Method to recycle solid domestic wastes into fuel for furnaces of high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of recycling solid domestic wastes (SDW) into fuel for furnaces of high-temperature synthesis of a cement clinker, including sorting of initial SDW so that at first such incombustible fractions such as batteries, stones, fragments of glass and faience, then secondary materials are extracted, including ferrous and non-ferrous metals. The remaining mass is previously ground to the fraction of 50-100 mm, dried to humidity of 5-10%, and then ground to the fraction of 8-10 mm. The ground raw materials are heated to 160-200°C and exposed to thermoplastic extrusion to produce fuel pellets.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase physical and mechanical strength of RDF fuel, to eliminate water absorption due to capsulation of granules in process of their manufacturing, to prevent possibility of rotting and self-ignition, to reduce costs during storage and transportation, to reduce energy intensity of its production, to improve environment, also to reduce volume of SDW removed to SDW landfills, to eliminate capital costs for construction of plants for wastes management in connection with usage of equipment of existing cement production facilities.

1 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of ecology, in particular to the processing of municipal solid waste (hereinafter referred to as MSW) into fuel for furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker burning which complied with the requirements of environmental protection, and can be used in the cement industry with the simultaneous solution of environmental problems, conserve natural resources and solid waste disposal. Also this fuel can be used in other furnaces subject to certain requirements, flue gas (combustion products).

Today, in many countries around the world, including in our country, a critical situation with the accumulation and disposal of solid waste, which makes the solution of these problems is actual vital necessity. For collection and storage of solid waste requiring all new territory, transport, handling machinery, human resources. Existing landfills require additional investment to ensure the safety of the environment. Available in our country facilities for the incineration of MSW is not enough, and most importantly, used the technology technically problematic, environmentally unsound and economically inefficient.

There are various ways to obtain a molded, including extrusion, materials of different t the surface of the waste (see RU # 2118256, WV 17/00; VV 7/42; VS 47/00, VS 47/76, 1998; RU №2397829, B09B 3/00, 2010; RU №2212287, WV 3/00; SV 12/00, 2003).

Known methods for producing building materials from polymer waste, used as a binder, and fillers (sand, wood dust or fine sawdust), for example, the polymer-sand tile (http://www.openbusiness.rn/html/dop/polimer-cherepiza.htm and the so-called perevoplotilas (http://drevoplastic.m/ekstruzia-drevoplastika.html). In particular, the method of manufacturing the polymer sand tiles from polymer waste does not involve cleaning and deep sorting polymeric material. Even the presence of engine oil, Papademos with cans, does not affect the quality of the tile. After grinding the components in the proportions 70% filler - sand, 30% of the polymers are served in the extrusion machine, where it is heated to a temperature of 170-190°C and pressed through a Spinneret to obtain products of the desired configuration.

The above methods of processing different types of waste have some disadvantages, the main of which is their unsatisfactory environmental work associated with the formation of secondary wastes containing highly toxic organic compounds, and high cost of processing.

Known methods of manufacture of the solid waste fuel in cement kilns by crushing it and blowing into the furnace (Anticorodal. Grinding techniques is to prepare alternative fuel The cement and its applications, No. 1, 2009).

The disadvantages of these methods include the absence of thermal processing of solid waste at temperatures 170-190°C and, as a consequence, the presence in the fuel of pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms and other biological hazards, as well as high energy costs for fine grinding.

Known methods of manufacture of the solid waste fuel in cement kilns by drying, heat treatment at temperatures up to 230 degrees Celsius, pelletizing or grinding to dust fraction and blowing into the furnace.

The disadvantages of these methods include the ability, when wet MSW, the emergence of pockets of decay and spontaneous human combustion.

A method of producing a solid fuel made from industrial and household waste, which consists in the fact that at the first stage, the sorting of industrial and household waste, and the division into three groups: the first group consists of large metal objects, cords and hazardous substances that are removed from the total mass of the original waste and subsequently disposed of; the second group contains large industrial and household waste; the third group contains waste, which according to dimensions less than 150 mm; in the second stage, the first stage of processing p is myshlennyh and waste to reduce the overall dimensions of less than 150 mm, the waste of the second group are placed in a screw crusher; at the third stage, the second stage processing of industrial and household waste, where waste a second and third groups served in the horizontal setting break for volume reduction; at the fourth stage in the received horizontal installation of breaking waste add lime, then carry out the moulding round briquettes at high pressure and temperature, drying the obtained round briquettes with the formation of the final product with a diameter of 15-30 mm, a length of 30-150 mm, calories over 6,000 kcal/kg and the combustion temperature above 1100°C. the Obtained solid fuel used for combustion in power plants (RU # 2405027, C10L 5/48; C10L 5/46; 2010). Taken as a prototype.

The prototype also has a number of disadvantages. The method is energy-intensive, as for briquetting requires high pressure and temperature. In addition, when wet, will occur hydration of lime and possible destruction of the briquettes, the final product.

Task to be solved by the claimed invention is directed, is to increase strength and improve performance characteristics of fuel from solid waste for furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker burning which provided the requirements of environmental protection.

The technical result is t is the improvement of physico-mechanical strength of the fuel RDF the exception of water absorption due to the encapsulation of the granules in the manufacturing process, preventing opportunities decay and spontaneous combustion, reducing the cost of storage and transportation, reducing the energy intensity of its production, the improvement of the environment, including reducing the amount exported for disposal of solid waste, excluding capital expenditures for construction of facilities for the disposal of waste in connection with the use of equipment for existing cement plants.

The invention consists in that in the method of processing solid waste into fuel for furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker, comprising sorting the original MSW with removal of different fractions, grinding the remaining mass of the final product and its subsequent combustion, the peculiarity is that in the beginning eliminate such non-combustible fraction, as the batteries, stones, broken glass and faience, then remove secondary materials, including ferrous and nonferrous metals, and the remaining mass is then ground to a fraction of 50-100 mm, dried to a moisture content of 5-10%, and then crushed to a fraction of 8-10 mm, after which the crushed raw material is heated to 160-200°C and subjected to thermoplastic extrusion to obtain pellets, which are output from the extruder is cooled and sent as fuel in cement plants for subsequent combustion in furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker.

The set of essential features allows you to retrieve the specified technical result.

According to research conducted by the authors of studies of morphological and composition of the "tails" of MSW (see table 1 figure 1), they contain negligible amounts of food waste, but when this polymer fraction is about 35% of the dry mass of solid waste. This fact suggests that the present polymer fraction can be used as a binder for briquetting. However, their high heat of combustion will provide acceptable energy potential of fuel briquettes.

Laboratory process for producing briquettes (see figure 2) from the model MSW showed that the carbon-containing solid residue was impregnated with molten polymer and subsequent pressing this ensured high hardness briquettes, almost homogeneous structure cut briquette, low water-holding capacity. The output of briquettes accounted for 43% of the working masses of solid waste.

This bitterbynde fuel can be used for further pyrolysis, which will prevent the necessity of storing the raw MSW near cement plants, do not complicate the anthropogenic load on the location of enterprises and avoid the danger of spontaneous combustion.

Properly organized sorting of solid waste to ensure achival a significant decrease in the amount of waste and the reduction of negative impacts of solid waste on the environment and allows you to extract useful components.

Heating of the mass of raw material before extrusion in the extrusion process causes the polymer component of the "tails" of solid waste is melted, pervades the entire volume of material to be processed and thus capsulebuy organic component present in it. Pre-heating in a temperature range required for uniform heating of the material, which is not achieved simply by conventional extrusion, as studies have shown the low thermal conductivity of solid waste. As in the "tails" of MSW are polyethylene and polypropylene, melting point which is different, then lower the temperature to 160 With no melting of the polyethylene, and above 200°C is gasification.

Shredding waste provides better preparation for encapsulation. Also grinding facilitates the transportation and manipulation of waste during processing.

The drying mass of raw materials can reduce the weight and increase the calorific value of the final product. The increase in moisture content up to a level of more than 10% increases energy consumption and fuel consumption.

Encapsulation provides the fuel high physical and mechanical strength, eliminates water absorption, thereby reducing the cost of storage, loading, unloading and transport. Snizeni the energy intensity and increasing the strength of the fuel provides the possibility of outdoor storage. Low blagoveshenie and the possibility of storage in open warehouses extend the functionality of fuel use and reduce the cost of storage.

Cement enterprises have powerful modern technological equipment, and cement kiln is currently the most environmentally friendly unit for disposal of waste, including hazardous to humans and the environment. Technological and thermal processes take place in it at temperatures up to 1700°C, which allows to reduce to a minimum the content of harmful substances in exhaust gases, and chemical binding in the clinker minerals part of harmful substances emitted from waste in the process of processing at higher temperatures than, for example, in furnaces waste processing plants or units other industrial plants. In addition, incineration in cement kilns fuel containing waste can significantly reduce the consumption of expensive fuel (gas, oil, coal) and to reduce the cost of cement production.

The proposed method for the manufacture of solid waste fuel for furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker can be implemented on standard equipment waste sorting station, beefed required to implement the equipment.

The piano is D.1 presents table 1 - morphological composition of solid waste after sorting line Lipetsk waste sorting plant in terms of dry substance; figure 2 - sample of fuel briquettes obtained from MSW in the experiment; figure 3 is a flow diagram of installation; figure 4 presents table 2 - the accounting statements of JSC "ecoprom Lipetsk" for 2011.

Method of processing solid waste into fuel for furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker as follows (see figure 3).

After delivery of solid waste on site drives waste sorting plants (plants) of them previously retrieved bulky waste with further grinding them into the crusher. Destroyed (cut, torn) plastic bags with MSW, is the screening of solid waste in a drum or other separators, sieves by filtration of these batteries, rocks, broken glass, pottery, sand and other fine waste. Sorting of solid waste is carried out with a maximum extraction of secondary materials, including ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Magnetic separation remove ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals using an alternating magnetic field or by crushing with the subsequent newmovieproperties. The increase in the extraction of metal fractions leads to reduced the Yu toxicity residue.

The remaining weight of waste MSW - "tails" (in this case raw material) are discharged on to the conveyor 1 and serves them on a pre-grinding to a fraction of 50-100 mm crusher type 2 Schroeder required performance. After crusher 2 crushed raw material is fed to the dryer 3 to remove the moisture from it to 5-10%. Drying is a drying precluding contact of the material, the "tails" of solid waste, with the heating agent, the combustion gases. When the drying temperature should be below 140°C. This method of heating is necessary to prevent emissions of toxicants and pathogens present in the waste flue gas, which is especially important for counterflow scheme drying. Drying is required only when humidity "tails" MSW more than 15%. The material on the conveyor belt 4, equipped with a magnetic separator 5 for extraction, the remaining ferrous metals and container 6 for metal waste is fed into the knife, hammer, or shredder crusher 7 for final shredding particles up to 8,0-10,0 mm Grinding to smaller fractions is preferable, but not economically feasible. After grinding the raw material supplied to the heater 8 of the raw material, the design of which may be similar to the structure of the dryer 3, which is heated to a temperature of 160-200°C. the Heated raw material is press-pellets the tor 9 screw, or another type, where thermoplastic extrusion method are obtained pellets, which are output from the extruder is cooled, loaded, for example, in big Bags, or other containers or in bulk and sent to cement plants for subsequent combustion in furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker by loading the obtained pellets in the kiln.

Example. Technological scheme of production of fuel pellets can be equipped as follows:

1. the conveyor

2. double rotor crusher series GL

3. multifunction conveyor oven

4. the receiving conveyor

5. magnetic separator

6. tray black metal

7. crusher secondary crushing S800

8. multifunction conveyor oven

9. extruder press DL 1000

10. bunker finished goods

11. external furnace

12. the burner.

The advantages of the proposed method lies in the fact that during heating the waste to a temperature of 160-200°C killed all pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms, polymers soften and melt, enveloping shredded MSW, linking and capsulebuy them, and pellets convenient for transportation, for example, uploaded in big Becky. They have no water absorption, they do not rot and does not snowsports.

Additionally, you may ukrupnennom to assess the economic will stifle the efficiency of utilization of solid waste proposed method compared with the existing technology burial "tails" of solid waste at the landfill implemented by CJSC "ecoprom-Lipetsk the city of Lipetsk. Study of the efficiency of utilization of solid waste as fuel in cement kilns clinker was conducted on the basis of financial statements of CJSC "ecoprom Lipetsk" for 2011 (see table 2, figure 4).

Thus, compaction and disposal of 1 tonne "tails" MSW costs (landfill + energy) was 466,7 RUB/so

Non-recurring costs:

- the cost of the media company "Imbed Iberica. C.A." 22,0 million rubles

- the cost of construction plan-a map of the landfill 11,0 million rubles one-time cost for the equipment in terms of per tonne of recyclable solid waste was: 1413,22 RUB/so

Other costs (transportation, wages, etc) are not considered, as stored in the proposed alternative technologies.

Getting fuel briquettes.

For conditions glicka annual volume of produced briquettes with full processing tailings MSW - 14011,0 tons of briquettes heat of combustion 28,63 MJ/kg

For heating and evaporation of moisture contained in the "tails" MSW - 9340,4't need 25,0×106MJ of heat that is provided by the combustion of 2000 tons of briquettes, while the remaining 120,000 tons are trademarks product and can replace 10200 thousand m3natural gas, which will provide savings 27030 thousand rubles, while the price of natural gas 2650 RUB/10003 m3without VAT.

Refining costs "tails" of solid waste in toplin the e granules, the briquettes unit with a capacity of 1 t/h are formed including the cost of electricity for the drive units. And make up for the experimental sample:

the conveyor, kW/h1,5
the receiving conveyor, kW/h1,5
multifunction conveyor oven, kW/h2,7
double rotor crusher series GL, kW/h15+15
crusher secondary crushing XFS800, kW/h22,0
multifunction conveyor oven, kW/h2,7
extruder press DL 1000, kW15,0
external furnace, kW/h1,5
Process, kW/ton76,9
Process, RUB/t423,0

The one-time cost for equipment:

the conveyor1,00 million rubles
double rotor crusher series GL2.10 million rubles
multifunction conveyor oven1,40 million rubles
conveyor receiving1,00 million rubles
magnetic separator0,10 million rubles
crusher secondary crushing XFS8001,750 million rubles
multifunction conveyor oven1,40 million rubles
extruder press DL 10000,50 million rubles
bunker fuel briquettes0,05 million rubles
external furnace1,50 million rubles
metal0,30 million rubles
All equipment must be expended11,10 million rubles

When working EA furnace in the installation of fuel pellets production capacity of 1.0 t/h one-time cost for the equipment in terms of per tonne of processed MSW will be: equipment 1401,52 RUB/so

p> Thus, the introduction of technology for producing fuel briquettes by saving energy and avoiding polygons on a rough estimate would reduce the costs of disposal of solid waste 55,40 RUB/t or glicka 1.29 million rubles/year.

In addition, the savings due to the substitution process fuel fuel from MSW will be 27030 RR year when the price of natural gas 2650 rubles/1000 m3without VAT.

The invention allows to simultaneously address issues of ecology, economy, natural resources, waste disposal and to obtain fuel materials that can be used for combustion in furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker. The resulting fuel has a high mechanical strength, which allows to reduce the cost of its storage, loading, unloading and transport.

The method allows for recycling of solid waste, increasing their value. Fuel is obtained transportable and easy to use. It can be stored for a long period of time even under the open sky and spend as needed, which will reduce the anthropogenic load on the territory surrounding cement production.

The proposed integrated technological solutions for waste treatment plants designed to produce competitive commodities that can attract the attention cast the x investors to a recycling business.

A method of processing solid waste into fuel for furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker, comprising sorting the original MSW with removal of different fractions, grinding the remaining mass of the final product and its subsequent combustion, characterized in that the first screen out these non-combustible fraction, as the batteries, stones, broken glass and faience, then remove secondary materials, including ferrous and nonferrous metals, and the remaining mass is then ground to a fraction of 50-100 mm, dried to a moisture content of 5-10% and then crushed to a fraction of 8-10 mm, after which the crushed raw material is heated to 160-200°With and subjected to thermoplastic extrusion to obtain pellets, which are output from the extruder is cooled and sent as fuel in cement plants for subsequent combustion in furnaces high-temperature synthesis of cement clinker.



 

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12 tbl, 5 ex

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1 tbl, 1 dwg

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2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

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2 ex

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