes form a composite. This means that graphene and carbon nanotubes, graphenes with fullerenes, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, or all three components together may form a composite Mat is real. Particularly preferably, when the graphenes are orthogonal on carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes, and they are, for example, may represent the end of the tube in the axial direction, or when the graphene and fullerenes are orthogonal on carbon nanotubes. Orthogonal location Grafenau on fullerenes means quasitransitive location Grafenau on the fullerenes. The orthogonal arrangement of fullerenes in carbon nanotubes can be thought of as the scepter, and the fullerene is at one end of the carbon nanotube.

Metal tape preferably has a thickness of from 0.06 to 3 mm, particularly preferably from 0.08 to 2.7 mm

The object of the invention is also a method of obtaining a metal strip coated with carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes and metal, comprising the steps:

a) coating a metal ribbon diffusion barrier layer,

b) applying a nucleating layer on the diffusion barrier layer,

c) introduction after steps a) and b) treated metal strip in an atmosphere containing gaseous organic compounds

d) the formation of carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes on metal tape at a temperature from 200°C to 1500°C,

(e) soaking the carbon nanotruck and/or fullerenes with metal.

In im is e according to the invention preferably the metal strip was covered with a diffusion barrier layer on both sides. The diffusion barrier layer is preferably applied nucleating layer, which helps the growth of carbon nanotubes in the form of columns or the deposition of fullerenes. Nucleating layer, which is used in the method preferably contains a metal salt selected from the group metals Fe metals 8-th, 9-th and 10-th subgroup of the periodic system of elements.

Processed so the metal strip then enter into the atmosphere, which preferably is a hydrocarbon atmosphere. Particularly preferably, the hydrocarbon atmosphere is an atmosphere of methane, and, in addition, in the atmosphere, respectively, a hydrocarbon atmosphere add a carrier gas. As the carrier gas can be, for example, argon.

The formation of carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes on metal tape is carried out usually at a temperature from 200°C to 1500°C. At a temperature of from 200°C to 900°C are formed mainly of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). At temperature above 900°C to about 1500°C, preferably formed of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The quality of the carbon nanotubes can be improved, if growth occurs in a moist environment. The formation of carbon nanotubes on the metal is th tape is in the form of bars, what helps nucleating layer. Fullerenes are deposited on the metal strip, preferably in the form of spheres.

Then, still soaking the carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes with metal. As metal are already above the metals Sn, Ni, Ag, Au, Pd, Cu or W, and their alloys.

The impregnation of carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes metal is preferably carried out by vacuum method, such as CVD (chemical vapour deposition - chemical vapor deposition) or PVD (physical vapour deposition - physical vapor deposition), electrolytic, recovery without overlap current, or by mould/seepage.

Preferably, in the coating are graphenes. Graphene and/or carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes preferably form a composite. This means that graphene and carbon nanotubes, graphenes with fullerenes, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, or all three components together may form a composite material. Particularly preferably, when the graphenes are located on carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes orthogonal, while they, for example, may represent the end of the tube in the axial direction, or when the graphene and fullerenes are orthogonal on carbon nanotubes. Orthogonal location Grafenau on fullerenes means quasit genialne location Grafenau on the fullerenes. The orthogonal arrangement of fullerenes in carbon nanotubes can be thought of as the scepter, and the fullerene is at the end of the carbon nanotube.

Thus obtained metal tape coated metal and carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes (and graphene), features an improved coefficient of friction, good transient contact resistance, good abrasion resistance and good ability to deform and thus great as Electromechanical parts such as electrical connectors, switches, panels, relays or similar. In particular, in combination with graphene in the form of the above-described composite can be obtained electrical and thermal conductivity in the horizontal and vertical direction, which is particularly advantageous.

1. Metal tape containing a coating of carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes, impregnated with a metal selected from the group consisting of Sn, Ni, Ag, Au, Pd, Cu, W or their alloys.

2. Metal tape according to claim 1, additionally containing diffusion barrier layer on both sides of the metal strip.

3. Metal tape according to claim 2, characterized in that the diffusion barrier layer is a dielectric.

4. Metal tape according to claim 2 or 3, characterized in that the diffusion barrier layer contains perehodny metal.

5. Metal tape according to claim 1, characterized in that the carbon nanotubes are located on the metal strip in the form of columns.

6. Metal tape according to claim 1, characterized in that the carbon nanotubes are single-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

7. Metal tape according to claim 1, characterized in that the metal strip has a thickness of from 0.06 to 3 mm.

8. Metal tape according to claim 1, characterized in that the coating contains graphene.

9. The metal strip of claim 8, wherein the graphene and/or carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes form a composite.

10. The metal strip of claim 8, wherein the graphene and/or fullerenes are orthogonal on carbon nanotubes, or the fact that the graphenes are orthogonal on carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes.

11. Metal tape according to claim 1, characterized in that the metal tape is pre-stamped.

12. A method of obtaining a metal strip with a coating of carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes, and metal, comprising the stage of: a) applying a diffusion barrier layer of the transition metal Mo, Co, Fe/Ni, Cr, Ti, W or CE on the metal strip, (b) applying a nucleating layer of a metal salt containing a metal selected from the group Fe, 9-th and 10-th subgroup of the Periodic system which we elements, the diffusion barrier layer, (C) introduction after stages (a) and (b) treated metal strip in a hydrocarbon atmosphere containing gaseous organic compounds, (d) the formation of carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes on metal tape at a temperature of from 200 to 1500°C, e) soaking the carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes metal selected from the group consisting of Sn, Ni, Ag, Au, Pd, Cu, W or their alloys.

13. The method according to item 12, wherein the metal tape on both sides covered with the diffusion barrier layer.

14. The method according to item 12, wherein the nucleating layer is applied partially (partial coverage).

15. The method according to item 12, wherein the atmosphere containing gaseous organic compound that contains a carrier gas, in addition to the hydrocarbon atmosphere.

16. The method according to item 12, characterized in that the metal strip make-containing gaseous organic compound atmosphere with a humidity of 50 to 90%.

17. The method according to item 12, characterized in that the temperature for the formation of carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes is from 200 to 900°C.

18. The method according to 17, characterized in that they form a multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT).

19. The method according to item 12, characterized in that the temperature for the formation of carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes is from 900 to 1500 is C.

20. The method according to claim 19, characterized in that the form of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT).

21. The method according to item 12, characterized in that the formation of carbon nanotubes on a metal strip is in the form of columns.

22. The method according to item 12, characterized in that the impregnation of carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes with metal carry out vacuum method, electrolytic, recovery without overlap current, or by mould/seepage.

23. The method according to item 12, characterized in that the coating is injected graphene.

24. The method according to item 23, wherein the graphenes are orthogonal on carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes, or the fact that the graphene and/or fullerenes are orthogonal on carbon nanotubes.

25. The method according to item 23, wherein the graphene and/or carbon nanotubes and/or fullerenes form a composite.

26. Use a metal tape according to any one of claims 1 to 11 as Electromechanical parts, in particular leadframe.



 

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6 cl, 1 dwg

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