Method to recycle solid domestic wastes into fuel for furnaces of high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of recycling solid domestic wastes (SDW) into fuel for furnaces of high-temperature synthesis of a cement clinker, including sorting of initial SDW so that at first such incombustible fractions such as batteries, stones, fragments of glass and faience, then secondary materials are extracted, including ferrous and non-ferrous metals. The remaining mass is previously ground to the fraction of 50-100 mm, dried to humidity of 5-10%, and then ground to the fraction of 8-10 mm. The ground raw materials are heated to 160-200°C and exposed to thermoplastic extrusion to produce fuel pellets.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase physical and mechanical strength of RDF fuel, to eliminate water absorption due to capsulation of granules in process of their manufacturing, to prevent possibility of rotting and self-ignition, to reduce costs during storage and transportation, to reduce energy intensity of its production, to improve environment, also to reduce volume of SDW removed to SDW landfills, to eliminate capital costs for construction of plants for wastes management in connection with usage of equipment of existing cement production facilities.
1 cl, 4 dwg
The invention relates to the field of ecology, in particular to the processing of municipal solid waste (hereinafter referred to as MSW) into fuel for furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker burning which complied with the requirements of environmental protection, and can be used in the cement industry with the simultaneous solution of environmental problems, conserve natural resources and solid waste disposal. Also this fuel can be used in other furnaces subject to certain requirements, flue gas (combustion products).
Today, in many countries around the world, including in our country, a critical situation with the accumulation and disposal of solid waste, which makes the solution of these problems is actual vital necessity. For collection and storage of solid waste requiring all new territory, transport, handling machinery, human resources. Existing landfills require additional investment to ensure the safety of the environment. Available in our country facilities for the incineration of MSW is not enough, and most importantly, used the technology technically problematic, environmentally unsound and economically inefficient.
There are various ways to obtain a molded, including extrusion, materials of different t the surface of the waste (see RU # 2118256, WV 17/00; VV 7/42; VS 47/00, VS 47/76, 1998; RU №2397829, B09B 3/00, 2010; RU №2212287, WV 3/00; SV 12/00, 2003).
Known methods for producing building materials from polymer waste, used as a binder, and fillers (sand, wood dust or fine sawdust), for example, the polymer-sand tile (http://www.openbusiness.rn/html/dop/polimer-cherepiza.htm and the so-called perevoplotilas (http://drevoplastic.m/ekstruzia-drevoplastika.html). In particular, the method of manufacturing the polymer sand tiles from polymer waste does not involve cleaning and deep sorting polymeric material. Even the presence of engine oil, Papademos with cans, does not affect the quality of the tile. After grinding the components in the proportions 70% filler - sand, 30% of the polymers are served in the extrusion machine, where it is heated to a temperature of 170-190°C and pressed through a Spinneret to obtain products of the desired configuration.
The above methods of processing different types of waste have some disadvantages, the main of which is their unsatisfactory environmental work associated with the formation of secondary wastes containing highly toxic organic compounds, and high cost of processing.
Known methods of manufacture of the solid waste fuel in cement kilns by crushing it and blowing into the furnace (Anticorodal. Grinding techniques is to prepare alternative fuel The cement and its applications, No. 1, 2009).
The disadvantages of these methods include the absence of thermal processing of solid waste at temperatures 170-190°C and, as a consequence, the presence in the fuel of pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms and other biological hazards, as well as high energy costs for fine grinding.
Known methods of manufacture of the solid waste fuel in cement kilns by drying, heat treatment at temperatures up to 230 degrees Celsius, pelletizing or grinding to dust fraction and blowing into the furnace.
The disadvantages of these methods include the ability, when wet MSW, the emergence of pockets of decay and spontaneous human combustion.
A method of producing a solid fuel made from industrial and household waste, which consists in the fact that at the first stage, the sorting of industrial and household waste, and the division into three groups: the first group consists of large metal objects, cords and hazardous substances that are removed from the total mass of the original waste and subsequently disposed of; the second group contains large industrial and household waste; the third group contains waste, which according to dimensions less than 150 mm; in the second stage, the first stage of processing p is myshlennyh and waste to reduce the overall dimensions of less than 150 mm, the waste of the second group are placed in a screw crusher; at the third stage, the second stage processing of industrial and household waste, where waste a second and third groups served in the horizontal setting break for volume reduction; at the fourth stage in the received horizontal installation of breaking waste add lime, then carry out the moulding round briquettes at high pressure and temperature, drying the obtained round briquettes with the formation of the final product with a diameter of 15-30 mm, a length of 30-150 mm, calories over 6,000 kcal/kg and the combustion temperature above 1100°C. the Obtained solid fuel used for combustion in power plants (RU # 2405027, C10L 5/48; C10L 5/46; 2010). Taken as a prototype.
The prototype also has a number of disadvantages. The method is energy-intensive, as for briquetting requires high pressure and temperature. In addition, when wet, will occur hydration of lime and possible destruction of the briquettes, the final product.
Task to be solved by the claimed invention is directed, is to increase strength and improve performance characteristics of fuel from solid waste for furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker burning which provided the requirements of environmental protection.
The technical result is t is the improvement of physico-mechanical strength of the fuel RDF the exception of water absorption due to the encapsulation of the granules in the manufacturing process, preventing opportunities decay and spontaneous combustion, reducing the cost of storage and transportation, reducing the energy intensity of its production, the improvement of the environment, including reducing the amount exported for disposal of solid waste, excluding capital expenditures for construction of facilities for the disposal of waste in connection with the use of equipment for existing cement plants.
The invention consists in that in the method of processing solid waste into fuel for furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker, comprising sorting the original MSW with removal of different fractions, grinding the remaining mass of the final product and its subsequent combustion, the peculiarity is that in the beginning eliminate such non-combustible fraction, as the batteries, stones, broken glass and faience, then remove secondary materials, including ferrous and nonferrous metals, and the remaining mass is then ground to a fraction of 50-100 mm, dried to a moisture content of 5-10%, and then crushed to a fraction of 8-10 mm, after which the crushed raw material is heated to 160-200°C and subjected to thermoplastic extrusion to obtain pellets, which are output from the extruder is cooled and sent as fuel in cement plants for subsequent combustion in furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker.
The set of essential features allows you to retrieve the specified technical result.
According to research conducted by the authors of studies of morphological and composition of the "tails" of MSW (see table 1 figure 1), they contain negligible amounts of food waste, but when this polymer fraction is about 35% of the dry mass of solid waste. This fact suggests that the present polymer fraction can be used as a binder for briquetting. However, their high heat of combustion will provide acceptable energy potential of fuel briquettes.
Laboratory process for producing briquettes (see figure 2) from the model MSW showed that the carbon-containing solid residue was impregnated with molten polymer and subsequent pressing this ensured high hardness briquettes, almost homogeneous structure cut briquette, low water-holding capacity. The output of briquettes accounted for 43% of the working masses of solid waste.
This bitterbynde fuel can be used for further pyrolysis, which will prevent the necessity of storing the raw MSW near cement plants, do not complicate the anthropogenic load on the location of enterprises and avoid the danger of spontaneous combustion.
Properly organized sorting of solid waste to ensure achival a significant decrease in the amount of waste and the reduction of negative impacts of solid waste on the environment and allows you to extract useful components.
Heating of the mass of raw material before extrusion in the extrusion process causes the polymer component of the "tails" of solid waste is melted, pervades the entire volume of material to be processed and thus capsulebuy organic component present in it. Pre-heating in a temperature range required for uniform heating of the material, which is not achieved simply by conventional extrusion, as studies have shown the low thermal conductivity of solid waste. As in the "tails" of MSW are polyethylene and polypropylene, melting point which is different, then lower the temperature to 160 With no melting of the polyethylene, and above 200°C is gasification.
Shredding waste provides better preparation for encapsulation. Also grinding facilitates the transportation and manipulation of waste during processing.
The drying mass of raw materials can reduce the weight and increase the calorific value of the final product. The increase in moisture content up to a level of more than 10% increases energy consumption and fuel consumption.
Encapsulation provides the fuel high physical and mechanical strength, eliminates water absorption, thereby reducing the cost of storage, loading, unloading and transport. Snizeni the energy intensity and increasing the strength of the fuel provides the possibility of outdoor storage. Low blagoveshenie and the possibility of storage in open warehouses extend the functionality of fuel use and reduce the cost of storage.
Cement enterprises have powerful modern technological equipment, and cement kiln is currently the most environmentally friendly unit for disposal of waste, including hazardous to humans and the environment. Technological and thermal processes take place in it at temperatures up to 1700°C, which allows to reduce to a minimum the content of harmful substances in exhaust gases, and chemical binding in the clinker minerals part of harmful substances emitted from waste in the process of processing at higher temperatures than, for example, in furnaces waste processing plants or units other industrial plants. In addition, incineration in cement kilns fuel containing waste can significantly reduce the consumption of expensive fuel (gas, oil, coal) and to reduce the cost of cement production.
The proposed method for the manufacture of solid waste fuel for furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker can be implemented on standard equipment waste sorting station, beefed required to implement the equipment.
The piano is D.1 presents table 1 - morphological composition of solid waste after sorting line Lipetsk waste sorting plant in terms of dry substance; figure 2 - sample of fuel briquettes obtained from MSW in the experiment; figure 3 is a flow diagram of installation; figure 4 presents table 2 - the accounting statements of JSC "ecoprom Lipetsk" for 2011.
Method of processing solid waste into fuel for furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker as follows (see figure 3).
After delivery of solid waste on site drives waste sorting plants (plants) of them previously retrieved bulky waste with further grinding them into the crusher. Destroyed (cut, torn) plastic bags with MSW, is the screening of solid waste in a drum or other separators, sieves by filtration of these batteries, rocks, broken glass, pottery, sand and other fine waste. Sorting of solid waste is carried out with a maximum extraction of secondary materials, including ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Magnetic separation remove ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals using an alternating magnetic field or by crushing with the subsequent newmovieproperties. The increase in the extraction of metal fractions leads to reduced the Yu toxicity residue.
The remaining weight of waste MSW - "tails" (in this case raw material) are discharged on to the conveyor 1 and serves them on a pre-grinding to a fraction of 50-100 mm crusher type 2 Schroeder required performance. After crusher 2 crushed raw material is fed to the dryer 3 to remove the moisture from it to 5-10%. Drying is a drying precluding contact of the material, the "tails" of solid waste, with the heating agent, the combustion gases. When the drying temperature should be below 140°C. This method of heating is necessary to prevent emissions of toxicants and pathogens present in the waste flue gas, which is especially important for counterflow scheme drying. Drying is required only when humidity "tails" MSW more than 15%. The material on the conveyor belt 4, equipped with a magnetic separator 5 for extraction, the remaining ferrous metals and container 6 for metal waste is fed into the knife, hammer, or shredder crusher 7 for final shredding particles up to 8,0-10,0 mm Grinding to smaller fractions is preferable, but not economically feasible. After grinding the raw material supplied to the heater 8 of the raw material, the design of which may be similar to the structure of the dryer 3, which is heated to a temperature of 160-200°C. the Heated raw material is press-pellets the tor 9 screw, or another type, where thermoplastic extrusion method are obtained pellets, which are output from the extruder is cooled, loaded, for example, in big Bags, or other containers or in bulk and sent to cement plants for subsequent combustion in furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker by loading the obtained pellets in the kiln.
Example. Technological scheme of production of fuel pellets can be equipped as follows:
1. the conveyor
2. double rotor crusher series GL
3. multifunction conveyor oven
4. the receiving conveyor
5. magnetic separator
6. tray black metal
7. crusher secondary crushing S800
8. multifunction conveyor oven
9. extruder press DL 1000
10. bunker finished goods
11. external furnace
12. the burner.
The advantages of the proposed method lies in the fact that during heating the waste to a temperature of 160-200°C killed all pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms, polymers soften and melt, enveloping shredded MSW, linking and capsulebuy them, and pellets convenient for transportation, for example, uploaded in big Becky. They have no water absorption, they do not rot and does not snowsports.
Additionally, you may ukrupnennom to assess the economic will stifle the efficiency of utilization of solid waste proposed method compared with the existing technology burial "tails" of solid waste at the landfill implemented by CJSC "ecoprom-Lipetsk the city of Lipetsk. Study of the efficiency of utilization of solid waste as fuel in cement kilns clinker was conducted on the basis of financial statements of CJSC "ecoprom Lipetsk" for 2011 (see table 2, figure 4).
Thus, compaction and disposal of 1 tonne "tails" MSW costs (landfill + energy) was 466,7 RUB/so
- the cost of the media company "Imbed Iberica. C.A." 22,0 million rubles
- the cost of construction plan-a map of the landfill 11,0 million rubles one-time cost for the equipment in terms of per tonne of recyclable solid waste was: 1413,22 RUB/so
Other costs (transportation, wages, etc) are not considered, as stored in the proposed alternative technologies.
Getting fuel briquettes.
For conditions glicka annual volume of produced briquettes with full processing tailings MSW - 14011,0 tons of briquettes heat of combustion 28,63 MJ/kg
For heating and evaporation of moisture contained in the "tails" MSW - 9340,4't need 25,0×106MJ of heat that is provided by the combustion of 2000 tons of briquettes, while the remaining 120,000 tons are trademarks product and can replace 10200 thousand m3natural gas, which will provide savings 27030 thousand rubles, while the price of natural gas 2650 RUB/10003 m3without VAT.
Refining costs "tails" of solid waste in toplin the e granules, the briquettes unit with a capacity of 1 t/h are formed including the cost of electricity for the drive units. And make up for the experimental sample:
|the conveyor, kW/h||1,5|
|the receiving conveyor, kW/h||1,5|
|multifunction conveyor oven, kW/h||2,7|
|double rotor crusher series GL, kW/h||15+15|
|crusher secondary crushing XFS800, kW/h||22,0|
|multifunction conveyor oven, kW/h||2,7|
|extruder press DL 1000, kW||15,0|
|external furnace, kW/h||1,5|
The one-time cost for equipment:
|the conveyor||1,00 million rubles|
|double rotor crusher series GL||2.10 million rubles|
|multifunction conveyor oven||1,40 million rubles|
|conveyor receiving||1,00 million rubles|
|magnetic separator||0,10 million rubles|
|crusher secondary crushing XFS800||1,750 million rubles|
|multifunction conveyor oven||1,40 million rubles|
|extruder press DL 1000||0,50 million rubles|
|bunker fuel briquettes||0,05 million rubles|
|external furnace||1,50 million rubles|
|metal||0,30 million rubles|
|All equipment must be expended||11,10 million rubles|
When working EA furnace in the installation of fuel pellets production capacity of 1.0 t/h one-time cost for the equipment in terms of per tonne of processed MSW will be: equipment 1401,52 RUB/sop> Thus, the introduction of technology for producing fuel briquettes by saving energy and avoiding polygons on a rough estimate would reduce the costs of disposal of solid waste 55,40 RUB/t or glicka 1.29 million rubles/year.
In addition, the savings due to the substitution process fuel fuel from MSW will be 27030 RR year when the price of natural gas 2650 rubles/1000 m3without VAT.
The invention allows to simultaneously address issues of ecology, economy, natural resources, waste disposal and to obtain fuel materials that can be used for combustion in furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker. The resulting fuel has a high mechanical strength, which allows to reduce the cost of its storage, loading, unloading and transport.
The method allows for recycling of solid waste, increasing their value. Fuel is obtained transportable and easy to use. It can be stored for a long period of time even under the open sky and spend as needed, which will reduce the anthropogenic load on the territory surrounding cement production.
The proposed integrated technological solutions for waste treatment plants designed to produce competitive commodities that can attract the attention cast the x investors to a recycling business.
A method of processing solid waste into fuel for furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker, comprising sorting the original MSW with removal of different fractions, grinding the remaining mass of the final product and its subsequent combustion, characterized in that the first screen out these non-combustible fraction, as the batteries, stones, broken glass and faience, then remove secondary materials, including ferrous and nonferrous metals, and the remaining mass is then ground to a fraction of 50-100 mm, dried to a moisture content of 5-10% and then crushed to a fraction of 8-10 mm, after which the crushed raw material is heated to 160-200°With and subjected to thermoplastic extrusion to obtain pellets, which are output from the extruder is cooled and sent as fuel in cement plants for subsequent combustion in furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: composition for obtaining solid composite high-carbon fuel includes organic binding agent, coal and coke fillers. As organic binding agent there used is fermented residue formed as a result of anaerobic fermentation of organic animal residues, vegetation residues, domestic waste and sewage sludges. The following component ratio, wt %, is used: coal filler 10-80, coke filler 10-80, fermented residue is the rest.
EFFECT: use of the composition allows simplifying the technology and increasing the efficiency of preparation process of the composition for obtaining solid composite high-carbon fuel, reducing ash content of the obtained composite fuel, increasing ecological properties of the process and reducing financial costs.
12 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: manufacturing method of solid fuel made from industrial and domestic waste consists in the fact that industrial and domestic wastes are divided into three groups at the first step. The first group includes large-sized metal objects, cords and hazardous substances which are removed from total weight of basic objects for manufacturing of solid fuel and then they are disposed. The second group includes large-sized industrial and domestic wastes. The third group contains the wastes which are less than 150 mm as per overall dimensions. At the second step the wastes of the second group are placed in screw crusher for decreasing their overall dimensions to less than 150 mm. At the third step the wastes of the second and the third group are supplied to horizontal crushing plant to decrease their volume. At the fourth step, lime is added to wastes obtained in horizontal crushing plant. Moulding of round briquettes is performed at high pressure and temperature and their drying so that final product is obtained with diametre of 15-30 mm, 30-150 mm long, calorific value of more than 6000 kcal/kg and combustion temperature of more than 1100 deg/C.
EFFECT: simplifying manufacturing procedure of solid fuel from industrial and domestic wastes.
FIELD: production processes.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation of solid bio-waste products containing cells and water related to cells and their delivery to the following stages: arrangement of sufficient pressure in solid bio-waste products for maintaining of fluidity; heating of solid bio-waste products under pressure up to first temperature sufficient for cells breakage and release of water related to cells and extraction of carbon dioxide from solid bio-waste products with formation of suspension of carbonised material containing carbonised broken cells of solid bio-waste products; cooling of suspension; release of pressure in suspension by means of carbon dioxide separation; removal of at least some part of water related to cells released from suspension, this results in production of at least partially dehydrated product form carbonised cells of solid bio-waste products. In the other version method includes preparation of biomass containing at least 10% of water; suspending of biomass for getting of run through suspension using method chosen among grinding, adding of fresh or recirculated water, water vapour and their combination; use of biomass of sufficient pressure in suspension for maintaining of fluidity and biomass formation under pressure; heating of biomass under pressure up to first temperature sufficient for formation of water suspension of carbonised material, carbon dioxide and free water; cooling of suspension of carbonised material; release of pressure in suspension of carbonated material from biomass; separation of carbon dioxide from suspension of carbonated mass; and removal of at least some part of free water from suspension of carbonated biomass, this results in production of dehydrated carbonised biomass with reduced oxygen content.
EFFECT: invention allows removing silt in economic and environment-friendly way with production of renewable fuel with positive calorific capacity.
40 cl, 2 ex, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method and system for solid fuel recycled generation, including the first component representing dry fraction of crushed consume recycle solids, and at least one second crushed component selected from of elastomeric and thermoplastic polymer material, or their mixtures. At that consume recycle solids, elastomeric polymer material and/or thermoplastic polymer material are held in separate containers and as and when necessary are ladled and supplied as overlapped layers to continuous running carrier that provides unloading to temporary storage unit, e.g. car body, for direct delivery to combustion plant. Thus, there is no necessity for premixing of various fractions of recycled solid fuel in production stage and in constant agitation of produced mixture for prevention of consolidation and/or division of fractions. Actually, agitation of various fractions occurs only in the end of production method when recycled solid fuel is unloaded to temporary storage unit where it is delivered to combustion plant.
EFFECT: development of effective method of recycled solid fuel production.
29 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns obtaining of moulded fuel, particularly of carbonaceous mouldings in the briquette or pellet form made of organic carbonaceous waste. Additionally, carbonaceous mouldings can be used in agriculture as fertiliser and/or soil structure-forming agent. The process involves proportioning, activation mixing of the components, activated component moulding under the pressure of 120 MPa to obtain carbonaceous mouldings. Organic carbonaceous waste includes lignine and/or sewage treatment sediments, and/or animal manure, and/or bird droppings. The components or their mix are dried to 40% dampness before moulding, either by direct contact with drying medium containing up to 14 mass % of oxygen with the components or their mix; or without direct contact with the drying medium heated up to 500°C.
EFFECT: fast adhesion of organic carbonaceous component particles in mouldings and higher moulding solidity due to the optimal component dampness and moulding pressure.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: reworking 0f domestic and industrial wastes town dumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in profiling the dump territory in the course of accumulation, excavation and sorting-out of garbage at simultaneous separation of scrap metal, stones and incombustible building wastes. After profiling the territory, dump is divided into technological sites which are covered with peat (and sawdust if available). Sorting-out of garbage is performed by means of layer-by-layer cyclic surface reworking of technological sited by detents of rotary stump pullers and then by working members of stone-picking road-building machines at simultaneous mixing of peat (and sawdust if available) with garbage in depth of sites and shaking of coarse and then fine scrap metal, stones and incombustible building wastes in separators. Then garbage is loaded in bins of machines for removal from dump. Cleaned garbage is subjected to surface grinding by means of layer-by-layer milling with the aid of peat milling machines. Milled garbage crumb is subjected to drying together with peat and sawdust under action of solar radiation in summer or freezing-out in winter, after which it is stacked for storage and making briquettes used as domestic fuel. Device proposed for reworking garbage includes complex of profiling and hoisting machines, sorting-out site and briquetting presses. Sorting-out site is made in form of technological sites covered with peat and sawdust (if available). Technological base consists of peat machine complex cyclically working on technological site covered with peat (and sawdust if available); technological base is made from complex which includes rotary stump puller with separator and collecting bin for coarse scrap metal, stones and incombustible building wastes, stone picking machine with separator and collecting bin for fine scrap metal, stone and incombustible building materials, peat agitators, swath collectors and milled peat picking machines for regular gathering of dried crumb which is subjected to briquetting in peat presses.
EFFECT: possibility of removal of garbage accumulated in dumps during 10-15 years; enhanced ecological safety; low cost of method.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: technological processes; metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for recycling of chemical-recovery production wastes. Coal sludges are loaded in molds 1 of transporter 2 and supplied to furnace 3, where they are thermally treated. Briquetting is done without binding agent, and thermal treatment is carried out at the temperature of 330-390 °C for 120-40 minutes.
EFFECT: reduction of prime cost and increase of briquettes mechanical strength.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of production of hard fuel of organic origin, namely, to formation of agglomerated fuel from wastes of carbon-containing materials. The method includes mechanical action on raw material with gradual increase in loading and its volume compression. During mechanical action raw material is grinded until viscous-plastic state is obtained. The device includes loading bin, cylinder-cone frame, auger shaft with transporting and pressing blades and has longitudinal protrusions located along the frame on its inner surface and a row of dies, each of being fixed in the frame at a distance from each other, with an auger shaft passed through the central holes of the latter.
EFFECT: increase in degree of fuel plasticity and strength whatever the original raw material without any hardening agents and additives and higher productivity of device.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and system for briquetting powder materials, for instance, moisture-containing, bituminous and semi-bituminous coals, without using binding agent. Method (versions) includes stages, at which powder material, probably, is partly dried, and supplied into briquetting device in conditions, when condensed gas is introduced into briquetting device at the time of supply or in conditions, when water vapour is released from powder material during supply. Briquettes are formed in briquetting section of briquetting device, where briquettes are formed from powder material in conditions that lead to condensation of gas component, reducing in that way, pressure growth during briquette formation. Invention also includes system (versions) for briquetting powder materials according to two methods stated above.
EFFECT: reduction of gas inrush during formation of coal dust into briquette.
52 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a pyrolytic energy recovery system for pyrolysis of wastes to obtain pyrolysis oil. The pyrolytic energy recovery system for pyrolysis of wastes to obtain oil comprises: a recovery furnace formed from multiple walls on the front, the back, sides, the ceiling and floor including insulating layers; a heat plate for dividing the inner space of the recovery furnace into upper and lower parts and having a height lowered from a centre part to both sides thereof and formed with at least one ridge and valley in a longitudinal direction thereof; a heating chamber disposed under the heat plate and heated by a burner installed aside the recovery furnace; a pyrolysis chamber disposed over the heat plate and pyrolysing the wastes fed through a recyclable material inlet port installed in the upper part of the front or rear surface of the recovery furnace using a large amount of transferred circulating heat; a heating pipeline installed inside between the front and rear surfaces of the recovery furnace in a maze shape such that the heat coming from the heating chamber flows from a lower side to an upper side along inner surfaces of front and rear walls of the recovery furnace in a zigzag manner, and then, returns into the heating chamber at a pressure lower than a predetermined pressure and is discharged to the exterior at a pressure higher than the predetermined pressure; rotary means consisting of a plurality of rotating components installed in the pyrolysis chamber under the recyclable material inlet port in a longitudinal direction to evenly distribute recyclable materials fed through the recyclable material inlet port; residue discharge means having primary residue conveyance screws longitudinally installed along the valley of the heat plate and rotated to convey the residue toward the centre part from both sides, a residue hopper installed in a separate space in the heating chamber such that the residue conveyed to the centre part of the heat plate through the primary conveyance screws is lowered to be gathered, and a secondary residue conveyance screw installed from the residue hopper to the exterior of the recovery furnace and discharging the residue accumulated in the residue hopper to the exterior of the recovery furnace; and condensing means separately installed at the exterior of the recovery furnace and receiving vaporised extracts generated through pyrolysis of the recyclable material in the pyrolysis chamber to exchange heat with the extracts to extract liquefied recovery oil.
EFFECT: reduced heat loss, more efficient heat transfer in the pyrolysis region.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reclamation of lands contaminated in oil-and-gas production, particularly, those occupied by slime pits. Proposed method comprises introducing thickener into oil-and-production wastes and mixing it over entire volume thereof to homogeneous state. Said thickener represents a bentonitic clay and is taken in amount of 50% of total volume of pit wastes. Thickening and mixing over, peat-sand mix is filled in pit to make it surface level with surrounding terrain relief. Then, second layer of peat-sand mix premixed with ammonium nitrate in amount of 180-220 kg/hec and potassium salt in amount of 130-170 kg/hec is placed onto said surface area. Now, seed of permanent cultures are sown taken in amount of 120-150 kg/hec.
EFFECT: better ecological compatibility of lands and water-physical properties.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to luminous tube disposal system. Proposed system consists of two units. First unit comprises tube disintegrator including loader, pneumatic vibration separator with crusher and cyclone, bin for collection of tube ground glass, container for tube bases and phosphor collection. Second unit comprises multistage offgas cleaning system composed of combined air filter including casing, first and second cleaning stages, regeneration system and dist separation bit. Filter casing consists of three box-like sections. Note here that first section represents the first cleaning stage, second section makes second cleaning stage with web arranged there between, while third section is system of filter regeneration of compressed air with nozzles arranged inside filtration elements. Said system is divided by web into two chambers, one for dirt air and another one for clean air, to make intermediate channel to communicate first cleaning stage composed of bag filter with second stage composed of cartridge filter. Bins of bag filter and cartridge filter are arranged at bottom of every stage while dust level pickup is located in bag filter bin.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.