Closed-cycle hydroelectric plant

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: hydroelectric plant includes a housing made in the form of a vertical cylindrical chamber and a cylinder installed inside it at some distance, which form a composite channel, a compressor station interconnected via an air pipeline to a receiving chamber, a hydrojet turbine with the main generator, which is installed at the outlet of the turbine pipeline located in upper part of the receiving chamber, working fluid storage and level sensors. The plant is equipped with Pelton-type turbines with generators, the first and the second elevated tanks, additional level sensors, one of which is located in the first elevated tank, and the second one is located in the second elevated tank, and an air tank interconnected via an additional air pipeline with a check valve to the first elevated tank. Elevated tanks are installed inside upper part of the cylinder. The first elevated tank has the shape of a funnel, which is connected in the middle to the turbine pipeline. The second elevated tank is put on the first elevated tank and equipped with pressure hoses located in the first tank so that their outlets are located above the funnel opening of the first elevated tank. Pelton-type turbines are installed opposite nozzles of the hydrojet turbine along the perimeter of the receiving chamber. The receiving channel connects the receiving chamber to the second elevated tank. The storage is located in upper part of the housing. On pressure hoses and at the inlet of the turbine pipeline there installed are valves, and on some shafts with turbines there installed are flywheels.

EFFECT: lower consumption of power required for water return to water storage reservoir.

5 dwg

 

The invention relates to hydropower, and in particular to structures for electricity generation with limited energy. And can be Autonomous used in many industries.

Known hydropower plant in patent RU No. 2081966, including hydraulic turbine generator installed at the outlet of the turbine conduit connected to the reservoir, the water intake chamber with a device for return of water in the reservoir, consisting of not less than two groups of cells, as reported by the conduits, the same number of levers, connected floats, float chambers, connected by conclusions flexible chambers, and each output has the fixture.

The disadvantage is the complexity of the design and what to return water in the reservoir require large expenditures of energy from the outside.

Known hydropower plant in patent RU No. 2318955, publ. 10.03.2008. This hydropower plant includes a housing made in the form of a vertical cylindrical chamber, and installed inside on the length of the cylinder. forming a collecting channel, compressor station, reported the duct with a receiving cell, hydro jet turbine generator installed at the outlet of the turbine of the pipeline located in the upper part of priemnikami, store the working fluid, the sensor levels. This hydropower plant is closest to the offer.

A disadvantage of the known plant is the fact that to return the working fluid in the reservoir require large expenditures of energy from the outside.

The present invention is to reduce the costs of energy required to return the working fluid in the reservoir.

It is solved. that hydropower plant closed loop, comprising a housing made in the form of a vertical cylindrical chamber, and installed inside on the length of the cylinder, forming a collecting channel, compressor station, reported the duct with a receiving cell, hydro jet turbine main generator installed at the outlet of the turbine pipeline, located in the upper part of chamber, store the working fluid, the sensor levels, according to the invention is equipped with bucket turbines with generators, the first and second pressure towers, additional sensors levels, one of which is located in the first pressure tower, the second - the second pressure tower, tank air reported additional duct with non-return valve to the first pressure tower, while the pressure of the tower is installed inside the upper part of the cylinder, the first pressure tower has woro the crustacean leaves the form, connected in the center with turbine pipeline, the second pressure tower instructed on the first pressure tower and is equipped with a pressure sleeve located in the first tower so that their outputs are above the hole of the funnel first pressure tower, Pelton turbines installed opposite the nozzles hydro jet turbine on the perimeter of the inlet chamber, a collecting channel connects the receiving chamber with the second pressure tower, the store is located in the upper part of the body, pressure on the sleeves and at the inlet of the turbine pipeline valves installed on the same shafts with turbines installed flywheels.

The proposed hydropower plant closed cycle is illustrated in the drawings shown in figures 1-4.

Figure 1 shows a longitudinal section of the installation filled with the first, second pressure towers and store the working fluid.

Figure 2 shows a longitudinal section of the installation formed bottom water.

Figure 3 shows a longitudinal section of the installation in the operating mode.

Figure 4 shows the placement of Pelton turbines relative to hydro jet nozzles of the turbine.

Hydropower plant closed loop includes a housing made in the form of a vertical cylindrical chamber 1. Inside it at a distance has a cylinder 2 with the formation of the collecting channel 3. At the top the Asti cylinder 2 are the first 4 and second 5 pressure tower and in the upper part of the chamber 1 is store 6 working fluid. At the bottom of the store made a hole 7 for the passage of fluid, which is closed by a plug 8. The plug is connected is installed in the guide 9 and the rod 10 of the actuator (not shown). The lower part of the first pressure tower 4 has a funnel-shaped form, connected in the center with turbine pipeline 11, the inside of which is made of spiral guides 12 of copper. The second pressure tower 5 guided on the first pressure tower 4. In the lower part of the tower 5 has a pressure sleeve 13, which are located in the first pressure tower 4 so that their outputs are above the funnel hole in the tower. On the pressure sleeve 13 mounted valves 14, at the entrance of the turbine pipe valve 15.

In the lower part of the chamber 1 is receiving chamber 16. The case of the reception chamber made in the form of widening toward the bottom of the funnel, the edge of which is connected with the lower part of the cylinder 2. In the upper part of the body receiving chamber 16 are the output of the turbine pipe 11 with hydro jet turbine 17 and the main generator 18, which is insulated and installed in a separate machine room 19. Precast channel 3 connects the receiving chamber 16 with the second pressure tower 5. Receiving chamber 16 by a duct 20 with a check valve 21 is in communication with the compressor 22. The duct 20 races is halogen over hydro jet turbine 17. Opposite the nozzles 23 hydro jet turbine 17 around the perimeter of chamber 16 are Pelton turbines with 24 generators 25. The generator 25 is placed in the engine room (not shown). Inside of chamber 16 are channels 26 for draining the working fluid after passing through the Pelton turbine 24. The channels 26 in the lower part of the gravity flow channel 27 are connected to a collecting channel 3.

The unit has a tank 28, which is pre-filled with air by the compressor 22. Tank reported additional duct 29 with non-return valve 30 with the first pressure tower 4.

Store 6 has a level sensor 31 and two holes: one 32 - to fill it with fluid, another 33 for exhaust air.

The receiving chamber 16 has a sensor 34 level downstream 35, the second pressure tower 5 sensor 36 level of the headrace channel 37, the first pressure tower 4 - sensor 38 level, above which creates an air cushion 39.

The camera 1 has two pipe 40, which serve to exhaust air from the collecting channel 3.

Some shafts with turbines installed the flywheel 41.

The pipe 42 with the reversing valve is designed to release air pressure to reduce the number of revolutions of the turbine and generator.

Arrows 43 shows the path of the working fluid in the installation.

Hydropower plant closed loop works with edusim way.

First fill the working fluid (water-salt solution with the addition of fine polymer) storage 6, the first 4 and second 5 pressure tower, using external energy to start the installation. Thus close the valve 15 to the turbine inlet pipe 11 and open the cover 8 in the storage 6 and the valve 14 on the pressure sleeve 13. Through holes 32 and 7 in the storage 6, the pressure sleeve 13 fill the first pressure tower 4 to the level sensor 38, leaving space to create an air cushion 39. Then close the valve 14 on the pressure sleeve 13. When closed and valves 14 second pressure tower 5 is filled with the working fluid until the level sensor 36 of the upstream 37, for example, 30 meters. Then close the cover 8 and fill the storage 6 to the operation of the level sensor 31. Store 6 with the working fluid is back and providing the necessary level of the headrace channel 37 in the second pressure tower 5.

Then open the valve 15 to the turbine pipe 11 and serves the working fluid down the turbine pipeline in hydro jet turbine 17. Moreover, the spiral guides 12 in the turbine pipeline attach the water in a circular motion. At the same time open the valve 14 on the pressure sleeve 13 and the cover 8. The working fluid is supplied from the second pressure tower 5 on the pressure hoses to the inlet of the turbine TRU is aprovada 11, and from the storage 6 to the second pressure tower 5, which provides a constant flow of fluid in the hydro jet turbine 17 and leads to the promotion mounted on the same shaft hydro jet turbine 17 and the main generator 18. The stream flowing through the nozzle 23 of the working fluid gets on the blades Pelton turbines 24 and leads and generators 25 in rotation.

The working fluid flowing from the first pressure tower 4 turbine pipe 11 and through hydro jet turbine 17, begins to fill the chamber 1. When filling the chamber 1 from the receiving chamber 16 remains in the air, thereby creating favorable conditions for the rotation of the hydro jet turbine 17 and the main generator 18 connected coaxially. With further filling the chamber 1 by the working fluid and increase the pressure of the working fluid in the lower part of the chamber 1, the level in the inlet chamber 16 will increase.

If you increase the height of the liquid column h in the camera 1 in accordance with the formula for the pressure p=ρgh, where ρ is the density of fluid, g is the acceleration of free fall, in proportion will increase the air pressure in the receiving chamber 16. Use as a working fluid of water-salt solution will lead to an increase in pressure of a column of fluid of approximately one atmosphere while increasing the liquid level in the chamber 1 for every 10 meters high the s pole. In accordance with the rule of communicating vessels this will lead to an increase in the level of the downstream of 35. As before working air pressure in the receiving chamber 16 corresponded to atmospheric (1 ATM.), to maintain a constant level downstream with increasing liquid level in the chamber 1 to 30 meters the air pressure in the receiving chamber 16 should correspond to 4 ATM. This pressure is created with the help of compressor 22 through the duct 20 with a check valve 21.

After hydro jet turbine 17 is unwound up to the nominal speed of the generator 25 Pelton turbines 24 hydropower plant ready-to-load connection. The magnitude of this load can be adjusted the speed hydro jet turbine 17 and coaxially connected to the main generator 18 and Pelton turbines 24 and coaxially connected generators 25.

This adjustable speed hydro jet turbine 17 and generators 18 and 25 of the hydropower plant reach the following way. Open the non-return valve 30 to the duct 29, which is closed in the upper part of the first pressure tower 4 and by pumping the air from the tank 28, to create an air cushion 39. The surface pressure of the working fluid have to a speed at which the hydropower plant starts you shall abacinate electricity. Reaching a predetermined speed, the valve 30 in the duct 29 is closed.

Air pressure from the tank 28 to maintain the required air pressure to the working fluid pressure in the tower 4, offsetting the height of the dam-river hydroelectric power station. In the receiving chamber 16, the air pressure also remains constant, thereby controlling the operation of the hydropower plant and the downstream of 35.

Capacity pressure towers are selected in such a way that during operation of the hydropower installation in the flow of the working fluid from the first pressure tower 4 turbine pipeline 11 in hydro jet turbine 17 level pressure in the tower 4 remained at the same level. Therefore, for this is provided by the second pressure tower 5, seamed sleeves 13 with the tower 4, and the discharge tower 5 is filled from the storage 6. In this case, the working fluid becomes circular revolving movement from top to bottom.

The invention is designed so that coming out of the jet hydro jet turbine 17 working fluid rotates the main generator 18 and Pelton turbines 24. The kinetic energy of water flow hydro jet turbine 17, used twice, resulting in rotational movement of the Pelton turbines 24 and the generator 18. The working fluid, draining, forming the lower reach 35, which may not rise above ur is una sensor 34 downstream 35, the position is also controlled by the air pressure. The working fluid up precast channel 3 and reaching the pressure of the tower 5. again renewable repeats the cycle of its movement in hydropower installation in the direction of the arrows 43.

Hydro jet turbine, main generator and flywheel installed on the same axis, which ensures the stability of the rotation frequency. The pressure output of the jet from the nozzle hydro jet turbine rotates Pelton turbines. While rotating generators are combined coaxially with bucket turbines, and the shafts are also mounted flywheels. Thus there is a "deep" selection of useful energy obtained from the flywheel drives. This system ensures stable rotation and operation of the hydropower plant.

If necessary, an emergency stop of the hydropower installation it is necessary to exclude the access of the working fluid in the hydro jet turbine and after some time due to the accumulated flywheels energy hydro jet turbine and Pelton turbine stop already forcefully.

Re-start of the hydropower plant can be accomplished by forcing air into the intake chamber 16 and education downstream 35, remotely opening the valve 15 to the turbine pipelines is e 11. Thus, the working fluid will begin to flow in hydro jet turbine 17 and out the spray from nozzles 23 hydro jet turbine begins to rotate Pelton turbine 24, the liquid level rises to a second pressure of the tower 5 and it will begin to flow through the pressure sleeve 13 in the first pressure tower 4 in the infundibular portion of the turbine pipeline. Due to the spiral arrangement of the guides 12, which may cause additional vacuum, the working fluid when entering hydro jet turbine 17 receives additional acceleration and forms a water cord (similar to an inverted tornado).

In addition to creating a head pressure on the surface of the working fluid through pre-pumped into the tank 28 air can speed up the flow of working fluid through the turbine pipeline in hydro jet turbine. The escaping jet of the working fluid from the nozzle hydro jet turbine rotates also and Pelton turbines. The principle of operation of the hydropower installation ensures the production of clean energy in comparison with river hydro one turbine pipeline with an efficiency of over 100%.

Additionally, the working fluid after the start of the hydropower plant begins to arrive at the same time from the repository to the second pressure tower, where at the same time creating pressure, passes through a sleeve in the first pressure tower. The working fluid leaving the hose goes directly to the infundibular portion of the turbine of the pipeline and the duty cycle of renewable repeated, accompanied by the production of electricity by the generator. While most of the energy supplied to consumers, the smaller part is used to maintain operation of the hydropower installation. Increasing or decreasing the air pressure on the surface of the working environment in the first pressure tower you can change the speed hydro jet turbine, and hence the generator.

An important element of the hydropower plant, ensuring the stability of turbines and generators, are flywheels. Driving the flywheels their energy can provide optimal working conditions for turbines and generators. Combining single-shaft turbines, flywheels and generators receive the "softness" of the working characteristics necessary for most machines.

This positive impact both on wheels and turbines, is as follows:

the flywheel stores energy torque;

- hydro jet turbine also accumulate mechanical energy of torque.

In addition, it is also necessary to note the following features:

simultaneously rotate all of the turbine;

- no violations of the tsya synchronisation hydro jet turbine and Pelton turbine; rotation speed of the turbine when the acceleration is not constant, but is regulated in accordance with the desired mode of operation of the hydropower plant;

the flow of the working fluid in the spiral movement of the turbine pipeline forms a vortex cord and entails the formation of a crater on the surface of the working fluid at the inlet hole of the receiving part of the turbine pipeline;

- the air pressure on the surface of the working fluid in the first pressure tower controls the speed hydro jet turbine;

- when the unwinding of the working fluid in the turbine pipeline flow rate increases, and this means that in the vertical cord of the working fluid increases not only tangential, and axial flow velocity;

the material of the walls of the turbine pipe - polished copper.

The flow rate of the working fluid in the turbine pipeline depends on the hydrodynamic resistance of the material of the walls of the swirling flow of the working fluid in it. Minimum hydrodynamic resistance has a polished copper.

Friction in the turbine pipeline with increasing flow rate (the flow rate of the fluid can be increased by increasing the air pressure on the surface of the working fluid in the first pressure tower) of the working fluid decreases and after the offset is of a certain critical velocity, the fluid flows with a negative resistance, that is sucked into the turbine pipeline and accelerating it. This eliminates the need to build a hydropower installation high as the dam of the river hydroelectric power station to produce the same pressure energy to the turbine. Hydro jet turbine without loss flows through its working chamber and through the nozzle working fluid.

The proposed hydropower plant to the vicious cycle can be created using known materials and standard equipment.

Hydropower plant closed loop, comprising a housing made in the form of a vertical cylindrical chamber, and installed inside on the length of the cylinder, forming a collecting channel, compressor station, reported the duct with a receiving cell, hydro jet turbine main generator installed at the outlet of the turbine of the pipeline located in the upper part of the receiving chamber, the storage fluid, gauges, levels, characterized in that it is equipped with bucket turbines with generators, the first and second pressure towers, additional sensors levels, one of which is located in the first pressure tower, the second - the second pressure tower, tank air provided additional duct with non-return valve to the first pressure tower, at this pressure the tower is installed inside the upper part of the cylinder, the first pressure tower has a funnel-shaped form, connected in the center with turbine pipeline, the second pressure tower instructed on the first pressure tower and is equipped with a pressure sleeve located in the first tower so that their outputs are above the hole of the funnel first pressure tower, Pelton turbines installed opposite the nozzles hydro jet turbine on the perimeter of the inlet chamber, a collecting channel connects the receiving chamber with the second pressure tower, the store is located in the upper part of the body, pressure on the sleeves and at the inlet of the turbine pipeline valves installed on the same shafts with turbines installed flywheels.



 

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15 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fish protective facilities used in diversion facilities. Proposed fish protective facility includes vertical gauze shield installed in inlet part of water intake channel at angle to its longitudinal axis, fish outlet arranged in place of mating of shield with side of channel, and device for creating whirlpool current for washing the shield containing jet guide member and made in form of chambers adjoining outer surface of shield and forming water intake holes over entire depth of water intake channel. Chambers are made cylindrical being formed by surface of shield and jet guide member and are placed in communication through water intake holes formed by edges of shield of adjacent chambers and edges of jet guide members at place of their butt joining. Each chamber is provided with independent fish outlet made in form of vertical perforated pipe arranged coaxially to chamber and communicating by independent fish duct with fish outlet. Inlet part of water intake channel is made with tangential inlet, edge of left side of channel, shield and tangential inlet are arranged in one plane.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of washing of gauze shield and drawing off young fish and trash.

24 cl, 18 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic and hydropower engineering, particularly for building water-retaining structures to provide power supply to small settlements and farms.

SUBSTANCE: method involves assembling flexible apron assembly consisted of flexible floor apron and flexible downstream apron in watercourse; securing thereof to watercourse bottom by anchors. Water outlet assembly including hydroelectric generator arranged inside it is secured to floor apron and downstream apron by rigid ties. Connected to water outlet assembly by ties are water retaining shell and rope system secured to anchor poles located on watercourse bank.

EFFECT: reduced time of structure assembling and costs for electric power generation.

2 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly fish-passing devices included in water intake structures.

SUBSTANCE: method is based on young fish's tendency to follow moving objects. Method involves forming water permeable screen including flexible elastic members and extending for the full stream depth; providing means for flexible members displacement and installation in working position; providing preliminary young fish concentration in previously created artificial water-plants and transferring young fish into fish-passing channel. Water permeable screen is formed of flexible elastic members on level of stream carrying young fish with maximal concentration. Screen is created in horizontal plane, wherein flexible elastic members are reciprocated from one bank to another along with directing young fish concentrated inside screen in fish-passing channel. Flexible elastic members imitate natural water flora, which is native fish habitat.

EFFECT: provision of controllable water intake during change in vertical young fish descent dynamics.

27 cl, 21 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device designed to prevent young fish from getting into diversion facilities. Proposed fish protective device includes suction branch pipe lowered under water level, water permeable shield, device to bring young fish off made in from of hydraulic wash-away device with slot arranged coaxially with suction branch pipe out of the limits of suction hole, feed pipeline connected with pressure line of pump and made inside suction branch pipe coaxially with the latter, and ring conical partition made coaxially to suction branch pipe and rigidly secured on outer surface of suction branch pipe. Hydraulic wash-away device is formed by two cup-like deflectors with concave side pointed to suction hole and installed one over the other to form ring slot directed along water permeable shield. Lower deflector is provided with central outlet hole whose diameter is smaller than diameter of jet forming nozzle arranged coaxially to hydraulic wash-away device and rigidly connected with end part of feed pipeline. Ring conical partition is installed with its larger base to side of suction branch pipe, its smaller base being arranged in plane of suction hole.

EFFECT: simplified design of fish [protective device, provision of effective bringing young fish of limits of influence of suction branch pipe.

7 cl, 8 dwg

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