Method of making fuel briquettes from biomass

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of making fuel briquettes from biomass, involving heat treatment of biomass at temperature of 200-500C without access to air, preparing binding substance obtained by dissolving dextrin in a pyrolysis condensate in ratio of 1:(5-20), mixing the binder with a carbon residue ground to particle size of 2 mm, moulding a fuel briquette from the obtained mixture and drying said briquette at room temperature for 2-5 days. The obtained briquettes have low combustion heat, improved mechanical strength and resistance to compression.

EFFECT: use of the disclosed method widens the range of solid fuel, the raw material base for making briquettes and reduces technological expenses on making briquettes.

1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex

 

The invention relates to methods for production of fuel briquettes by biomass. Fuel briquettes are designed for combustion of fuel installations layer type and can be used in "low" energy for household needs.

Known fuel briquettes (utility model RU 19384, IPC C10L 5/40, publ. 27.09.1998), which as a source of raw materials for manufacturing use powdered crumb - waste production (on the fractional composition) high quality charcoal (GOST 7637-84). Granulometric composition - 3-6 mm as a binder used potato starch (GOST 4567-89), corn starch or a mixture thereof, or the flour or dextrin in the following ratio of components, wt. -%:

crushed charcoal50-93
starch, or flour, or dextrin3-45
waterthe rest is up to 100

The source components are mixed with water, thoroughly mixed in a mixer. The resulting homogeneous mixture was kept for the swelling of the binder, and then produce the pressing and drying of the briquettes to the amount of moisture in the briquette 3-5%.

For the second in which the version of the utility model add wood, mainly birch sawdust.

The main disadvantage of this utility model is a narrow resource base for the manufacture of briquettes.

Known fuel briquettes (EN 2187542, IPC C10L 5/10, C10L 5/12, C10L 5/44, publ. 20.08.2002). Fuel briquette contains powdered charcoal with a particle size of from 0.05 mm to 5 mm, water and a binder selected from starch, carboxylmethylcellulose, or hydrosilicate sodium, or sapropel in the following ratio, wt.%: starch from 4 to 8, or carboxylmethylcellulose from 4 to 8, or hydrosilicate sodium from 2 to 5, or sapropel from 2 to 10, water is less than 3, the crushed charcoal - the rest is up to 100. The source components are mixed with water, thoroughly mixed in a mixer. The resulting homogeneous mixture was kept for the swelling of the binder, and then produce the pressing and drying of the briquettes to the amount of moisture in the briquette 3-5%.

According to the second variant of the invention optionally add wood (mainly birch) sawdust.

The main disadvantage of this invention is the narrow base of raw materials for the manufacture of briquettes.

As a prototype of the selected fuel briquettes (EN 2119532, IPC C10L 9/10, C10L 5/20, C10L 5/44, C10L 5/36, publ. 20.08.2002)containing 2-5 wt.% oxidant and subjected to heat treatment at 350-500C molded mixture containing, wt.%: peat 10-20, sawdust 5-10, the organic binder - the waste pulp and paper and petrochemical industries 2-10 and coal - else, the briquette is made of longitudinal holes of different diameters. The forming takes place by means of the mold.

The disadvantage of this invention is the use of expensive and energy-intensive forging equipment.

The objective of the invention is the expansion of the range of solid fuels, the source of raw materials for the manufacture of briquettes, decreasing the process cost of production.

This object is achieved in that a method of producing fuel briquettes from biomass involves thermal processing of biomass at a temperature of 200-500C without air. The binder is obtained by dissolution of dextrin in the pyrolysis condensate in the ratio 1:(520), then mixed binder crushed to 2 mm carbon balance and form of the resulting mixture of fuel briquettes. It is dried at room temperature for 2-5 days.

As a source of raw materials use biomass - peat, sawdust and other

Biomass is thermally treated at a temperature of 200-500C without air, getting a carbon residue of pyrolysis condensate.

The temperature range of heat treatment due to: lower limit temperature is the lowest temperature at which pyrolysis proceeds b is MASSY, top - selected from considerations of the use of process reactors and gas pipelines from cheap carbon steel, not capable of operating at temperatures above 500C.

Figure 1 shows the installation for thermal treatment of biomass.

The plant consists of a reactor 1, is placed in an electric furnace 2. In the reactor system installed thermocouples 3 for the temperature control process. Visual observation of the temperature allows the temperature logger 4. The reactor has an inlet 5 to the outlet of the pyrolysis vapors and fuel gas, coupled with heat-resistant hose 6 with refrigerator 7. Under the refrigerator is a reservoir for collecting condensate 8.

The plant is operated as follows. In the reactor 1 load biomass, heat the reactor by means of an electric furnace 2. The process temperature is controlled using a system of thermocouples 3 and temperature logger 4. When the biomass temperature of 200-500C electric furnace off, the products of thermal decomposition, released during the process - pyrolysis vapors and fuel gas out of the reactor through pipe 5 and, passing through the heat-resistant hose 6 into the refrigerator 7. In the refrigerator of the pyrolysis vapors are condensed and collected in containers for collection of condensate 8, the fuel gas cooling is carried out and is collected for further combustion. Carbon residue is removed from the reactor after it cools.

In the pyrolysis condensate add dextrin, mix to a uniform consistency, getting a binder. Carbon residue is removed from the reactor, crushed to 2 mm and mixed with a binder, receiving molding the mixture, from which with the help of the extruder or other forming devices to form briquettes.

Fuel briquette left to harden at room temperature for 2-5 days. When the shutter briquettes less than 2 days briquette does not have time to harden, resulting in low mechanical properties. Extract more than 5 days is impractical, as no change in the properties of briquettes compared to brick, aged for five days.

Fuel briquette is formed by the dimensions according to GOST 9963-84 "peat Briquettes for household needs. Technical requirements". Tests for mechanical strength are carried out according to GOST 21289-75 "coal Briquettes. Methods for determining the mechanical strength".

The technical result - the reduction of process cost of production is achieved due to the burning of the fuel gas is a by - product of thermal processing of biomass for process heat treatment. Replacement of pressure equipment on the extruder or the others who ormovie device allows to reduce the cost and energy intensity of the production line.

The invention is illustrated by examples.

Example 1. As a source of biomass use peat (lower calorific value of peat is 1400 kJ/kg). Peat moss is loaded into the reactor, after which it is heated to 400C. At the end of the process and the cooling furnace carbon residue is removed from the reactor and crushed to 2 mm, pyrolysis condensate is collected in tanks for condensate. Dextrin is dissolved in the pyrolysis condensate formed during heat treatment of peat in the ratio of 1:20, receiving the binder. A binder is mixed with powdered carbon residue forming fuel briquettes, and then dried at room temperature for 5 days. The resulting briquettes have a lower heat of combustion 7300 kJ/kg, 100%mechanical strength of the briquettes dropping and compression resistance - 4,6 kgf/cm2.

Example 2. As a source of biomass use peat (lower calorific value of peat is 1400 kJ/kg). Peat moss is loaded into the reactor, after which it is heated to 380C. At the end of the process and the cooling furnace carbon residue is removed from the reactor and crushed to 2 mm, pyrolysis condensate is collected in tanks for condensate. Dextrin is dissolved in the pyrolysis condensate formed during heat treatment of peat in the ratio of 1:10, receiving a binder. Swazoo is it mixed with powdered carbon residue, form briquettes, and then dried at room temperature for 5 days. The resulting briquettes have a lower heat of combustion (8400 kJ/kg, 100%mechanical strength of the briquettes dropping and compression resistance of 4.3 kgf/cm2.

Example 3. As a source of biomass use peat (lower calorific value of peat is 1400 kJ/kg). Peat moss is loaded into the reactor, after which it is heated to 430C. At the end of the process and the cooling furnace carbon residue is removed from the reactor and crushed to 2 mm, pyrolysis condensate is collected in tanks for condensate. Dextrin is dissolved in the pyrolysis condensate formed during heat treatment of peat in the ratio of 1:5, receiving the binder. A binder is mixed with powdered carbon residue forming fuel briquettes, and then dried at room temperature for 3 days. The resulting briquettes have a lower heat of combustion 9350 kJ/kg, 100%mechanical strength of the briquettes dropping and compression resistance to 3.7 kgf/cm2.

Example 4. As a source of biomass use peat (lower calorific value of peat is 1400 kJ/kg). Peat moss is loaded into the reactor, after which it is heated to 430C. At the end of the process and the cooling furnace carbon residue is removed from the of eector and crushed to 2 mm, pyrolysis condensate is collected in tanks for condensate. Dextrin is dissolved in the pyrolysis condensate formed during heat treatment of peat in the ratio of 1:3, obtaining a binder. A binder is mixed with powdered carbon residue forming fuel briquettes, and then dried at room temperature for 4 days. The resulting briquettes have a lower heat of combustion 9500 kJ/kg, 100%mechanical strength of the briquettes dropping and compression resistance to 2.3 kgf/cm2. It may be noted that when the content of the dextrin or further increase, the properties of the binder is reduced, the mechanical strength of the fuel briquettes are reduced. In addition, the increase in the content of dextrin leads to the growth of technological production costs.

Example 5. As a source of biomass use peat (lower calorific value of peat is 1400 kJ/kg). Peat moss is loaded into the reactor, after which it is heated to 380C. At the end of the process and the cooling furnace carbon residue is removed from the reactor and crushed to 2 mm, pyrolysis condensate is collected in tanks for condensate. Dextrin is dissolved in the pyrolysis condensate formed during heat treatment of peat in the ratio of 1:40, receiving the binder. A binder is mixed with powdered carbon is stim balance, however, to form briquettes cannot - binder does not have sufficient adhesiveness.

Example 6. As a source of biomass use sawdust (lower calorific value of peat is 12200 kJ/kg). Sawdust is loaded into the reactor, then heated to 430C. At the end of the process and the cooling furnace carbon residue is removed from the reactor and crushed to 2 mm, pyrolysis condensate is collected in tanks for condensate. Dextrin is dissolved in the pyrolysis condensate formed during heat treatment of sawdust in the ratio of 1:10, receiving a binder. A binder is mixed with powdered carbon residue forming fuel briquettes, and then dried at room temperature for 5 days. The resulting briquettes have a lower calorific value 20000 kJ/kg, 100%mechanical strength of the briquettes dropping.

For clarity, the examples described above are shown in table 1.

Peat (1400)
Table 1
Examples of the production of fuel briquettes from biomass
Example No. p.pThe initial biomass (lower heating value, kJ/kg)The temperature of the heat treatment, C The ratio of dextrin and pyrolysis condensateExposure times dayThe heat of combustion of the briquette, kJ/kgthe mechanical strength of the briquettes dropping, %The compression resistance, kgf/cm2
1Peat (1400)4001:20573001004,6
2Peat (1400)3801:10584001004,3
3Peat (1400)4301:5393501003,7
4Peat (1400)4301:3495001002,3
53701:40----
6Sawdust (12000)4301:1020000100Testing was not performed

Method of producing fuel briquettes from biomass, including heat treatment and mixing with a binder, characterized in that the heat treatment is carried out at a temperature of 200-500C without air, binder receive, dissolving the dextrin in the pyrolysis condensate in the ratio 1:(520), mixed with shredded to 2 mm carbon residue, then form the briquette and dried at room temperature for 2-5 days.



 

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