Portable fire extinguisher
FIELD: fire-prevention facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to portable fire extinguishing units. The portable fire extinguisher comprises a portable fire extinguishing unit which is a stored-pressure extinguisher. The fire extinguisher is filled with non-flammable liquid, with a hand operated lock-start gear and a system of liquid supply with the foam generator. Additionally it comprises a gas supply system which comprises a microswitch. The microswitch is mounted on the lock-start gear so that when starting the fire extinguisher the compact compressor is switched on simultaneously. The compressor is powered by a portable battery pack.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of fire extinguishing of different classes by the use of high-expansion air filled foam.
3 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to portable fire-extinguishing installations, in particular for fire extinguishers.
Closest to the technical nature of the object of the claimed invention is an installation realized in the fire extinguisher, described in the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2429037, AS 13/64 (prototype), and contains a container of fire extinguishing fluid, the system liquid displacement from the container, including the siphon tube, trigger-locking device that is connected to the outlet of the siphon tube, restrictor flow rate to regulate the cross-sectional area of the flow channel depending on the fluid pressure in the tank, the spray liquid output nozzle and the piping that connects the output of the trigger-locking device with the spray liquid.
A disadvantage of the known device is relatively low efficiency of fire and irregularity of liquid supply and the low degree of dispersion of the fire extinguishing stream.
The technical result - improving the efficiency of fire fighting different classes through the use of high air-mechanical foam.
This is achieved by installing mobile-containing fire fighting portable extinguishing agent representing the extinguisher injection type, filled with non-flammable liquid, with a closing Muscovy is the manual type and the system fluid with foam generator, additionally contains a gas supply system (air), which includes a microswitch mounted on the trigger-locking device in such a way that at the start of the fire extinguisher at the same time, a compact compressor operating from a portable battery pack.
Figure 1 shows a diagram of a mobile fire extinguisher, figure 2 presents the scheme of the foam generator.
Mobile fire extinguisher contains a portable extinguishing agent 1, representing the fire extinguisher injection type, filled with non-flammable liquid with a trigger-locking device 2 manual type and system 3 the fluid (for example, in the form of a cone), the gas supply system (air), which includes the microswitch 4, mounted on the trigger-locking device 2 in such a way that at the start of the fire extinguisher at the same time, compact compressor 6, working from a portable battery unit 5, for example a voltage of 12 Century Compact compressor 6 through the duct 7 delivers compressed air into the foam generator 10 through an annular nozzle 9. Non-flammable foaming the liquid flows through the trigger-locking device 2 manual type, and system 3 the fluid and the pipe 8.
The medium expansion foam generator and high range (figure 2) includes a housing 11 made in the form of a cylinder is centred on glass (figure 2), with a horizontal axis coaxial with the axis of the nozzle 13, and 17 of the mounting nozzle 13 to the supply line of water or foam solution (not shown). On the output side of the foam to the housing 11 coaxially attached confuser 12, and the junction of the body 11 and confuser 12 installed grid 20 or package of grids within a housing 14 (not shown). For ease of carrying and use the foam generator is equipped with 18 and transverse to the longitudinal handles 19, between which is located the yoke 21 with a bleed compressed air from the compact compressor 6, the closing holes 22 for feeding into the housing 11 of the compressed air, which increases the ratio of the foam.
The nozzle 13 is fixed to the body 11 of the foam generator through a variable-length elements 16 to the bottom of the case 11 by means of plates 15, through which the nozzle 13 is set at a certain distance relative to the surface of the grid or set of grids 20, depending on the multiplicity and range of a jet. Thus the longitudinal handle 19 is able to be attached to the cylindrical surface of the housing 11 along its generatrix lines at locations corresponding to the changed length of the fastening elements 16.
Mobile fire extinguisher works as follows.
Portable extinguishing agent 1, representing the fire extinguisher injection type, fill in the non-flammable liquid and gas, configure trigger-locking device so that when pressing the trigger injection fire extinguisher at the same time included: system 3 the fluid (water), gas (air), served in the foam generator 10 two streams: the first is the flow of liquid from the extinguisher through the pipeline 8, the second flow of compressed air through the annular nozzle 9 in the holder 21 of the foam generator.
The generator works as follows. From the nozzle 13 into the housing 11 is supplied with water or foam solution, which forms a jet, a rich air from compact compressor 6 through the packet mesh 20, the stream is divided into small fractions, and exits through the confuser 12, increasing the speed and the ratio of the foam. Even with the boundary conditions of the generator, i.e. at low pressure foaming solution at the inlet of the foam generator (8 ATM.) and low ambient temperatures (-15°C) foam, under pressure generated by the foam generator, served in a given object, where it forms spreading on the surface of an object, persistent, not destroyed by fire film, which stops the oxygen in the combustion zone and the fire stops.
The extinguishing effect of the foam-based insulation surface burning liquid oxygen from the air and the heated combustible vapors emitted from the surface of the liquid. Penne only dramatically reduces the evaporation process, but also cools the surface of a burning liquid. Air-mechanical foam is formed by mechanical mixing of air and surfactant (foaming agent IS 1 or 6). In air-mechanical foam contains about 90% (by volume) of air and 10% aqueous solution of the foaming agent. To extinguish fires effectively apply high air-mechanical foam, which contains about 99% (by volume) of air 0,96% water and about 0.04% of foaming agent. The multiplicity of conventional air-mechanical foam 8÷12, and the high is over 100. The resistance of the air-mechanical foam: from 20 to 40 minutes
The foam should be applied to the burning of cotton fiber other poorly wettable fibrous materials. Especially effective foam for extinguishing fires of flammable liquids (flammable liquids), as well as flammable liquids.
1. Mobile fire extinguisher containing a portable extinguishing agent representing the extinguisher injection type, filled with non-flammable liquid with a trigger-locking device manual type and the system fluid with foam generator, characterized in that it further comprises a gas supply system, which includes a microswitch mounted on the trigger-locking device in such a way that at the start of the fire extinguisher at the same time compact compressor, working from a portable battery pack.
2. Mobile fire extinguisher according to claim 1, characterized in that the generator includes a housing made in the form of a cylindrical Cup, with a horizontal axis coaxial with the axis of the nozzle, and means mounting the nozzle to the pipe feeding water or foam solution, and on the output side of the foam to the body coaxially attached confuser, and at the junction of the body and confuser installed grid or set of grids in the holder, and for ease of carrying and use the foam generator is equipped with transverse and longitudinal handles, between which there is a clip with a bleed compressed air from the compact compressor, closing holes for filing in the case of compressed air, which increases the ratio of the foam.
3. Mobile fire extinguisher according to claim 1, characterized in that the nozzle of the foam generator is attached to the housing by means of variable-length elements to the bottom of the casing by means of plates, through which the nozzle is set at a certain distance relative to the surface of the grid, depending on the multiplicity and range of a jet, while the longitudinal handle is able to be attached to the cylindrical surface of the shell along its generatrix lines at locations corresponding to the changed length of the fastening elements.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: device for fire extinguishing comprising a cylinder with fire extinguishing agent and a device to determine its weight in the cylinder, comprises a sensor of weight and an electronic unit. The sensor of weight is made in the form of a segment of coaxial long line formed by a complex of a siphon tube and a metal pipe located outside coaxially with respect to it, between the lower ends of which reactive resistance is connected. Reactive resistance can be made equal to zero when short-circuiting of the lower ends of the siphon tube and the metal pipe or inductive.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of determining the weight of fire extinguishing agent.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: fire-prevention facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of fire fighting, namely to devices that generate gas-aerosol fire retardants designed for extinguishing fires in closed or semi-enclosed volumes. The extinguishing aerosol generator comprises a cylindrical housing and body with a lid and bottom, a mixing chamber, and also an activator and the pyrotechnic charge. The housing and the body are coaxially mounted with each with an annular gap for induced air. The mixing chamber is formed by the side walls of the housing. The pyrotechnic charge is set inside the body with provision of the possibility of formation of an ejecting aerosol chamber. Inside the body there is a layer of material cooling the aerosol. The generator is made with the ability of aerosol release to the protected area. The cylindrical housing and the body are interconnected coaxially. The bumper is installed parallel to the bottom which is fixed providing partial overlapping of the lateral surface of the body and forming around the body of an annular nozzle for ejecting aerosol release. The layer of the aerosol cooler is placed in series with respect to the pyrotechnic charge to form additional free volume with the function of combustion chamber. The ejecting aerosol chamber is formed between the bottom of the body and the bumper. The bottom is made perforated.
EFFECT: optimal combination of performances of extinguishing efficiency, temperature of gas-aerosol spray and the intensity of supply of the extinguishing aerosol to protected area with a low degree of tightness.
12 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: medicine, fire-fighting means.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to fire-fighting, namely extinguishing gas-aerosol mix generators actuated by pyrotechnic compound burning and spraying the mix into the protected space. A three-dimensional aerosol fire extinguishing apparatus comprises axially coupled cooling cylinder, and a generator body with a heat-insulating inner layer. The cylinder is provided with injection windows and mounted on a bearing arm with an angularly positioned longitudinal axis. The layer fixes a functional pyrotechnic stick connected with a central ignition cartridge represented in the form of a pyrotechnic tablet filled with a hermetic adhesive in an axial groove of the pyrotechnic stick. The ignition cartridge is wired with a hermetic switchboard of an external startup unit. The body is lidded with the lid comprising distributed outlets above a receiver wherein an isolating membrane is provided. The hermetic switchboard is mounted on the generator body by a threaded carrier sleeve with its flange attached in plaster of its heat-insulating layer which incorporates the wires to the central ignition cartridge.
EFFECT: invention provides enhanced technological capabilities of the use of the apparatus in the high atmospheric moisture and explosive environment.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting means.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder fire extinguishers and is designed for fire fighting. Fire extinguisher comprises a cylindrical body with a bottom and a welded lid, on the inner surface of which in a cartridge a neck collar is mounted. The top end of the neck collar is designed as an annular sealing ledge, which after assembly is adjacent to the inner surface of the welded lid. The neck collar is equipped with an internal threaded channel for installation of the start-up device and on the outside with a longitudinal groove, which includes a locking ledge of the cartridge. The neck collar preferably may be made of polymer material by method of casting or compression. The start-up device includes a head with the striker and a spring. At the head the start-up handle is mounted. Between the neck collar and the start-up device the O-ring is mounted.
EFFECT: constructive implementation of the elements of the body lid of a fire extinguisher provides increased reliability of the fire extinguisher and provides ease of manufacture and assembly.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fire suppression, namely, to methods for extinguishing fire with finely pulverised water and can be used for fighting fire on ships and water-crafts, as well as other important facilities.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of extinguishing fires due to improving the fire extinguishing properties of finely pulverised water by optimisation of its dispersion, is achieved by the fact that at pre-treatment of water with a constant magnetic field with strength of 40-45×103 A/m at a motion speed of stream of 0,4-0,5 m/s and with passing water through the proposed device with a voltage of a DC electric field of 30-50 V/mm, the uniformity of negatively charged water droplets of optimal size increases twice.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: in a mobile fire extinguishing plant, which comprises a portable fire extinguishing device, which represents a stored pressure extinguisher, filled with incombustible liquid, with a stop-starting device of manual type and a system of liquid supply with a foam generator, additionally there is a system of air gas supply, which includes a microswitch installed on the stop-starting device so that whenever the fire extinguisher starts, simultaneously a compact compressor is switched on, which operates from a portable accumulator unit.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of extinguishing fires of various classes as a result of foam generator inclusion into a fire extinguisher, which produces intense air mechanical foam.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting means.
SUBSTANCE: chemical air-foam fire extinguisher contains a steel case filled with 9 l of an aqueous-alkaline solution in the form of mixed sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3 and licorice extract, and a polyethylene container filled with acid mixture in the form of sulphuric acid H2SO4 and ferric sulphide FeSO4, and increasing volume and durability of generated foam; the polyethylene container is rigidly connected to a valve seat fixed at the bottom of a cup rigidly connected to a cover of the steel case to the bottom of which there is a handle for operating mode of the fire extinguisher, and at the top of the case, an outlet branch with a foam generator is placed. The cup is mounted in the case and is axial-symmetrical to the case and the polyethylene container, and the valve is connected to a rod axial-symmetrical in the cup and a spring-assisted spring. At the bottom of the cup, over the valve, there are at least three apertures providing connection of alkaline and acid portions of the fire extinguisher, and the cover of the case of the fire extinguisher comprises a lock-start gear.
EFFECT: more efficient fire protection by increasing operation speed and reliability.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting means.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to devices for fire extinguishing agent supply to a fire source. An extinguisher cylinder wherein a dry powder is put comprises a metal-bonded glass bottle of the length 500 mm and diameter 54 mm, and in the middle of the glass filled with the powder, there is a layer of a special solid substance transformed in a gaseous state at temperature 100°C.
EFFECT: higher performance speed and reliability of the extinguisher that provides effective fire protection of the process equipment.
FIELD: fire-fighting means.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to fire extinguishing, namely to systems working on the principle of using suspended fine solid particles of an aerosol generated by combustion stick of a pyrotechnic composition as fire retardants. The generator comprises a pyrotechnic stick equipped with a flame igniter electrically connected with an external starting arrangement and fastened by a layer made of a curing material with a body overlapped with a diaphragm; the body through an annular gap forms a reverse pathway to an outlet annular nozzle and is coaxially fixed in a thermally shielded case provided with a central projection and an axially clamped plate-type cover. The case is filled with liquid oil covering the body wherein the pyrotechnic stick supplied with the flame igniter is arranged; a combustible diaphragm adjoins the body diagram; and over the body, distributed transverse disks alternating with in-built bulkheads is axially clamped; the central projection of the case has radial holes and adjoins a bottom of the cover.
EFFECT: invention provides enhanced functional reliability of the generator.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: in a device for voluminous aerosol fire extinguishing, an initiation unit is realised as electric and thermochemical start-up initiators, installed on surface of an aerosol-forming substance (AFS) charge at the side of a receiver, outlet holes are located on a cylindrical metal casing near its metal cover and/or on it, and ratio of AFS charge burning area to the total area of outlet holes is 10-100.
EFFECT: improved quality of aerosol flow and convenience of use for various objects.
FIELD: fire-fighting, particularly for extinguishing fires on transport and in rooms.
SUBSTANCE: plant comprises module with fire-extinguishing powder having partition installed along module body height. Partition serves as deflector and has concave shape. Orifices are formed along partition periphery. Plant has siphon tube with cuts oppositely formed at end thereof. Thermal jacket is connected to body portion. Container with gas-generation composition and heating member enclosed by insulation cup is arranged in body bottom.
EFFECT: possibility of extinguishing fire with the use of increased reliability and performance.
9 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: fire fighting, particularly means for generating aerosol fire inhibitors by burning pyrotechnic composition of cartridge and for delivering thereof into space to be protected in organized manner.
SUBSTANCE: aerosol generator comprises cartridge triggering unit secured into coaxial metal body through gypsum cement layer. Metal body has communication orifices to establish communication with reverse annular channel of receiver aligned with the body and covered with end cup having outlet orifices. The components are arranged inside perforated heat-exchanger case connected with outer shell through heat-shielding gypsum cement layer. The shell is tubular. Heat-exchanger case has end covers attached to case ends and having outlet orifices. End covers are fixedly secured to metal body and arranged symmetrically relative receiver located between pyrotechnical cartridges. One cartridge is provided with independent triggering unit. The case has corrugations to secure thereof in gypsum cement of heat-shielding layer.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability due to generating ignition impulse by two independent triggering units, increased intensity of cartridge burning simultaneously from both ends when fire-extinguishing composition is fed in opposite directions, reduced size, increased load-bearing strength and, as a result, possibility to increase pressure of fire-extinguishing flow to generate high-velocity flow.
FIELD: fire fighting, particularly means for generating aerosol fire inhibitors for extinguishing fires into closed space.
SUBSTANCE: fire-extinguishing plant comprises two pyrotechnical charges for gas-aerosol mixture generation. Pyrotechnical charges are provided with protective shells and arranged in vessels connected in back-to-back manner and spaced one from another. One vessel is of plate-like shape and charges are connected to the vessel by gypsum cement layer filling space defined by vessel flanging. Ignition block is installed between the charges. Another vessel is cylindrical and mates to plate-like vessel flanging diameter. Ratio between charge masses is 3:7. The plant may perform automatic operation in two modes, namely in intensive gas-aerosol generation mode with simultaneous pyrotechnical cartridge charge end burning in both vessels to provide a certain aerosol inhibitor concentration in the space, and in slow gas-aerosol generation mode in which pyrotechnical cartridge charge burns only in cylindrical vessel to increase aerosol inhibitor concentration up to predetermined value.
EFFECT: possibility of automatic operation in two modes.
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment and liquid sprayers for various applications.
SUBSTANCE: liquid sprayer has body with inlet connection pipe, centrifugal liquid flow swirler and nozzle with profiled channel. Centrifugal swirler is made as hollow cylindrical insert with inlet axial channel and at least four tangential inlet channels formed in side wall of the insert. Transversal sections of inlet centrifugal swirler channels are dimensioned such that 4S0≤St≤6S0, where St is summary area of tangential channel sections, S0 - is area of axial channel section. Four tangential channels may be formed in side wall of hollow insert. The tangential channels may be equidistantly spaced along a circle. Axes of symmetry defined in adjacent channels are transversal one to another. Cylindrical insert cavity communicates with inlet orifice of profiled nozzle channel including part tapering in liquid flow direction. Profiled outlet nozzle channel may comprise inlet part converging in liquid flow direction and diverging outlet part. The inlet and outlet parts are arranged one after another. Parts of profiled nozzle channel have conical or conoidal shape. Fire-extinguisher comprises tank with fire-extinguishing liquid, system for liquid displacement from the tank, shutoff-and-triggering device, liquid sprayer provided with centrifugal liquid flow swirler and outlet nozzle. Fire-extinguisher also has pipeline to connect shutoff-and-triggering device with liquid sprayer. The liquid sprayer generates gas-and-liquid jet with spray angle of 17-23°.
EFFECT: increased velocity and uniform liquid droplet dimensions in the jet, possibility to create gas-and-liquid jet with fixed spray angle.
10 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly rechargeable portable fire-extinguishers in which fire-extinguishing substance is stored under pressure created by propellant gas.
SUBSTANCE: fire-extinguisher comprises siphon pipe, shutoff-and-triggering device connected to siphon pipe outlet and flow restrictor. Liquid sprayer comprises centrifugal liquid flow swirler and outlet nozzle. Liquid sprayer is connected to shutoff-and-triggering device outlet through pipeline. Outlet liquid sprayer nozzle is formed with profiled channel. Profiled channel inlet is attached to liquid flow swirler outlet. Profiled channel converges in flow direction. Nozzle channel may be formed by inlet converging section and outlet diverging section arranged in series. Profiled channels may define cone or conoid in cross-sections. Centrifugal liquid flow swirler is made as cylindrical insert with axial and tangential channels. Liquid flow restrictor is installed in front of shutoff-and-triggering device inlet to regulate channel area S in dependence on vessel pressure. Area S may be selected from the following condition: 0.5Sc≤S≤2.5Sc, where Sc is minimal area of profiled outlet nozzle channel. Liquid flow restrictor may be formed as valve having movable part having channels in side wall thereof and immovable part coaxial to movable one.
EFFECT: possibility to generate gas-and-droplet flow having constant spray angle and flow rate, possibility to obtain necessary distance of liquid throw for the full fire-extinguisher charge distribution process.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: the masking foam material is dispersed by means of a pulse distributor, which is preliminarily installed on the surface of the background and/or object in compliance with the plan of masking. The pulse distributor by means of a supply network is connected to the control panel, having an electric power source, or it is provided with a radio command actuator with an electric power source, and connected to a radio command control panel. The time and procedure of actuation of the pulse distributor is selected in compliance with the plan of masking. The pulse distributor of masking foam material has a sealed body with a solution. The body with the source solution is provided with a siphon, two valves and a guide. A packing having an opening and distribution assembly, actuating and safety, assemblies, is installed on the body neck. The body neck is integrated with the siphon cylinder, and a splash-out monitoring system is additionally installed on the device body, aligned with the stopper of the packing safety assembly. The valves are installed at the upper and lower levels of the body.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of masking.
17 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly hand-held fire extinguishers charged with foam fire-extinguishant.
SUBSTANCE: fire-extinguisher comprises cylinder having neck closed with closure and handle connected to rod. Rod is linked to shutoff means made as two semi-spheres and arranged in body. The body is provided with orifices and is located below level of cylinder filling with alkaline solution. Cup with acid fire-extinguisher charge component is located in lower body part. Diaphragm is arranged in cup base. Ready foam passes from cylinder through spraying means.
EFFECT: improved fire-extinguishing capacity due extended range of technical capabilities and increased service life.
SUBSTANCE: gas generator comprises housing provided with means for gas discharging made of openings on the side of the housing and gas generating and igniting charges mounted inside the housing and made of pyrotechnical compositions. The initiating member is mounted on one of the faces, and filter is mounted on the side and faces of the gas-generating charge. The surface of the gas-generating charge is armored from the side of the gas outlet. The auxiliary charge is mounted axially symmetrical in the gas-generating charge and is provided with layers that pass from the axially symmetrical layer to the periphery and connected with them.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and expanded functional capability.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; the portable devices for the fire extinguishing.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the fire-fighting equipment, in particular, to the portable fire extinguishers (manual, pistol, pack) and may be used for fire extinction by feeding of the fire-extinguishing agent (fluid, powder) to the center of inflammation. The stated technical solution allows to improve the operational capabilities and its usage convenience due to expansion of the range of the used fire-extinguishing matters, minimization of time used for replacement of the pressure forming means, provision of the possibility to correct the volume of the gas-generating composition according to the existing need at the simultaneous increase of effectiveness of operation due to the maximum utilization of the internal volume of the container and elimination of the unproductive feeding of the gas. The represented portable fire extinguisher has the container for the fire-extinguishing matter and the gas-generating tool for creation of the operational pressure. The portable fire-extinguisher singularity consists, that it is supplied with the a control unit, the pressure sensor located in the container, at that the gas-generating tool is made in the form of at least two gas generators arranged in the airproof cassette mounted outside the container and linked with it by means of the high-speed coupling, and the control unit interacts with each gas generator with provision of their consecutive actuation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased effectiveness of operation, the improved operational capabilities, convenience of usage, expansion of the used fire-extinguishing matters, minimization of the time for replacement of the pressure forming means, the possibility to correct the volume of the gas-generating composition.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: spraying devices adapted for degassing, deactivation and disinfection of military and civil machinery, for animal and plant treatment and fire-extinguishant spraying during fire suppression.
SUBSTANCE: spraying device comprises body, neck, high-pressure cylinder, locking-and-triggering head and filling-and-draining pipe. Air-tight casing is installed in through stepped orifice made in inner side of locking-and-triggering head. The casing is made as sleeve to receive high pressure cylinder arranged in chamber thereof. The high pressure cylinder has tearable diaphragm. Gas channel is defined between the sealed casing and high pressure cylinder. Gas channel throat is 0.1-0.12 of sleeve cross-sectional area. Sleeve mouth is provided with collar having outer thread. Check valve is installed in sleeve bottom. Sleeve bottom may adjust high pressure cylinder in axial direction. Punching mechanism is installed in through stepped orifice and is located from outer side of locking-and-triggering head. Maximal distance between outer surfaces of filling-and-draining pipe and casing is not more than 0.9 of inner neck diameter.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability, enlarged storage period, possibility of device filling with aggressive, erosive compositions and solutions.
2 cl, 2 dwg