Pulsation apparatus for delignification of cellulose-containing plant material and method for operation thereof

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: material is fed into a mixer 1 and treated with steam from a pipe 10. The treated material is then fed into a screw feeder 2 which is provided with valve locking device. The reactor 3 is in form of a vertical cylindrical vessel which is provided with means of loading and unloading material and a means of intensifying agitation of the reaction mass, having a pulsation chamber 4, which encloses the reactor 3, and a pulsator - pulse generator 12. Cooking liquor is fed into the reactor 3 through pipe 5. Spent cooking liquor is removed from the reactor 3 through pipe 6. Steam is fed into the reactor 3 through pipe 7, which is fitted with steam injectors. The reaction mass is subjected to acoustic energy pulses with frequency of 5-70 pulsations per minute with energy density of 3-100 MJ/mol. The pulsator - pulse generator 12 consists of a compressor 13, a receiver 14, a pipe 16 and a pulse generator 15. The reaction mass is moved into the top part of the reactor 3 and, using a blade or scrapping device 8 of a screw device 9, the ready product is separated from the cooking liquor to obtain the end product - edible cellulose.

EFFECT: simple reactor design and delignification technology, low power consumption, while improving quality of the cellulose mass.

3 cl, 3 dwg

 

The claimed technical solution relates to pulsation devices and technologies continuous action for the delignification of cellulose-containing vegetable raw materials. Most can be effectively used for processing mainly of annual vegetable raw materials to produce pulp, intended for the manufacture of predominantly dietary fibers and other cellulosic materials, allows to considerably simplify the design of the reactor and the delignification technology, reducing energy costs while improving the quality of pulp. Technical results achieved through changes in reactor design, the application of the new pulsation devices that provide high-energy acoustic effects on reaction medium hydraulic shock.

Of the investigated prior art is widely known installation for delignification of plant materials periodic and continuous action. In particular, for delignification of raw wood boilers are used for periodic actions, operating under positive pressure (pulp and paper production. M.: Publishing house "Forest industry", 1981. Ed. Wasichana p.58-65, similar to 1).

Known cooking devices (boilers) in SV is due to the design features have the following disadvantages:

- work at a gauge pressure (8-12 ATM);

- have low indicators on safety and sustainability in the power devices (boilers) under pressure.

- have low performance;

- have low maintainability.

- also have a high metal content.

The known device described in alternative 1 (digesters)are units of periodic action, and due to its structural features are characteristic of these devices shortcomings in the way the implementation process of cooking, i.e. have a low specific capacity at 1 m3the useful volume of the device and, consequently, is characterized by the above-mentioned disadvantages.

Widely known Novotrubny cooktop installation horizontal type continuous action. For example, the installation described in alternative 2 consists of the cooking tubes, equipped with a screw conveyor. The tubes are arranged horizontally one above another in a vertical plane. The number of cooking pipes depends on the type produced semi-finished product and the performance of the installation and is 2-8 pieces of pipe Diameter of 0.6-1.2 m, length 6-12 m Data units are designed for processing wood into paper and cardboard pulp and paper production. In these settings chips from the hopper through the spout, PI is the motor of the high pressure screw type served in impregnating the tube. The screw feeder in the direction of boot outlet impregnating the pipe narrows, thereby chips is sealed and prevents breakthrough of steam from a pipe in the feeder. Pressed chips (tube) is adjudged to be in an impregnating the tube, where moving to the opposite end of the tube, under the action of the screw, a pair of pressure, temperature and liquor chips mixes well with liquor, saturated and becomes the target product is cellulose. Passing then the cooking tubes, chips, boiled and through the discharge device Peredovaya in the blow tank. Temperature cooking all cooking pipes supported 160-180°C, cooking time 15-60 min (pulp and paper production. M.: Publishing house "Forest industry", 1981. Ed. Wasichana p.71-76) (analogue 2).

The disadvantages of these facilities include:

- high specific consumption of thermal energy;

- excessive pressure inside the device;

the apparatus operates at high temperatures.

Known Novotrubny, cooking devices of the horizontal type continuous action described in alternative 2, due to its structural features are characteristic of these devices shortcomings in the way the implementation process of cooking, i.e. have a lower productivity per unit of useful volume of the device is the STV 1 m 3compared to the claimed technical solution due to this known method, implemented in the known device, characterized by the above-mentioned disadvantages in obtaining cellulose for the production of paper and cardboard for the needs of the pulp and paper industries.

Widely known device of the vertical type for two-stage continuous cooking of cellulose. Equipment for cooking consists of two vertical boilers, the upper part of which is connected a by-pass pipe. From feeder high pressure chips with liquor served in the lower neck of the digester, in which it moves upwards. The second boiler is also equipped with a circulating system for indirect heating, and the liquor is drained from the bottom of the boiler and after heating is supplied in its upper part. From the bottom of the neck of the second boiler weight through the hub is blown in the blow tank. Pulping in continuously operating boilers is carried out in case of a full liquor digester and excessive hydraulic pressure (0.1-0.2 MPa higher than the pressure corresponding to the boiling temperature of the cooking solution)

Working pressure in the boiler, thus, is equal to 1-1,2 MPa. The applied method allows to prevent boiling of the liquor and thereby create different ones the temperature zone at the height of the boiler Equipment of pulp and paper production. M.: Publishing house "Forest industry", 1981. Ed. Wasichana p.76-77) (similar to 3).

A disadvantage of the known device is that it requires a high consumption of thermal energy, excess pressure inside the apparatus, the apparatus operates at high temperatures, this equipment is intended for cellulose production and technical goods for the production of paper and cardboard.

The known device of the vertical type for two-stage continuous cooking of cellulose described in the analog of 3, due to its structural features are characteristic of these devices shortcomings in the way the implementation process of cooking, i.e. have a lower productivity per 1 m3the useful volume of the device compared to the claimed technical solution due to this known method, implemented on a known device (analog 3), characterized by the above-mentioned disadvantages in obtaining cellulose technical assignment for the production of paper and cardboard.

Known design pulsation apparatus for oxygen-alkali delignification of plant materials (see analog 4, pages 61-64, respectively), which is the closest to the claimed technical solution according to the number of matching characteristics of both the design and features of the process, and achieved a t the economic result in addition, the known technical solution for the implementation of similar tasks (goals), namely for delignification of plant raw materials.

Device (pulsation apparatus) is a vertical cylindrical vessel with a fixed nozzle (nozzle type" KRIS see p.55, 2 and 3)having a rectangular hole with guide vanes (blades) with periodic loading of raw materials.

Pulsation apparatus for delignification of plant materials is equipped with a pulsator (see p.55 2)outside the cooking apparatus representing the actual pulsation apparatus, the pulsator and the pulsator piston, which creates a liquid oscillations in a vertical direction. Passing through the nozzle orifice, the liquid acquires a rotary motion caused by the direction of the blade tip. The device works under pressure of 1.9 to 2.1 MPa, at a temperature of 150°C (Delignification plant materials in pulsation equipment. Logoff [and other] / the Chemistry of wood. - 1984. No. 6. - P.54-57; and Ivanov US, Ioffe LO, P. Vorobiev, dwoskin SF Obtain pulp with continuous separation of the fibers in the pulsating device // Express-inform. Russ. production. experience. Pulp, paper, cardboard, iss.5. - M: Was, 1987. - p.5-9, similar to the 4).

The way pulsation apparatus for oxygen-alkali Delhi is neftali vegetable raw materials with periodic loading of raw materials is a continuous feeding of the cooking liquid in the reactor by spraying and recycling cooking solution through the holes of the ring tube. The process is conducted at high(them) over-pressure and temperature in a batch reactor, the feeding oxygen (see analog 4, p.55 paragraphs 2-5, respectively) when multiple (35 fold) recycling the cooking solution and the gas phase (20-fold recirculation of oxygen), it was also stated that: "anyway, in these circumstances, proceeded very unevenly. The liquid and gas to find the path with minimum hydraulic resistance. In these places the chips were light and digested, while in other areas there were a lot of incomplete fusion, and cellulose had a low average degree of polymerization and a dark color. These experiments showed how difficult is the uniform distribution of liquid and gas throughout the volume of the cooking apparatus even at small sizes. In addition, in any mixing with the cooking solution single-stage boiling chips will produce unsatisfactory results because the process of delignification occurs only on the surface of the wood material. Naturally, in these conditions, the fiber surface layers of the chip are welded much earlier than the fibers of the middle layer, resulting in nonuniform pulp quality" (see p.55, 56, paragraph 3,4). Constructive and technological disadvantages of this setup are:

- high the th water ratio (1:40);

the periodicity of the boot device.

- low specific productivity per 1 m3system;

- small working volume;

- high energy consumption for the creation of the pulsation process;

- excessive pressure;

- high temperature;

- this device is intended solely for oxygen-alkali method of delignification;

- the use of pulsation apparatus is intended for removal of fragments of pulp from the surface of the chip and thereby ensure access of oxygen to the surface of the chips for the oxidation of lignin, the implementation of this process is possible at high water ratio (1:40), this requires a higher specific energy consumption for the creation of the pulsation process that leads to the complexity of both the structure of the device, and the technology of delignification.

The disadvantage of this pulsation device is its low efficiency purpose, because pulsations are low (not more than 5-6 Hz) reciprocating impulse which is fed into the liquid phase from the generator (pulser). Ripple is characterized by the intensity, I, is equal to the product of the oscillation frequency on their scope 2A (double amplitude in mm). I is usually 1000-4000 mm/min Pulse jet mixing is more efficient than bubble and mechanical, K in motion is all the contents of the autoclave, and the "dead" zone in the reactor are missing (see the description of the pulsation of the device and how it works on p.56. 2 analogue 4).

Known pulsation cooking apparatus for delignification of plant material, described in the analog 4, due to their design is characterized by the following disadvantages of the method (process):

the apparatus operates at a pressure (1,9-2,1 MPa or pressure 19-21 atmospheres, respectively),which provides greater intensity;

- the device works under the influence of high temperature (150°C);

- the device uses the periodic method download;

the apparatus requires a high energy cost to create pulsation process in the reactor;

- the unit has a high explosive and fire risk, due to the use as high temperature, pressure, and the use of oxygen delignification.

The claimed technical solution is designed for processing mainly of annual vegetable raw materials to produce pulp, intended for the manufacture of predominantly dietary fibers and other cellulosic materials.

The essence of the claimed technical solution is as follows. Pulsating device for which lignification cellulose-containing vegetable raw materials, made in the form of a vertical cylindrical reactor vessel, equipped with means for loading and unloading raw materials, are made the means to intensify the mixing of the reaction mass, made in the form of an annular tube, placed in the upper part of the reactor, equipped with a spray. feed the cooking solution and pulsation device, characterized in that the means for loading raw material made in the form of a mixing device consisting of a housing, the rotor, which is a horizontal tubular shaft located therein a mixing spiral coils and Belami, drive rotor coupled to a screw feeder, made in the form of a cylindrical body equipped at the end of the pipe a cylindrical or conical shape with flanges for attachment to the reactor, screw, is placed coaxially to the housing, and a locking device made in the form of a sliding device, a means for pressing and unloading of the target product, made in the form of a blade or the scraper device connected to a screw device, and means for intensification and stirring the reaction mass contains a pulsation chamber, and a pulser-pulser that provides the ability to generate in the pulsation chamber energy acoustic pulses with a frequency in the range is the area of 5-70 pulsations per minute with the density of the energy impact of raw materials, in the range from 3 to 100 MJ/mol.

The pulser-pulser according to claim 1 characterized in that it is made in the form of a compressor, receiver and pulse generator containing a spool-distribution mechanism, or system of inlet and exhaust valves. The method of operation of a pulsating device for delignification of cellulose-containing vegetable raw materials, which consists in the preliminary grinding of raw materials, the raw material feeding to the reactor through a boot device, sealing the reactor, the continuous supply of the cooking liquid in the reactor by spraying the circulating fluid through the holes of a circular tube, processing of raw materials in the reactor, the selection of the pulp from the cooking solution with the feed pulp is washed with subsequent extraction of cellulose, characterized in that the raw materials served continuously in the mixer, which conducted the first pre-compression and loosening of the raw material through the rotor, which is a shaft located on it turns Belami twist reverse direction at the end of the rotor at the outlet of, in parallel or serial flow into the area of the opening in the mixer cooking solution and steam, the material loosen through the impact of the revolution of the auger reverse direction and is served in a screw feeder, which produce a second compressed the e raw material through the screw feeder, next, the raw material is fed into the pipe screw feeder-problemresolution, which produce additional third compression of raw materials, increasing the density of the raw material to a state that prevents the leakage of the cooking solution from the reactor, with the possibility of parallel flow in the outlet of the screw feeder cooking solution, then make another loosening of the raw material entering into the reactor through one-time exposure effect flotation and pulsation effects and delignification in the whole volume of the reactor due to the pulsation device for creating (generating) energy (acoustic) pulses on the feedstock, in the reactor with a frequency in the range of 5-70 pulsations per minute and a density of impact (energy pulse)in the range from 3 to 100 MJ/mol, with a parallel effects of steam on raw materials, and then produce a loosening of the mixing of raw materials blade or scraper device for movement of raw materials in the screw device, then produce the compression of the raw material to free it up from the cooking solution of a screw device, then produce additional compression of the raw material at the outlet of the screw device in its conical part with the possibility of more efficient extraction of pulp from the cooking solution and create PR is the KJV of the pulp at the outlet of the device to provide a possible release of steam and or cooking solution from the reactor, followed by the unloading of product from the pulsation device, obtaining the target product edible pulp.

The claimed technical solution in comparison with the prototype is devoid of the above structural and technological shortcomings, is illustrated by figure 1-3, which are respectively:

Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the claimed device.

Figure 2 is a diagram of an example of a specific implementation of the device;

Figure 3 shows the principal functional block diagram of the delignification in the claimed device.

The claimed technical solution provides the following technical tasks (targets)achieved by design features of the claimed device, in combination with features of the process are described hereinafter individually in relation to the device and method (process).

The claimed technical solution in comparison with the prototype provides an implementation of the following objectives (tasks)to be implemented, according to the applicant, mainly due to the design features of the claimed technical solution;

1 - the device has a low water ratio is 4 times smaller than the prototype due to the design features of the device due to the absence of moving parts and mounted stationary elements in the reaction zone of the apparatus, preventing the movement of the materials is in the device;

2 - the device has a high specific capacity per unit working volume of 1 m3due to the absence of moving parts in the reaction zone of the apparatus;

3 - the device provides effective operation of the device (reactor) at atmospheric pressure due to the overlapping effect of the backflow of reagents (raw materials and cooking solution) and the pulsation of the impact (effect) on the reaction mass;

4 - the device enables the device operability at lower temperatures (up to 95°C-100°C) due to the overlapping effect of the backflow of reagents (raw materials and cooking solution) and the pulsation of the impact (effect) on the reaction mass;

5 - the device provides a more comparable low consumption of reagents due to the implementation of the regeneration process of the cooking liquid;

6 - the device provides a low energy consumption due to the synergistic effect that occurs due to structural and technological features of the claimed device and method of its operation;

7 - the device provides high reliability by eliminating moving parts and elements in the reaction zone of the apparatus (reactor);

8 - the device provides the possibility of implementing a simplified remote maintenance by minimizing the use of SCR is imich for the delignification of control and measuring instruments and apparatus;

9 - the device provides high maintainability due to the absence of moving parts and mounted stationary elements in the reaction zone of the apparatus (reactor);

10 - the device provides the possibility of using ceramics and plastics for the manufacture of structural elements mainly reactor by simplifying the design of the reactor and its elements in contact with the cooking solution).

The claimed technical solution in respect of the claimed method (technology) provides the following advantages in comparison with the method used in the prototype, the advantages are created through the interaction and combination of characteristics of the device and method implemented in the claimed technical solution:

1 - enables effective operation of the device (reactor) at atmospheric pressure due to the overlapping effect of the backflow of reagents (raw materials and cooking solution) and the pulsation of the impact (effect) on the reaction mass;

2 - the method provides the functionality of the device at lower temperatures (up to 95°C), this result is achieved by blending effect backflow of reagents (raw materials and cooking solution) and the pulsation of the impact (effect) on the reaction mass;

3 - way provides a low consumption of reagents due to the implementation of% the SSA regeneration of the cooking solution;

4 - way provides low energy consumption due to the synergistic effect of mutual influence of constructive and technological features of the claimed device (how it works);

5 - the method provides the possibility of using ceramics and plastics for the manufacture of structural elements of the device (mainly reactor) by eliminating the need to install moving parts and mounted stationary elements in the reaction zone of the apparatus (reactor)in contact with the cooking solution;

6 - the method provides the functionality of the device in principle and implementation of the stated objectives through a combination of original design features of the method lies in ensuring the integrity of the device by creating impervious to cooking solution tube from raw materials at the bottom of the device (the input to the reactor) and the same kind of impenetrable traffic jams on the yield of the target product from the reactor, which prevents the emission of steam, and cooking solution from the device.

In addition, in addition to the technical advantages of the claimed technical solution include the following:

- the process of delignification in a counter (as opposed to prototype) when applying a pulsating or energy is micheskogo (acoustic) impact on raw materials, which significantly increases the efficiency of the process, making more effective diffusion of the cooking solution in raw materials in the reactor and subsequent extraction of lignin from the materials in the cooking solution.

The applicant draws attention to the fact that both figures are well known devices, such as mixers, etc. shown conventionally (schematically) to prevent cluttering of the figures, and text descriptions are shown in more detail.

The technical solution is a column mass transfer apparatus with a counter-current movement of the reaction mass and is intended for delignification mainly plant materials.

The device shown in figure 1 (a General view of the claimed device)consists of a mixer 1, which consists of frame, rotor and rotor drive (figure 1, 2 elements not detailed in order not to clutter the drawing). The rotor of the mixer is a horizontal tubular shaft located therein a mixing spiral coils and Belami, at the input of the mixer rotor with 1.5-2 turns, followed by a number of beat mixing, then again 1.5-2 mixing round, at the end of the rotor at the outlet of placed round the opposite direction to intensify the process of unloading of raw materials due to its loosening. This design provides the most efficient is the process of preliminary preparation of the reaction mass, preferably not less than twofold) by compressing the turns of the mixer of the reaction mass and its subsequent loosening Belami, it is then up through the mixing coil to reverse the direction of the spiral, which provides intensive mixing of the reaction mass with the cooking solution in the mixer 1 is then placed screw feeder 2, made in the form of a cylindrical body equipped at the end of the pipe a cylindrical or conical shape with flanges for attachment to the reactor before entry of raw materials into the reactor 3, the screw is placed coaxially to the housing, locking device, made for example in the form of a sliding device (figure 1, 2 shut-off device made in the form of a gate, which is represented conventionally and not marked with the item number to avoid cluttering Fig. 1, 2).

It should be noted that, as the locking device can be set to any other device (means), functionally designed to regulate the overlapping section of the screw feeder at the beginning of the work claimed pulsation device used to create a tube after a screw feeder, which ensures the operability of the pulsation device in General, because in the absence of this tube all the raw materials with the cooking solution at a temperature of about 100°C and weighing several tons will inevitably result from the reactor via a screw feeder 2.

Given the above, it can be stated that shut in trojstvo, made in the form of a gate, may be executed in any execution, the task of locking device is creating a tube of raw materials at the end of the screw feeder (pipe feeder), made in the form of a cylindrical or conical tubes with flanges for attachment to the reactor, placed in front of the entrance of raw materials in the reactor 3 in the form of compressed raw (in the form of a tube). The design of the locking device can be performed, for example, in the form of a pair of cone-saddle or other similar device with manual or mechanized (automated) drive intended, firstly, to create a tube at the moment of starting the device, maintaining the actual delignification process (cooking) cellulose, secondly, to overlap the section of the screw feeder, if necessary, termination of delignification or for maintenance (repair) work on pulsating device.

Then placed the pipe screw feeder (problemresolution), made in the form of a cylindrical or conical tubes with flanges for attachment to the reactor, representing the actual problemresolution (figure 1, 2 problemresolution not shown separately to avoid cluttering the drawings), it is designed to create a tube of raw materials and cooking solution, provides additional the Noe compression of the reaction mass, that:

- prevents the cooking liquid from the device to the mixer in the process of starting the operation of the device, thereby ensuring the efficiency of the device in the initial stage when you start the installation and operation of the device when the ramp-up and shutdown and stopping stated pulsation device;

- provides additional intensive mixing of the reaction mass, because after passing the shut-off devices of the reaction mass (raw materials) under the influence of pneumatic pulsator (pulse generator) and the effect of flotation once again loosened.

At the outlet of the feeder placed fitting (figure 1, 2 is not shown to avoid cluttering the drawings), designed (if necessary) to allow the submission to him of impregnating liquid (for example, cooking solution). The reactor 3 is made in the form mainly of a hollow cylindrical container, coaxial pulsation chamber 4, covering the reactor 3, the outside of the pipe 5 for supplying the cooking solution in the reactor, placed in the upper part of the reactor, piping 6 for removal from the reactor's spent cooking solution, placed in the upper part of the pulsation chamber 4, the steam pipe 7 that is installed in the lower part of the reactor, mainly VD is l or coaxially it (reactor) vertical axis, representing a pipe fitted with steam injectors, mainly radially on the steam line 7 (figure 1, 2 is not shown to avoid cluttering the drawings), a blade or scraper device 8, a screw device 9 designed for pressing and unloading pulp, pipeline 10 to exhaust the cooking solution, the device 11 for separating lignin from spent cooking solution, pulser-pulser 12, intended for transfer to a hydraulic pulse (water hammer) on raw materials in the reactor 3 through the impact on the surface of the cooking solution, in the pulsation chamber 4, the pneumatic pulses generated by the pulser-pulser 12.

The device shown in figure 1, consists of the following elements: mixer 1, a screw feeder 2, the reactor 3, the pulsation chamber 4, pipe 5 for supplying the cooking solution in the reactor, piping 6 for removal from the reactor's spent cooking solution, steam pipe 7, a blade or scraper device 8, a screw device 9, a pipeline 10 to exhaust the cooking solution, the device 11 for separating lignin from spent cooking solution, pulser-pulser 12, intended for per the villas hydraulic or energy (acoustic) pulse (water hammer) for raw materials, located in the reactor 3 through the impact on the surface of the cooking solution, in the pulsation chamber 4, the pneumatic pulses generated by the pulser-pulser 12.

The claimed device operates as follows.

Raw (chopped straw) is supplied to the mixer 1, which is subjected to the steam treatment (figure 1, 2 steam flow is indicated conventionally by the arrow "pairs"), while in the mixer 1 and the screw feeder 2 simultaneously serves the cooking solution through the pipeline 10 in equal or unequal shares, depending on the characteristics of the feedstock. In the mixer 1 and feeder 2 pre-impregnation of the raw material of the cooking solution coming from the pipe 10, with the purpose of intensification of the process of delignification in the mixer 1 and in the Central part of the reactor 3 through a steam line 7 additionally, through, for example, steam injectors, serves a coolant (for example, steam, steam, hot or overheated water).

Next pre-prepared raw material, impregnated with the cooking solution and processed by the carrier (e.g., steam) from the mixer 1 enters the screw feeder 2, which due to the rotation of the screw in the feeder 2, the raw material is moved into the reactor 3. At the same time to ensure the temperature regime% of the SSA in the Central part of the reactor 3 through a steam line 7 in addition, through, for example, steam injectors, serves a fluid (e.g. steam, hot or overheated water).

Further, when one-time effect on the reaction mass (raw materials and cooking solution) hydraulic (acoustic) pulses (upward)generated by the pulser-pulser 12, through polysaprobic (figure 1 polysaprobic not shown), the reaction mass is subjected to the boiling solution in the counter and moves to the top of the reactor, from which by means of a blade or scraper device 8 and a screw device 9 for pressing and discharging the pulp is subjected to extraction from the cooking solution and unloading for future use.

Thus, the feedstock (see figure 3), since entering the mixer is subjected to the following effects, which characterize the essential features of the claimed method of operation of the device, are necessary and sufficient for implementing the inventive method in the inventive device. Figure 3 shows the principal functional block diagram of the process of delignification.

It then presents a detailed functional description of the technology of processing on each of the components of the nodes (elements) of the claimed device.

Mixer 1

Operation No. 1 - the first compression when the lump sum is odace cooking solution and steam in the mixer with the raw materials when exposed to rotational motion of the rotor on raw materials, equipped with a mixing coils and Belami, while mixing the coils of the rotor provide a first compression of raw materials.

Operation No. 2 - bill, posted on the rotor provide a loosening of the raw materials, if necessary, operations # 1 and # 2 can be repeated by setting on the rotor shaft of additional sections of the mixing coils and beat in mixer 1 and the screw feeder 2 is provided parallel flow of the cooking solution and steam.

The screw feeder 2

Operation No. 3 - in screw feeder with screw and locking device, the raw material is subjected to repeated compressive effect by means of a screw which is necessary for a more effective wetting and mixing of the reaction mass with the cooking solution.

Operation No. 4 - raw materials to create traffic jams are served at the outlet of the feeder (problemresolution), this operation is crucial for implementing the inventive process, since it eliminates breakthrough cooking solution in the feeder and mixer from the reactor, since the height of the reactor is not less than 5 m, and the volume of the reactor is not less than 4 m3solution at temperatures up to 100°C (and it should be noted that a breakthrough cooking solution in the screw feeder is fraught with unpredictable consequences).

Reactor 3

Operation No. 5 - next in the reactor 3 raw material is advergame another mixing (old) due to the impact effect of flotation.

Operation No. 6 - pulse (acoustic) effect on the reaction mass due to the impact of raw materials by a pulse generator 12, and the vector of these forces directs the reaction mass in the upper part of the reactor, while reducing the necessary force on the shaft of the screw feeder and increasing, respectively, the overall efficiency of the device.

Operation No. 7 - for raw materials, in parallel with the impacts of operations No. 5 and 6, the effect of steam through its supply preferably in the Central part of the reactor through the steam line 7. Thus, in the reactor for raw materials is simultaneously affected by three operations №5, №6, №7.

Blade or scraper device 8

Operation No. 8 - the material of the upper part of the reactor, by means of a blade or scraper device 8, again subject to loosening.

Screw 9

Operation No. 9 - screw device 9 raw material is subjected to the next release (compression) to release from the cooking solution, by means of a screw.

Operation No. 10 - raw material at the exit of the screw device 9 is displaced by the screw to the discharge, creating at the outlet of the screw device 9 (in its conical part) tube from ready pulp, which is served later on for further processing.

You should note that the lower loading of the reactor feedstock is obvious to the specialist the East in the art as a process, and constructive solution and due to the need to implement the goals. The claimed solution is dictated by the need to provide preliminary preparation of raw materials for feed to the reactor, and the necessity to improve device performance while simplifying the design and improving the quality of the product is edible pulp.

Flotation properties of raw materials (in this case, straw), due to the presence of air bubbles in it, used by the applicant for the intensification of the process of delignification taking into account the additional impact of hydraulic (acoustic) pulse for raw materials.

Thus, in the inventive device substrate when implementing the inventive method is subjected to at least ten times the mechanical action of the gripping and loosening efforts through the impact of the raw materials of the various parts and elements of the claimed device, which is additionally superimposed chemical (cooking solution), heat (temperature as a solution, and a pair of) for doing the whole process of processing of raw materials in the food industry. In the reactor 3 raw material is subjected to an additional pulse energy (acoustic) effect, which creates the most favorable conditions for izvlecheny the lignin from the raw materials and obtain the target product - food pulp.

A preferred example of execution of the pulser-pulser

Actually pulsator-pulse generator 12 shown in figure 2 and limited in phantom line, is (made) from:

- compressed gas source 13 (compressor);

receiver 14;

pipe 16;

the pulse generator 15 (made of spool-distribution mechanism or system of valves (intake and exhaust valves) production company DL (the Netherlands) or domestic producers (for example, valves fast company ISTA, marks CB-35D UHL2 or KB-40 UHL2™, the opening time of 0.001 sec, the closing time of 0.002 seconds, the working pressure range from 0.1 to 1 MPa).

The applicant draws attention to the fact that the choice of the above devices with the specified parameters speed of opening and closing the most effectively ensures the implementation of tasks (technical results).

An example of a preferred implementation of the claimed device and the method for the inventive device is shown in figure 2.

The device shown in figure 2, consists of the following elements: mixer 1, a screw feeder 2, the reactor 3, the pulsation chamber 4, pipe 5 for supplying the cooking solution in the reactor, piping 6 for removal from the reactor's spent the arched solution, steam line 7, a blade or scraper device 8, a screw device 9, a pipeline 10 to exhaust the cooking solution, the device 11 for separating lignin from spent cooking solution, polycaproamide 12, intended for transfer to a hydraulic pulse (water hammer) on raw materials in the reactor 3 through the impact on the surface of the cooking solution, in the pulsation chamber 4, the pneumatic pulses generated by a pneumatic pulsator-pulse generator 12, which consists of the following elements:

- compressed gas source 13 (compressor);

receiver 14;

pipe 16;

the pulse generator 15.

Shown in figure 2 option pulsation device (pulser-pulser 12) is the most preferred particular variant of execution of the claimed technical solution (device and method, which virtually made and tested by the applicant in the form of a pilot installation, the installation implemented and received confirmation stated in this technical solution, objectives(tasks), namely tested modes of conducting the process and the most effective values of the technological parameters of the process of cooking raw materials, temperature, concentration, cooking solutions, water ratio, will continue inost process.

Raw materials (for example, chopped straw) is supplied to the mixer 1, after filling of the mixer, reactor raw material in the space between the turns of the screw and Belami, serves pairs, the place of supply of steam and time (after filling of the mixer) is selected in order to exclude the possibility of breaking the vapor from the mixer in both directions: towards the substrate and in the direction of the feed screw feeder 2.

In the mixer 1 and the screw feeder 2 after filling their raw material serves cooking solution in equal or unequal shares, depending on the characteristics of the feedstock, in which pre-treatment of raw cooking solution coming from the pipe 5, with the purpose of intensification of the process of delignification in the mixer 1 and in the Central part of the reactor 3 through a steam line 7 is fed coolant (e.g. steam, hot or hot water).

Next, the raw material is soaked in the boiling solution and the treated fluid from the mixer 1 enters the screw feeder 2, which due to the rotation of the screw feeder 2 is moved in the reactor 3, then with one-time effect on the reaction mass (raw materials and cooking solution) hydraulic pulses generated by the pulse generator (pulser-pulser 12), passed through a pipeline (pool is the accompaniment) 16, the reaction mass is subjected to intensive exposure to the boiling solution in the counter and moves to the top of the reactor, from which by means of a blade or scraper device 8, a screw device 9 for unloading and squeezing pulp finished product - food cellulose is fed to further processing for bleaching or can be delivered for further processing if necessary.

Pneumatic system ripple shown in figure 2, the overall position of the pulser-pulser 12 is restricted from other elements of the device in phantom line, is a spool-distribution mechanism and the valve system described above, structurally related to the source of compressed air receiver and compressor.

System ripple works as follows.

The pulser-pulser 12 (limited dash-dotted line), consisting of a spool-distribution mechanism or system of valves - intake and exhaust valves, a source of compressed gas via the pipeline (Polaroid) 16 generates a pulsation in the hydraulic chamber 4 pulses (energy impact of a certain power) with a frequency of 5-70 oscillations per minute (corresponding to the frequency of 0.83-1,1666 Hz) and power density from 3 to 100 MJ/the ol. As a source of energy (acoustic) effects of pulse generator may be used any of known science and technology device (means)for creating energy (acoustic) impact (generation of pulses) to the feedstock in the reactor, in the frequency range of the impact of 5-70 oscillations per minute and the specific capacity from 3 to 100 MJ/mol, for example a mechanical generator-vibrator, made in the form of a Cam mechanism, for example, as an electric drill, electromagnetic generator, made in the form of vibrating devices used in electric paint sprayers, hydraulic vibratory apparatus, a work item which is the membrane, at break of the jet of liquid or gas, the vibration is transmitted to the membrane, and processed on Wednesday of the piezoelectric vibrating element, a work item which is piezocrystal, etc. as technical result of the impact of raw materials is the creation of a cavitation effect in the reaction mass of raw material, leading to the intensification of the process of delignification due to the fact that the impact is both macro-and micro-bubbles of air, steam, cooking solution in the reactor of the reaction mass. By analogy with the declared mouth what Euston for delignification, in which the applied pneumatic pulse generator, one can cite a classic example of a device for pulling the cable under the roadway or embankment without holding Stripping operations, working under the influence of the elastic element (an invention as the USSR), made in the form of steel springs, which, as you know, has been successfully circumvented by a patent issued by Japanese applicants, in which instead stated in the formula of the elastic element made of spring steel, in the formula were applied to other elastic elements, such as pneumatic, electromagnetic, elastic elements that perform an equivalent function steel spring vibration, which, acting on the ground provided promotion device under the soil in a given direction. Given the above, the sign of the pneumatic pulse generator (pulser-pulser) 12 given in the characterizing part of the alleged claims, formulated at the level of a generic term (concept), namely the pulse generator in the form of source energy (acoustic) effects on the reaction medium and is characterized stated in the formula parameters.

The above wording of the sign, according to the applicant, will provide a broader scope of patent protection and may reduce the likelihood is oznacevanje negative effects when delivered by the applicant to one of the largest enterprises of RF equipment and technologies for production of edible pulp which plans to begin production of their own food pulp instead purchased abroad from leading manufacturers. Thus it is possible to assume, that the refusal of imports of raw materials of the Russian consumer (substitution) can cause (or trigger) not only claims foreign suppliers (loss of part or all of the Russian market), but also their desire to circumvent or nullify the patent granted on this application, in case there is a decision of the examination, as according to information available to the applicant on the filing date of this application, the lion's share of the edible pulp is currently supplied to the enterprises of the Russian Federation from abroad. While the absurdity of the situation is that having our own vast resources of raw materials (straw, sawdust etc), enterprises of the Russian Federation buy food pulp imports, as in Russia, according to the applicant, the filing date of this application, there is no competitive equipment and technologies for production of edible cellulose, the proportion of dietary cellulose and other additives in the composition of foods, such as sausage, reaches up to 50% or more, the volume of goods imports of the Russian Federation for the needs, including food industry, reaches huge amounts.

This kind of energy (acoustic) effect on plumage is abateme raw materials in the reactor causes, according to the applicant, extremely effective impact on the feedstock at both macro-and micro levels, and the performance impact is explained by the applicant for the following reasons:

- when a sudden interruption of the flow of air in polycaproamide 12 by actuation of spool-distribution mechanism or system of valves (intake and exhaust valves), triggered for thousandths of a second (0.001 sec - opening valve, from 0.002 sec - closing valve), creates significant pressure for a valve that instantly in the form of shock energy (acoustic) waves is distributed throughout the volume of the reactor, tearing (exploding inside) macro - and micro-bubbles of air contained in the raw material, and then followed the impact of the shock waves reverse direction, which ensures the collapse of macro - and micro bubbles located in the reaction mass, this results in the effect of cavitation (cavitation from lat. cavitas - void) - education in the fluid cavities (cavitation bubbles, or cavities, filled with gas, steam or mixtures thereof. Cavitation occurs as a result of local pressure reduction in the fluid, which can occur either by increasing its velocity (hydrodynamic cavitation), or with the passage of acoustic waves of high intensity while p is superiod rarefaction (acoustic cavitation), there are other causes of the effect. Moving with the flow in the region with the higher pressure, or during half-time of compression, the cavitation bubble slams while emitting a shock wave. Cavitation destroys the surface of the impact shock wave of raw materials, ensuring the effect of cavitation and the resulting chaotic overlay various physical, chemical, hydrodynamic effects, which become the phenomena that occur in the reactor, due to the effect on the raw pulse generator with a frequency of from 5 to 70 times per minute, the power and impact in the range from 3 to 100 MJ/mol, which has an effective influence on the whole heterogeneous system in the reactor, which ultimately ensures the realization of the stated in this technical solution results, namely decreasing the temperature of the process (up to 100°C), there is no need for excessive pressure in the reactor (up to 100% or more), increasing the specific productivity of the device when doing delignification (2-5 times), while also improving the quality of the food pulp, are excluded cases of incomplete fusion of the raw material and its destruction, because, according to the applicant, in the claimed technical solution process design the classification is due to mass transfer processes (effects), flowing both macro- (crushed material)and at the micro (cellular level) levels. Based on the researched information, it can be assumed that as a result of pulsation (acoustic) impact on raw materials with a sharp closing and opening of the valve device 12 or valves in the reactor immediately reduced pressure, and this leads to the process of explosive boiling and subsequent collapse of micro bubbles of air trapped in the raw material in the entire volume of the reactor.

It should be noted that pneumatic or hydraulic shock in most cases is undesirable in technology, the emergence of which are trying to avoid, which can lead to the destruction of structures (equipment) or emergency situation in effect known from the prior art high destructive potential.

In the claimed technical solution of the applicant used this well-known negative effect of pneumatic or hydraulic shock intensification chemical engineering delignification of raw materials, which leads to non-obvious to a person skilled technical results stated in the technical field.

Thus energy (acoustic) the impact of a certain power generated by the pulse generator, passing through the cooking solution, náchod is present in the pulsation chamber 4, with power shock (water hammer) from 3 to 100 MJ/mol ensures the formation of multiple dynamically developing bubbles, which can be viewed as a kind of microtransformer that converts accumulated in the system potential energy into kinetic energy fluid, a distributed discretely in space and in time.

The claimed technical solution meets the criterion of "novelty", presented to the invention, because of the investigated level of technology not identified technical solutions, the same constructive characteristics of the device and the technology used.

The claimed technical solution meets the criterion of "inventive step", presented to the invention, as claimed technical solution is not obvious to a person skilled in the chosen field of engineering, as it causes the implementation of seemingly mutually exclusive for specialist technical results, namely in the claimed technical solution is to increase the specific productivity of the installation while reducing energy consumption, temperature, pressure, simplifying the design and technology of the cooking process (due to the application including pulsation device) while eliminating the need for application of additional reagen is s (such as oxygen is the prototype) in the claimed technical solution leads to a significant improvement in the quality of the target product while increasing the sustainability and security of the whole process.

Thus, to a person skilled in the art the technical results that far exceed those known to a person skilled from the parsed prior art, which is not obvious in the art, is further confirmation of the compliance of the decision criterion of "inventive step".

The claimed technical solution meets the criterion of "industrial applicability", presented to the invention, as claimed technical solution is implemented in the form of a pilot installation at one of the enterprises of the Russian Federation, when it received all requested technical results (goals)that are significantly higher than known indicators of installations of similar purpose, known at the filing date of this application.

Sources of information

1. The processes and apparatuses of chemical technology. Transport phenomena, Macrokinetics, similitude, simulation design. 5 so Vol.2: Mechanical and hydro-mechanical processes. Ed. Ammation. - M.: Logos, 2001. - 600 C.

2. Magparamdam. "Machines and apparatus with pulse energy impacts". the educational manual "published by the engineering-1", 2004).

3. Equipment pulp and paper production. M.: Publishing house "Forest industry", 1981, under. Ed. Wasichana, p.58-65, similar to 1.

4. Equipment pulp and paper production. M.: Publishing house "Forest industry", 1981, under. Ed. Wasichana, p.71-76, similar 2.

5. Equipment pulp and paper production. M.: Publishing house "Forest industry", 1981, under. Ed. Wasichana, p.76-77, similar 3.

6. Delignification of plant materials in pulsation equipment Logoff [and other] / the Chemistry of wood. - 1984. No. 6. - P.54-57; and Ivanov US, Ioffe LO, P. Vorobiev, dwoskin SF Obtain pulp with continuous separation of the fibers in the pulsating device // Express-inform. Russ. production. experience. Pulp, paper, cardboard, iss.5. - M: Was, 1987. - P.5-9, similar to the 4.

1. Pulsating device for delignification of cellulose-containing vegetable raw materials, made in the form of a vertical cylindrical vessel-reactor equipped with means for loading and unloading raw materials, means of intensive stirring of the reaction mass, made in the form of an annular tube, placed in the upper part of the reactor, equipped with a nozzle for supplying the cooking solution and pulser-pulser, characterized in that the means for loading raw material made in the form of mixing the disorder, consists of frame, rotor, representing a horizontal tubular shaft located therein a mixing spiral coils and Belami, drive rotor coupled to a screw feeder, made in the form of a cylindrical body equipped at the end of the pipe a cylindrical or conical shape with flanges for attachment to the reactor, screw, is placed coaxially to the housing, and a locking device made in the form of a sliding device, a means for pressing and unloading of the target product is made as a blade or scraper device connected to a screw device, and means to intensify the mixing of the reaction mass contains a pulsation chamber, and a pulser-pulser providing the ability to generate in the pulsation chamber energy acoustic pulses with a frequency in the range of 5-70 pulsations per minute with the density of the energy impact of raw materials in the range from 3 to 100 MJ/mol.

2. Pulsating device according to claim 1, wherein the pulser-pulser made in the form of compressor, receiver and pulse generator containing a spool-distribution mechanism, or system of inlet and exhaust valves.

3. The method of operation of a pulsating device for delignification cellulosebased the th plant materials, consisting in the preliminary grinding of raw materials, the raw material feeding to the reactor through a boot device, sealing the reactor, the continuous supply of the cooking liquid in the reactor by spraying the circulating fluid through the openings of the annular tube, the processing of raw materials in the reactor, the selection of the pulp from the cooking solution with the feed pulp is washed with subsequent extraction of cellulose, characterized in that the raw materials served continuously in the mixer, which conducted the first pre-compression and loosening of the raw material through the rotor, which is a shaft located therein coils and Belami with screw reverse direction at the end of the rotor at the outlet of, in parallel or serial flow in the area of the opening in the mixer cooking solution and steam, the material loosen through the impact of the revolution of the auger reverse direction and is served in a screw feeder, which produce a second compression of the raw material through the screw feeder, the material fed into the inlet of the screw feeder - problemresolution, which produce additional third compression of raw materials, increasing the density of the raw material to a state that prevents the leakage of the cooking solution from the reactor, with the possibility of parallel flow in the outlet of the screw feeder cooking solution, then the production is W ill result another loosening of the raw material entering into the reactor through one-time exposure effect flotation and pulsation effects and delignification in the whole volume of the reactor due to the pulser-pulser, ensure the creating (generating) energy acoustic pulses on the feedstock, in the reactor, with a frequency in the range of 5-70 pulsations per minute and a density of energy impacts (energy pulse) in the range from 3 to 100 MJ/mol, with a parallel effects of steam on raw materials, and then produce a loosening of the mixing of raw materials blade or scraper device for movement of raw materials in the screw device, then produce the compression of the raw materials for the liberation of his release from the cooking solution of a screw device, then produce additional compression of the raw material at the outlet of the screw device in its conical part with the possibility of more efficient extraction of pulp from the cooking solution and create a tube from the pulp at the outlet of the device to prevent possible release of steam and/or cooking solution from the reactor with subsequent discharge of the product from the pulsation device, obtaining the target product - food cellulose.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: textile, paper.

SUBSTANCE: method for production of sulfate cellulose from larch wood includes two stages of wood chips extraction using water at the first stage as the extractant and at the second stage - black lye, and subsequent boiling in a boiler of periodic action.

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FIELD: textiles, paper.

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FIELD: textiles, paper.

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5 cl, 6 ex, 1 tbl

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5 cl, 2 tbl

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14 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

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5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in electrical engineering, electronics, in chemical and petrochemical industry. Initial renewable plant material, represented by sphagnum moss, is dried and then modified with water extract of peat therapeutic mud with ratio 1:1 by weight, and thoroughly mixed until homogenous composition. Mixed modified mass is dried to air-dry state and mechanically activated to dimension 20-30 mcm and then subjected to pyrolysis at temperature 900-950°C during 63-67 min.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain carbon with high degree of purification 98,0-99,5 %; eliminate release of ecologically harmful gases into atmosphere and complex technological operations due to application of cheap and available 100% renewable plant raw material, ensure ecological purity, simplicity and efficiency of method of carbon producing.

5 ex

FIELD: woodworking industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the wood processing industry and can be used for production of charcoal out of lump wood and its wastes. Through the metering loader 15 the woody biomass is loaded into the drying zone 2 of the vertical retort 1, where it is dried and heated. Furnace gases in the form of steam gas mixture are removed from the drying zone 2 to the capacitor 16. The woody biomass passes from the drying zone 2 through the drum feeder 25 to the pyrolysis zone 3. In the pyrolysis zone 3 pyrogas is released, and coal is formed. Formed pyrogas is discharged from the pyrolysis zone 3 to the separation unit 12. The residual pyrogas are guided from the separation unit 12 to the furnace 9, where it is burnt. The coal formed in the pyrolysis zone 3 comes through the drum feeder 26 to the cooling zone 4.

EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of the pyrolysis process.

2 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

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EFFECT: method improvement.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: woodworking industry.

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EFFECT: method enables to improve the efficiency of the pyrolysis process.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: boiler for charcoal burning comprises a vessel 1, a loading hopper for firewood 2, a gas duct for combustible gases 3, a combustion chamber 4. The gas duct 3 is formed with inner walls, at least two tight loading hoppers for firewood 2, which are arranged along the perimetre of the gas duct 3, and the outer walls are the part of the external wall of the vessel 1, the combustion chamber 4 is installed under the gas duct 3. The loading hoppers for firewood 2 are connected with the combustion chamber 4 by a channel 7 entering into its ashpit 5, through which combustible gases released from firewood pass. In the gas duct 3 there is a mechanism for mixing of combustible gases with air 8. Under the loading hopper for firewood 2 there is an accumulation hopper for charcoal 11. The mechanism of combustible gases mixing with air is arranged in the form of an injector made of a nozzle 9, along which combustible gases move, being the outer flow of the medium, and openings in the nozzle that serve as an input for air flow, being an inner flow of the medium.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of boiler operation due to rational burning of combustible gases produced during wood carbonisation.

1 dwg

FIELD: wood working industry.

SUBSTANCE: plant for production of wood charcoal comprises a horizontally aligned body 1, including a furnace 2 and a pyrolysis chamber 4, a temperature compensator 10 and a shaft 13 of smoke fumes. The pyrolysis chamber 4 is made as capable to hold cassettes 20 with source raw materials. The furnace 2 comprises a combustion chamber 5, equipped with primary air supply, windows for feeding starting material 7 and a nozzle of smoke fumes removal 9. The shaft 13 of smoke fumes is a lengthy metal box, which separates the pyrolysis chamber 4 into two parts, inside which there is a lengthy longitudinal horizontally aligned partition 14, arranged with formation of a channel for displacement of smoke fumes along the shaft 13.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify design of plant with simultaneous provision of pyrolysis process efficiency.

4 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: pyrolysis system for utilisation of carbon-containing waste includes pyrolysis reactor for thermochemical waste breakdown, loading 1 and unloading 9 devices, separation unit of pyrolysis gas into gaseous and liquid components 4 and independent furnace chamber 8 for co-combustion of pyrolysis liquid and pyrolysis gas, from which two heat-resistant tubes supplying oxygen-free hot gases for external and internal heating of waste are branched. Pyrolysis reactor is made of two tubular chambers installed one above the other - upper tubular chamber 2 with perforated holes for collection and discharge of pyrolysis vapours from reactor, and lower heat-resistant tubular chamber 3 for waste heating through metal walls.

EFFECT: invention allows increasing operating efficiency and safety and achieving necessary ecological properties of pyrolysis system.

1 dwg

Charcoal kiln // 2256686

FIELD: wood-chemical production.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of resin industry, in particular, to wood-chemical production and also intended for production of charcoal and for complex utilization of wood wastes. The charcoal kiln contains a heat-insulated chamber of pyrolysis and drying used for installation of containers with firewood, a fire box, a scatter, a pipeline with an air blower and a cooler. At that the drying chamber is supplied with a heater and it is stand-alone unit. The scatter represents vertically placed perforated headers fixed in the lower part of the container communicating with a gas duct of the fire-box through a compactor. The fire box is made in the form of in series connected a gas generator and a combustion chamber. The pipeline is supplied with a heat insulation. The cooler is made in the form of a jacket-tubular heat-exchanger, the inter-pipe space of which is connected with the heater of the stand-alone drying chamber and the air blower is located behind the cooler. The invention allows to improve the operational characteristics of the charcoal kiln at production of the high quality charcoal.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improved the charcoal kiln operational characteristics at production of the high quality charcoal.

1 dwg

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