Vacuum hydraulic plant
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: vacuum hydraulic plant comprises a tight chamber 25, where pressure is pulled below atmospheric one, and where water is delivered. In the tight chamber 25 on one rope 17 there are tight cylinders 19 and 9 as capable in their balanced position to displace or charge water volume and spin hydraulic turbines 4 and 21. Hydraulic turbines 4 and 21 with power generators 5 and 20 are installed in an injection and drain pipelines 3 and 22 and installed above a water reservoir 30. For filtration of water at the ends of pipelines 3 and 22 there are meshy filters 23 and 29 arranged. For desalination of sea water or production of steam with its further condensation the tight chamber 25 via the pipeline with the gate valve is connected to a high-pressure ejector. One end of the ejector is connected with a fresh water load via a heat load. The other end of the ejector is serially connected with a source of high-pressure. At the inlet and outlet of the tight chamber 25 there are valves 28 and 24 installed.
EFFECT: invention provides for capability of desalination, filtration, heating or cooling of water.
4 cl, 9 dwg
The invention relates to the field of energy and can be used in various branches of national economy, in particular can be used on any flat terrain, where there is a reservoir or tank of water.
Known water installations used for various purposes, including: to generate electricity in hydroelectric power plants (HPP), to generate electricity for desalination and filtration of water running through the drop of water levels the surface.
Many water installations represent a complex and expensive facilities and equipment, and can only be installed in certain areas, the landscape which allows successful operation of HPP (see Petro G.A., Special types of buildings hydraulic installations. M: Energy, 1975, S; Kerov VG, Kerava M.E. Ter-Minassian, Hydroelectric, Patent RF №2012713, CL EV 9/00, bull. No. 9 of 15.05.94).
Most of the existing hydro power plants represent a serious environmental threat and can cause man-made disasters (see Ismagilov IVAN, man-made disaster threaten economic, energy, national security and the functioning of the state. Vestnik Kazanskogo state technical University, 2010, No. 5, P.184-189).
The famous "Underground pumped storage power plant" (is. Vissarionov, V.I., Dexter DJ Underground pumped storage power plant, ed. St. USSR №746028, CL EV 9/00, bull. No. 25 from 07.07.80)containing pipelines; the tank with walls covered with a gas-tight casing and insulating material; hydraulic machines, which can work as turbines; electrical machinery, which can operate as an electric generator.
The disadvantage of this HPP are: complex and expensive facilities and equipment, placing it under the ground, which leads to an increase in additional economic costs for the development and operation of hydropower plants and significantly affects the cost of electricity in General.
Closest to the technical essence of the present invention and taken as a prototype is a "Vacuum hydroelectric power plant" (see Tabatadze addressed I.I., Vacuum hydroelectric, Patent RF №2005199, CL F03B 13/06, bull. No. 47-48 from 30.12.93). This vacuum HPP (figure 1) includes: a reservoir 1, a sealed chamber 2, a turbine 3, the generator 4, the filler funnel 5, the cover 6, gauge 7, vodoravno 8, the suction outlet 9 with the valve 10, the pipe 12, valve 13, a vacuum pump 14, a motor 15, a battery 16, the outlet pipe 17, valve 18, a turbine 19, the generator 20. Waste water is discharged through for 21.
Disadvantages you the run of the prototype are: 1) structural impossibility desalination and filtration of sea water; 2) no device for heating or cooling fluid in heat exchange apparatus; 3) this setup can only work in a mountainous area, where there is a natural differential water surface, but may not work on flat terrain. All these factors lead to limit functionality widespread use of this water installations.
Solved object of the invention is to enhance the functionality, in particular desalination, filtration, heating, or cooling water.
The technical result, which sent the invention is to expand the functionality of the vacuum water installations, in particular seawater desalination, water filtration, heating, or cooling.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that vacuum-water systems containing sealed chamber with a device for creating suction, turbines, kinematically associated with generators, pressure cell, which is connected via a suction line from the reservoir through the drain line with valves, motor, vacuum gauge, vodoravno, inside the sealed chamber entered a pressurized container with a large cross-section and with the possibility of alternating moves from the environment to the vacuum pressure in which dnow Wednesday, and also introduced the n-th number of sealed containers of a smaller cross-section, located in the aquatic environment, and they are placed on a single rope or chain with the ability at their equilibrium position displacement or discharge water volume and unwinding of the respective turbine, receiving electricity with turbines, with respective generators placed in the injection and discharge pipelines and installed above the reservoir to filter water at the ends of the pipes are mesh filters, with one filter mesh is made with the possibility of a high degree of purification, respectively, with high hydraulic resistance, another mesh filter with low hydraulic resistance, and for desalination sea water or produce steam with subsequent condensation of the airtight chamber through a pipeline with a valve connected to the ejector high pressure, one end of which is connected to a consumer of fresh water through a heat consumer, and the other end of the ejector sequentially connected to a source of high pressure at the inlet and outlet of the sealed chamber mounted valves;
to ensure equilibrium and prevent lifting of the pressurized container above a predetermined level, inside the sealed chamber is rigidly mounted backup the sealed container;
to avoid overheating or freezing of water along the contour of the sealed chamber is a heat-insulation layer;
for heating or cooling of the fluid in the discharge water from a reservoir in a sealed chamber in the discharge pipe has a heat exchanger.
The main advantages of this invention are:
1. Vacuum water systems can be installed at any location where a water body (e.g. river, lake, sea, ocean or any water tank.
2. For operation of the proposed vacuum water installations with the aim of simultaneous or alternate water filtration, desalination does not require continuous operation of the vacuum pump with the appropriate cost of electricity.
3. To create a stream of liquid (water) with the aim of promotion of the respective turbines and generate electricity using special device: a sealed cylinder filled with air (gas), on the same rope (chain); the rotation of the wheels and the movement of the pressurized cylinders is carried out by means of the electric motor. Due to the fact that the system is leak-proof bottles almost always is in equilibrium, the energy minimum to move them inside an airtight box.
4. All the main components of the vacuum water installations are sealed inside the ameres with vacuum pressure and are not sources of noise.
5. There is a possibility to install several vacuum hydro installations in one place.
6. Vacuum water systems can be effectively applied to simultaneous or alternating desalination of sea water, produce steam, water filtration, heating, or cooling of the coolant in the heat exchanger.
7. Vacuum water systems for desalination and water filtration does not represent a threat to the environment because there is no need to build dams, to change the direction of natural water flows, to artificially create differential levels of water surface, distorting the natural landscape and sharing the habitat representatives of the living fauna.
Scientific novelty of this invention are:
1) the first opportunity to install environmentally friendly vacuum water systems on any flat terrain, where there is a water tank or water, without the need to create dams, artificial raising of the level of the river, placing underground or in the mountains;
2) the application for the first time a special system pressurized cylinders are located on the same rope (chain) and located in any position in equilibrium inside the sealed chamber with a lower pressure than atmospheric;
3) receiving the first power, which partially compensates the costs of filtration and desalination in the s by corresponding rotation of the turbine due to water flow, created by displacement or discharge of water in a sealed chamber with motion of a system of pressurized cylinders.
To explain the technical nature of the invention, consider Fig 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, where:
Figure 1 - installation of the prototype; figure 2 - General view of the vacuum water installations; figure 3, 4, 5 - the principle of the vacuum water installations on the discharge and water discharge; figure 6 is an example of the ratio of pressurized cylinders; 7 - the water installations for the production of steam and water desalination; Fig - work water installations for heating or cooling of the coolant in the heat exchanger; figure 9 - the water installations for water filtration, where:
1 - pipeline; 2 - pump; 3 - discharge pipe; 4 - turbine; 5 - electric generator; 6 - insulating layer; 7 - valve; 8 - water level inside the sealed chamber 25; 9 - pressurized container; 10 - fixed backup; 11 - outlet pipe; 12 - valve; 13 - hour wheel attachment 14; 14 - wheel; 15 - motor, 6 - gauge; 17 - rope (chain); 18 - vodoravno; 19 of the same volume and weight of the pressurized cylinders; 20 - generator; 21 - turbine; 22 - drain pipe; 23 - mesh filter; 24 - valve; 25 - tight chamber; 26 - wheel; a 27 - hour wheel attachment 26; 28 - valve; 29 - mesh filter; 30 - reservoir (reservoir) water level 31; 32 - valve 33 - pipeline; 34 - ejector high pressure; 35 - a source of high pressure steam; 36 - pump; 37 consumer of fresh water; 38 - heat consumer; 39 - exchanger; 40 pipe; 41 - consumer of heat or cold; 42 - reservoir with purified water.
This vacuum water systems system contains pressurized cylinders 19 and 9. It is proposed to use the same size, volume, weight pressurized cylinders 19 with air (gas) inside. A pressurized container 9 also inside contains air (gas). Shell sealed cylinders 19 and 9 should be made of light materials. Pressurized cylinders 19 and 9 are designed so that in any position to remain in equilibrium (figure 3, 4, 5). Let V1- the volume of the pressurized cylinder 9 in the water, a V2- the total volume of the pressurized cylinders 19, which balances the volume V1. Figure 3 shows that V1=0 and V2=0. And figs.4 and 5 V1=V2i.e. the volume of the sealed part of the container 9, which is in the water, balanced volume V2. If we neglect the mass of all pressurized cylinders, at any location of the entire system is pressurized cylinders is in equilibrium (equality arhimedova forces Fa, 3, 4, 5). For example, this can be achieved as follows: the cross-sectional area S1sealed cylinder 9 must be 2 times more p is Asadi cross-section S 2pressurized cylinders 19 (6). In this case, when passing distance h1airtight tank 9, for example when submerged it in water, the volume V1balanced volume V2(6)where:
where h1- the height of the part of the airtight container 9 in the water, m;
S1-the cross-sectional area of the pressurized cylinder 9, m
Figure 6 shows one such situation, when the integer n is a number of pressurized cylinders 19 is the total volume V2equal to:
where h2- the height of one pressurized cylinder 19, m; S2- the cross-sectional area of the pressurized cylinders 19, m2; n - total number of sealed containers 19 in equilibrium with volume V1.
Thus, it requires less power (energy) to move pressurized cylinders 9, 19, and therefore, less power consumed by the motor 15. However, when high speed rotation of the wheel 14 is possible, when the water level 8 is slightly deviates from its normal level N (figure 2). To avoid large deviations is proposed to construct an airtight chamber 25 so that the total area of water-level 8 was several times more area and cross-sectional airtight container 9. Thus, a pressurized container 9 is alternately in the water, the vacuum space, and pressurized cylinders 19 are always in the water (figure 2, figure 3, figure 4, figure 5). To prevent lifting of the pressurized cylinder 9 above a predetermined level is used the fixed support 10, is rigidly fixed inside the sealed chamber 25. Wheels 14, 26 mounted on the corresponding stationary racks 13, 27. The motor 15 with the battery installed still inside the sealed chamber 25. Strainers 29, 23 with a small hydraulic resistance serve to prevent debris, dirt particles, etc. in a sealed chamber 25 and on the blades of the respective turbines 4, 21.
We offer vacuum water systems is as follows.
Setting water installations. First valves 28 and 24 close the access to the respective pipes 3 and 22, open valve 12. The pipeline 1 by means of a pump 2 in a sealed chamber 25 at an open valve 7 receives water from a reservoir (tank) 30. An airtight chamber filled with water to a height exceeding the height H (figure 2), a pressurized container 9 is fully or partially immersed in water. Then valve 12 and the valve 7 is closed, the valve 24 moves to the open position, the water rushes through the drain pipe 22 into the reservoir (reservoir) 30. When the water level inside the sealed chamber 25 is reduced, and the pressure inside this chamber becomes smaller than the external atmospheric pressure p1(figure 2). The water level H can be found by the formula:
where p1- external atmospheric pressure, PA; p2- the internal pressure inside the sealed chamber above the surface of the water, PA; g - acceleration of gravity, m/s; ρW- density of liquid (water), kg/m3.
Thus, above the surface of water in a sealed chamber 25, the pressure p2<<p1. The readings of the devices 16 and 18 can be sure in the original water level inside the sealed chamber 25 (figure 2).
The vacuum water installations
At the beginning of the operation of the vacuum water installations pressurized cylinders 9 and 19 are in their initial position (figure 2, figure 3). The valve 12 is closed, the valve 28 is in the closed position and the valve 24 is open. When the coil is energized from the battery to the electric motor 15 of the wheel 14 rotates counterclockwise, a pressurized container 9 starts to dive, thus displacing water from the sealed chamber 25. The water flow is directed through the drain pipe 22 into reservoir (tank) 30, for the promotion of the turbine 21. The generator 20 generates electricity, partially offset the cost of seawater desalination, aluchemie pair, water filtration, heating or cooling the respective coolant in the heat exchanger. After the turbine 21 will cease to rotate, the valve 24 will move to the closed position and the valve 28 is open. When this pressurized cylinders 9 and 19 are, as in figure 5. When the coil is energized from the battery to the electric motor 15 of the wheel 14 rotates in the opposite direction, clockwise. A pressurized container 9 rises, pumping water from a reservoir (tank) 30. The water enters the sealed chamber 25 through the discharge pipe 3, for the promotion of the turbine 4 and the generator 5 generates electricity, partially offset the cost of desalination of sea water, steam, water filtration, heating or cooling the respective coolant in the heat exchanger. After a pressurized container 9 will return to its original position (figure 2, figure 3)and the turbine 4 will cease to rotate, the valve 28 will move to the closed position. Next cycle water installations repeated.
If the external atmospheric pressure is provided by maintaining a constant height of water level 8 inside the sealed chamber 25. For example, with increasing atmospheric pressure vodoravno 18 shows the increase in water level. Opens valve 12, the pressure inside the sealed chamber 25 above the water increases, and with whom m the water level 8 is reduced due to the ingress of water into the tank (pond) 30 through the drain pipe 22. After the water level will decrease to the source, the valve 12 is closed. By reducing the external atmospheric pressure, the water level 8 can be reduced. Therefore, the estimated height of water column N (2) must meet the low atmospheric pressure. If during operation of the water installations and multiple opening the valve 12, the pressure p2will increase (figure 2) compared with the allowable design pressure, gauge 16 will lock this increase. In this case, it is necessary to close valves 28, 24 access to pipelines 3, 22 and by means of a pump 2 when you open the valve 7 to raise the water level 8. And then at the closed valve 12, the valve 24 to open access to the pipeline 22, and then, when the water inflow into the reservoir (tank) 30, there will be a vacuum, and pressure p2inside the sealed chamber 25 will be reduced.
To avoid overheating or freezing of water inside the sealed chamber 25 is suggested to use the insulating layer 6 (figure 2). When using the tank 30 with a small surface area of the water level 31 can vary. For example, when the water discharge from water installations he will rise, and for discharge into the water systems will decrease. To maintain the water level 31 permanent accommodation of two identical hydro installations running at the same time: when magnet the Institute of water from a reservoir in one water systems, the same volume of water sourced from different water installations in the same tank.
The inventive vacuum water systems can be used for desalination of sea water and produce steam with subsequent condensation. In this case, inside the vacuum water installations can be effectively evaporate the water due to the heat Q environment (see Andryushchenko A.I. Fundamentals of thermodynamics cycles of thermal power plants, M.: Higher school, 1968, S), with an airtight chamber 25 is not covered outside of the insulating layer 6 (Fig.7). Low pressure steam from the sealed chamber 25 is supplied at an open gate valve 32 through line 33 into the high pressure ejector 34, inside of which he is fond of flow of high-pressure steam supplied from a source of high pressure steam 35. The heat from the condensed vapor mixture is delivered to the heat consumer 38, one part of the condensate is in the form of fresh water to the consumer of fresh water 37, and the other part of the pump 36 is delivered to a source of high-pressure steam 35 (for example, in a steam boiler) (Fig.7).
This invention can be used for heating or cooling of the coolant in the heat exchanger (see Bulgarian AV, Mukhachev GA, Shchukin VK, Thermodynamics and heat transfer, M.: Higher school, 1964, S-421). If the water temperature in the reservoir (tank) 30 (Fig) lower than the temperature of the coolant in the pipe 40 at the entrance to the heat exchanger 39, the water injected into the sealed chamber 25, cools the coolant. If the temperature in the reservoir (tank) 30 higher than the temperature of the coolant in the pipe 40 at the entrance to the heat exchanger 39, the consumer 41 receives heat (Fig).
The water systems can be successfully used for cheap water filtration. For example, the reservoir (tank) 30 contains water which is to be cleaned, and the reservoir 42 - purified water (Fig.9). In this case, the mesh filter 29 is a filter to a high degree of purification and, therefore, with high hydraulic resistance, and the strainer 23 - low hydraulic resistance (Fig.9).
The estimated vacuum water systems can effectively be used in the simultaneous or alternate functions: seawater desalination, water filtration, heating, or cooling fluid.
This vacuum water systems can be used, for example, to implement any one function, such as filtering water.
This movement of the cylinder in a sealed chamber is the movement of water in the pressure and drain the pipe and the filtering process is performed when the water passes through the filters. In this case, the coolant in heat exchange apparatus, the ejector, the generators will not function.
EN is a logical way to implement desalination:
To do this, using the movement of the cylinders in a sealed chamber is the movement of water in the pressure and drain the pipe, ensure the operation of the ejector, while the condensation of steam to obtain fresh water. This pipeline filters are not installed and do not operate the coolant heat exchanger and the generator.
Techno-economic advantages of the invention compared with the known analogues:
1) movement of the pressurized cylinders inside the sealed chamber with a lower pressure than atmospheric, displaced or injected volume of water spins the turbine and the corresponding generator produced electricity;
2) pressurized cylinders inside the sealed chamber in any position are in balance;
3) the ability to maintain water levels (for the optimal operation of the vacuum water installations) in the tank with a small surface area constant due to the fact that the volume of water flowing in one vacuum water systems from this reservoir is equal to the volume of water flowing into the same reservoir from another vacuum water installations;
4) getting a pair with its subsequent condensation and obtaining fresh water, partially offsetting the costs of these processes through the production side is elektroenergii when the unwinding of the respective turbine;
5) cooling or heating fluid in the heat exchanger, partially offset the costs of these processes through the production side of the power in the unwinding of the respective turbines;
6) cheap and efficient water filtration.
In comparison with the known analogues offer vacuum water systems, due to the constructive characteristics, is a multifunctional, environmentally safe and can be applied on any flat terrain and in different sectors of the economy and industry.
1. Vacuum water systems, containing a sealed chamber with a device for creating suction, turbines, kinematically associated with generators, pressure cell, which is connected via a suction line from the reservoir through the drain line with valves, motor, vacuum gauge, vodoravno, characterized in that inside the sealed chamber entered a pressurized container with a large cross-section and can be moved from an environment with a vacuum pressure in the aquatic environment, as well as introduced the n-th number of sealed containers of a smaller cross-section, located in the aquatic environment, and they are placed on a single rope or chain with the ability at their equilibrium position displacement or discharge volume water and unwinding of the respective turbine, receiving electricity with turbines, with respective generators placed in the injection and discharge pipelines and installed above the reservoir to filter water at the ends of the pipes are mesh filters, with one filter mesh is made with the possibility of a high degree of purification, respectively, with high hydraulic resistance, another mesh filter with low hydraulic resistance, and for the desalination of sea water or produce steam with subsequent condensation of the airtight chamber through a pipeline with a valve connected to the ejector high pressure, one end of which is connected to a consumer of fresh water through a heat consumer, and the other end of the ejector sequentially connected to a source of high pressure at the inlet and outlet of the sealed chamber valves installed.
2. Vacuum hydraulic installation according to claim 1, characterized in that in order to ensure equilibrium and prevent lifting of the pressurized container above a predetermined level inside the sealed chamber is rigidly mounted backup airtight container.
3. Vacuum hydraulic installation according to claims 1 and 2, characterized in that to avoid overheating or freezing of water along the contour of the sealed chamber is a heat-insulation layer.
4. Vacuum hydrosta the transportation according to claims 1 and 2, characterized in that the heating or cooling of the fluid in the discharge water from a reservoir in a sealed chamber in the discharge pipe has a heat exchanger.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: driving mechanism comprises a symmetric wing 1 arranged in an uneven flow of water with side walls 2, the axis 3 of which is installed in hinged supports 4 at rear ends of cross beams 5, connected by front ends through hinged joints 6 to a support structure 7, and also an actuating mechanism 9 connected with the axis of the wing 1 by means of a gear 8. The mechanism 9 is equipped with an elastic air cushion 11 arranged in the upper part of the wing 1 above water 10 filling its lower part 10, a lever 12, fixed on the wing 1, and vertical traction rods 13. Traction rods 13 are connected by lower ends with bearings 14 installed on the axis 3 and are attached by upper ends by means of springs 15 to the structure 7. Between the structure 7 and the lever 12 there are the following components installed in series - an elastic element 16 and a controller 17 of wing 1 position. In walls 2 there are holes 18. The top of the holes 18 is arranged below the upper point of the wing 1 profile and matches the level 19 of its filling water 10 and the lower border of the cushion 11, which is arranged in the form of an elastic shell 20, filled with air 21.
EFFECT: higher efficiency due to parametric amplification of rotary oscillations of a driving mechanism wing.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device using energy of sea waves comprises a floating body (1), connected by means of a flexible connecting facility (3) with a converter (6), moving reciprocally in a linear generator (2). The floating body (1) is suited for floating on sea, and a stator (8) of the generator is suited for anchoring at sea bottom. A guide device (9) is installed at the inlet of the connecting facility (3) into a jacket (4) of the generator (2) and comprises a hollow body (12), having lower and upper holes (17, 18). The upper hole (18) is larger than the lower hole (17). The connecting facility (3) is suited for passage through the lower hole (17) and the upper hole (18) of the guide device, besides, a part of the connecting facility momentarily arranged between the specified holes, is determined as a guide part, at the same time the lower hole (17) is arranged so that the guide part next to the lower hole is at one straight line with the specified central axis, and the upper hole (18) is arranged so that the guide part next to the upper hole may form an angle with the central axis. The invention also relates to the method for power generation and to application of the device using energy of sea waves for power generation.
EFFECT: generation of power from potential sources of energy without regard to relative side position of a floating body.
24 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plant comprises a floating body partially filled with liquid, a flat float arranged in it, the central part of which is arranged by means of a flexible element with the body bottom. Along the line of the diameter of the upper surface of the float at the identical distance from its centre there are two stands fixed as perpendicular to the float surface. The upper end of one stand is equipped with an upper flexible element, which is tightened, wound in direction of hour hand motion onto the upper part of the coil, and the end of the wound section is fixed on it. The upper end of the other stand is equipped with a lower flexible element, which is tightened, wound in direction opposite to the hour hand motion onto the lower part of the coil, and the end of the wound section is fixed on it, besides, lengths of flexible elements are equal to each other. The coil is tightly placed onto a shaft of a vertically arranged electric generator. The middle part of the coil, the upper end of the upper part, the lower end of the lower part of the coil are equipped with flanges. In the plane of stands arrangement on the lower surface of the float with displacement from its centre there is a fin fixed.
EFFECT: higher reliability of a plant in case of wave movement direction change.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: inshore hydraulic wind-powered plant comprises a platform with a slot, fixed on sea surface in its coastal strip, a rotor plant arranged in the platform slot with location of its part under water and comprising two rotors, which are arranged in a mirror-like manner on a common shaft, mechanically connected with a power generator shaft, every of which is arranged in the form of a disc with blades in the form of aerodynamic wings, arranged with a gap relative to the common shaft, two fairings, each of which is installed on the common shaft in front of the appropriate rotor and covers the gap between the inner edges of blades, and two confusors, and an additional sunk platform fixed in front of the platform at the side of the sea. Ends of rotor blades are arranged as truncated to the axis of the common shaft. Confusors are installed at peripheral parts of ends of rotor blades to form a gap with an appropriate fairing.
EFFECT: increased fullness of joint usage of energy of swash, ebbs and air flow, and also simplified design of an inshore hydraulic wind-powered plant and its operation.
7 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: wave energy converter includes platform 22 submerged into water space. Platform 22 is supported in water by means of fully buried float and retained by means of halyard 28, such as chain, rope or cable wire, which attaches the platform to bottom of water space. Pump assembly is fixed on platform and includes double-acting pump 9 performing back-and-forth movement and surface float 2. Float 2 can float on surface of water space. Floatability of surface float 2 creates upward stroke of double-acting pump 9 when wave height increases, and weight of surface float 9 creates downward stroke of double-acting pump when wave height decreases. Displacement of fully sunken float is larger than displacement of combined sunken weight of platform 22, pump assembly and halyard 28 so that halyard 28 remains stretched during downward stroke of double-acting pump 9.
EFFECT: creation of efficient wave energy converter.
16 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ocean-wave generator. Proposed generator comprises float 2, rotary shaft 1, generator 3, multiple turbine wheels 4 and water flow wheel 5. Generator 3 is locked on float 2 accommodating accelerator 5. Shaft 1 runs in sync with float 2 and accelerator 5 and is arranged there between. Top end of shaft 1 extends through float 2 to get jointed with generator rotor 3. Shaft bottom end extends through accelerator 5 to be locked with turbine wheel 4. Water flow channel 51 is arranged in accelerator 5 to produce high-speed water flow to drive turbine wheels 4 in one direction. Channel 51 features scroll shape. Internal diameter of channel 541 gradually decreases from its inlet to outlet.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
8 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: transmission (10) is supported by turbine (5) housing and includes inlet (12), outlet (20) and gear train (14, 16) between inlet and outlet, which is intended to increase the rotation speed at the outlet in comparison to the inlet. Gear train includes many gear wheels for transmission of torque from inlet to outlet. Transmission also includes static carrier (44) of stage of planetary transmission (14), which is elastically connected to housing (50) of turbine to receive reactive torque of a single elastic gear train. Transmission also includes elastic support that includes extended torsional element (60) designed for elastic twisting around torsional axis (C).
EFFECT: improvement of turbine transmission design.
11 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: hydroelectric power plant includes water intake located outside bed of river, main capacity, pressure waterway and waterway of turbines. Along the whole bed of river there arranged is n regulating water reservoirs for water collection, each of which is equipped with a filling channel connected to the river bed and made in upper place as to level and dam with the height of up to upper level, which is made in lower place as to level. Discharge pipeline interconnected with river bed and equipped with a gate valve is installed at lower point of each regulating water reservoir. The main capacity is made in the form of the main water reservoir located below regulating water reservoirs in the section with high level difference and equipped with filling channel connected to the river bed, and dam with height of up to upper level, which are made in upper and lower places respectively as to water level. Pressure waterway is installed downstream as to level of the main water reservoir and made in the form of pressure pipelines with length of not less than 12-15 km depending on river water level difference in order to obtain the required head, which leave the main water reservoir. Pressure pipelines consist of winter pressure pipeline for minimum water flow rate and n summer pressure pipelines for maximum water flow rate. Pressure pipelines are connected to turbine waterway. Hydroelectric power plant also includes compensation water body located at the head level of turbine waterway, which is connected to waterway of turbines and equipped with pump group.
EFFECT: increasing operating efficiency of hydroelectric power plant.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to wave power plant for generation of electric power. Wave power plant includes a floating body provided with possibility of floating in the sea, and electric linear oscillator with stator 5 and translator 6 performing back-and-forth movements. Stator 5 is provided with possibility of being anchored at the sea bottom. Translator 6 is connected to floating body by means of connection device. Translator 6 is supported with many rolling elements 15 so that circumferential gap 14 is formed between stator and translator. Each rolling element has elasticity that is rather low to comply with the condition consisting in the fact that the result of change of width "d" of the gap is the change of full force of rolling elements 15, which exceeds full magnetic forces on translator 6, which are the result of the above change of width "d".
EFFECT: invention is aimed at improvement of operating reliability.
20 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: wave power device comprises a floating body 1, which floats on sea, and an electric linear generator 2, comprising a stator 5 and a converter 8, making reciprocal movements along the central axis. The stator 5 may be fixed to the sea bottom, and the converter 8 is connected to the floating body 1 with the help of a connecting facility 3, 7. The generator 2 is enclosed into a water impermeable capsule 4, having an upper end wall with a hole, through which the connecting facility 7 stretches. The hole makes a seal 12, tightly adjacent to the connecting facility 7. The seal 12 is arranged in a flexible manner.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability of a wave power device.
14 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has metallic hubs of stator and rotor, wherein crowns of stator and rotor are concentrically pressed. Crowns of stator and rotor are made of durable ceramics and are additionally equipped with connections, allowing to exclude non-controlled turning of crowns in hubs and spontaneous axial displacement thereof.
EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency.
FIELD: turbines using kinetic energy of liquid flow.
SUBSTANCE: proposed turbine has turbine case , stay ring with cascade of stay vanes, wicket-gate mechanism with cascade of adjustable vanes, operating element with cascade of flange-mounted blades and drive shaft coupled with electric generator step-up gear, operating element chamber, and draft tube. It is also provided with straightening mechanism that has cascade of vanes, chain transmission that has sprockets and shafts; external and internal rims are made in cross-sectional areas in the form of ovals. Cascade of blades is made in the form of caterpillar cascade. Operating element blades are cylindrical in shape and hinge-joined through chain transmission whose drive sprocket is coupled with drive shaft. Flanges of operating element blades are provided with supporting rollers mounted in fixed supports and joined with chain transmission shafts at distances of two adjacent operating-mechanism blades; guides are made in the form of oval junctions joined with turbine internal rim in vicinity of their abutting against butt-ends of flanges carrying operating element blades.
EFFECT: enhanced turbine efficiency.
1 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mobile generator plants.
SUBSTANCE: proposed generator plant has frame that mounts power unit, foot-operated air pump, and compressed-air cylinders whose air lines communicate with generator plant. Control panel is electrically connected to output of electric generator vertically installed on generator plant housing and mechanically coupled with exciter and power unit made in the form of vertical-shaft pneumostatic motor. The latter has sealed case with inlet, outlet, and safety valves closed with cover that accommodates vertical rotor mounted in case and cover bearings and made in the form of shaft with two power drives attached thereto by means of U-shaped frames. Power drives are installed on either side of vertical shaft and spaced 180 deg. apart in horizontal plane. Each of them has a number of similar members symmetrically mounted one on top of other, their quantity being dependent of desired power. Each member is essentially rhombic plate made of light-mass and high-strength metal whose longitudinal axis is longest diagonal parallel to that of other power drive. Through ducts are provided on front ends of rhomb and L-shaped blind ducts, on its rear butt-ends. All these ducts are closed with covers kinematically coupled with drive cylinder piston. Compressed air fed to sealed housing opens covers, and unbalanced forces are built up on each member which set power unit in rotary motion. Air evacuation from sealed housing closes covers with the result that no forces are built up on drive members.
EFFECT: enhanced power output and torque.
2 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of free flow of water into electric energy. Proposed microhydroelectric station contains hydraulic turbine with horizontal axle of rotation connected with submersed sealed electric generator. Station is provided with carrying frame consisting of sections on ends of which shields are installed to form confuser at inlet of water flow, and diffuser at outlet. Slow speed generator is used as electric generator whose shaft is directly connected with shaft of hydraulic turbine consisting of separate sections mounted on bearing supports. Each section contains one or more blade propulsors displaced through equal angle relative to each other. Each propulsor has two blades pointed in opposite directions being essentially NASA section modified by provision of cavity on lower plane, maximum depth of which being from 10 to 14% of maximum height of section and installed on posts secured on shaft of hydraulic turbine for fixed displacement of blades in radial and angular directions.
EFFECT: reduced cost of manufacture and mounting.
FIELD: engine manufacturing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of operation of self-contained power station powered by diesel-generator set. According to proposed method of operation of self-contained power station powered by diesel generator set equipped with additional flywheel and disconnect clutch with automatic control members, additional flywheel is mounted on separate shaft which is connected with diesel-generator set by means of disconnect clutch. Preparatory operation is carried out to set power station into operation with subsequent overcoming of short-time starting resistances from consumer. Additional flywheel is connected to shut down diesel generator set by means of disconnect clutch. Power station is started under no load, and its coming to rated speed is detected by readings of generator shaft speed pickups. Load is connected and intensity of generator shaft speed drop is checked. Information is automatically transmitted to controller wherefrom, at termination of generator speed drop, signal is transmitted to disconnect clutch, and rotating additional flywheel is disconnected from diesel generator set, thus changing the set for accelerated mode of restoration of initial rated speed.
EFFECT: provision of power saving operation at stable conditions for overcoming designed resistance torque and short-time overloads exceeding capabilities of chosen supply source.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of small and medium rivers into elastic energy. Proposed hydraulic unit contains hydraulic turbine installed on frame with bearings on its shaft, generator mechanically coupled with hydraulic turbine, stream shaper and device in form of plates to protect hydraulic unit from floating debris. Hydraulic unit has intermediate vertically and horizontally installed shafts with bearings interconnected by conical gears. Vertical shaft is arranged in well built near bank and communicating with river by channel made under level of maximum possible thickness of ice cover. Part of horizontal shaft connected with hydraulic turbine is arranged in said channel. Upper end of vertical shaft is connected with generator through ground horizontal shaft and step-up reduction unit. Stream shaper is made in form of flaps installed on shaft for turning to direct water stream of river to its central part between which turnable gate is installed for contacting with one of flaps to direct water stream to right-hand or left-hand side of hydraulic turbine.
EFFECT: provision of reliable operation all year round.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plant is designed for generating electric energy and pumping of water. Proposed device contains floating base in form of catamaran with channel between housing of catamaran in which water wheel with blades on its outer surface is mounted, and electric generator mechanically coupled with shaft of water wheel. Diameter of water wheel is less than its length. End faces of water wheel are covered, and front profile of water wheel blades is made to logarithmic spiral. Moreover, plant is furnished with water pump, and drive of electric generator is made in form of step-up harmonic gearing whose flexible gear is coupled with end face of water pump. Output shaft of step-up gearing is aligned with shafts of water wheel and electric generator, being coupled with water pump by step-up belt drive. Drive sheave of step-up belt drive is installed on shaft of electric generator. Controllable clutches are installed on shafts of belt drive.
EFFECT: improved reliability and enlarged operating capabilities of plant.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machines or engines for liquids.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises converter for converting flow power into kinetic energy of rotation and hydraulic turbines connected in series. The hydraulic turbine is made of hollow load-bearing shaft-cylinder with conical deflectors on the bases. The semi-cylindrical blades are secured to the shaft-cylinder along the generatrix of the cylinder or at an angle to the generatrix. The load-bearing shaft-cylinder is inscribed into the inner ends of the semi-cylindrical blades, and their outer ends tightened by means of rings define multi-blade cylinder provided with variable buoyancy that is controlled by ballast in the hollow section of the shaft-cylinder. The hydraulic turbine can be submerged into water completely or partially and interposed between the bearings and connected with the actuating mechanism through flexible links, clutches, and gearings. The actuating mechanism comprise one or several massive inertia flywheels made of disk or drum or cylinder connected through clutches and gears with the consumer.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
3 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: electromechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed generator primarily designed to supply with power borehole instrument of face telemetering system in the course of boring has internal stator and rotor; the latter mounts turbine in its front part that has casing carrying rectangular- or trapezoidal-section helical blades. These blades are free to vary their angle of lift depending on conditions of borehole washing with drilling fluid. Blades may be made of flexible material and have two parts of which one part is joined with turbine casing and other (loose) part is free to bend in transverse plane. In addition, blades may have variable stiffness in cross-sectional area and variable height of cross-section profile; loose parts of blades may be joined with ring. Blade turn limiter responding to maximal discharge of drilling fluid may be provided on the turbine casing.
EFFECT: enhanced operating reliability and extended variation range of drilling fluid discharge through generator turbine.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic turbine generators are designed for creating stationary and portable hydraulic plants of modular type. Generators have rotor with central shaft non-rotating around horizontal axis or vertical axis (as version) on which chain drive gears are rigidly fitted, each being coupled through independent chain drive with planet pinion members arranged radially and uniformly around central shaft. Each member has blade reduction gear consisting of gear of chain drive and of large and small cylindrical gears, the latter being coaxial and rigidly coupled with gear of chain drive of blade reduction gear, and large cylindrical gear is rigidly secured on axle of blade installed horizontally for generator (or vertically, as version). Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation on brackets secured on hubs by bases. Hubs are installed on both ends of shaft for rotation and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims being drive wheels connected with energy converters by flexible drive.
EFFECT: provision of effective and reliable operation.
3 cl, 4 dwg