Active pellets

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to recycling wood-plant wastes and peat and can be used in producing ecologically clean biofuels in form of active briquettes and granules (pellets) for industrial and domestic needs. The solid biofuel based on wood-plant components and/or peat additionally contains a combustion catalyst, with the following ratio of components, wt %: combustion catalyst 0.001-10; crushed wood-plant component and/or peat 100. The wood-plant components used are wood shavings, wood chips, bark, straw, chaff, seed husks, mill cake, stalks and leaves, waste paper, and the combustion catalyst is in form of inorganic derivatives of group I-II and VI-VIII metals.

EFFECT: obtaining ecologically clean biofuel.

3 cl, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of utilization of woody-plant waste and peat and can be used in the production of environmentally friendly biofuels in the form of active briquettes and pellets for industrial and domestic needs.

Granules (pellets) is compressed particles of vegetable origin, having the form of a cylinder with a diameter up to 25 mm

The briquettes are pressed particles of vegetable origin, having the form of a cylinder with a diameter more than 25 mm (or having a cross-section of a polygon, sometimes with a hole in the center).

Known fuel briquette, which is obtained by mixing crushed <42 mesh carbon material, such as, for example, peat, charcoal, plant material, lignite, etc., acid slurry, followed by molding the mixture [U.S. Pat. USA 3592779].

Known fuel briquette containing a mixture of chopped dried solid fuels from the group of sawdust, peat moss, dehydrated poultry manure, dehydrated manure, etc. and/or their mixture, as well as sludge from wastewater treatment plants, and a binder selected from the group: lignosulfonate, molasses, and/or clay, and/or paraffin or paraffin GAC[U.S. Pat. Russia 2130047].

The disadvantage of these technical solutions are increased ash content and pH value.

Known composition of solid biofuels, which includes solchany coal, crushed waste wood processing, hydrocarbon binder and water [U.S. Pat. Russia 2098461].

The disadvantages of this structure include: higher ash content of biofuels, the complexity of the preparation of the multicomponent composition of the raw material.

Known composition of solid biofuels from vegetable mixture comprising 30-60% of wood waste and technical lignin - other. [Pat. Russia 2131912].

The disadvantages of the method include the high costs of transportation, storage and processing of technical hydrolysis lignin used as a binder in the production of biofuels, high water absorption, high ash content and a relatively low heat of combustion of biofuels.

Known solid biofuel from vegetable mixture composition (wt.%): wood waste - 99,0÷99,9; diesel fuel - 0,1÷1 [U.S. Pat. Russia 2402598].

This technical solution adopted for the prototype.

The disadvantage of the prototype is the presence of flammable diesel fuel, deterioration of the ecological characteristics of the fuel during storage due to the release of hazardous vapors into the atmosphere of the premises for the storage and use of fuel.

The purpose of this invention is the expansion of the range used solid biofuels, more complete utilization of different woody plant waste and peat is ri obtaining effective active solid biofuels with minimal cost, improving the completeness of combustion of biofuels and the reduction of harmful substances in exhaust gases during combustion.

This objective is achieved in that the active solid biofuel contains shredded woody plant component and/or peat, and the catalyst combustion in the following ratio, wt.%:

The catalyst combustion0.001 to 10;
Shredded woody plant component and/or peatup to 100.

1. As combustion catalysts can be used organic and inorganic derivatives of metals I-II and VI-VIII groups of the Periodic system of chemical elements of Mendeleev.

As woody plant components can be used sawdust, chips, bark, straw, chaff, husk seeds, oil cake, stems, and leaves of plants, paper waste. Chopping wood-plant components and peat can be produced by any known method, for example in the cage mill, the mill and other Plant waste can be mixed with peat in any required ratio.

Method of production of solid biofuel is batching and mixing of the powdered components - izmelchennogo the vegetable component and/or peat, and catalyst combustion with subsequent pressing by the standard technology for the production of fuel pellets [Wood fuel pellet in Russia and the CIS: a Handbook.: SPb., 2005. - 124 S.; Zanegin L.A., Voskoboinikov IV, Kondratyuk, VA, Liquor V.M. wood Biomass and bioenergy: monograph): GOU VPO at MSFU, 2008, Vol.2. - 456 C.]. Any introduction in the dried biomass solution of the catalyst and then pressing on the standard technologies for the production of fuel pellets and briquettes.

To test the effectiveness of active pellets obtained from different raw materials in the laboratory, were produced pellets with a diameter of 6 mm and a length of 12 mm from the spruce bark, shredded wood chips from birch stumps, cake sunflower seeds, maple leaves, wheat straw and chaff, husk peanut, peat and waste paper from the office paper shredder bLSRABBIT.

As the catalyst combustion in all laboratory active pellets were used acetylacetonate manganese at a concentration of 5%.

Testing laboratory of active pellets was carried out according to GOST 2408.1-95 with some changes: instead of oxygen used air, and the output from the furnace gas not absorbing flask and laboratory gas chromatograph Crystal 5000 test.2 heaters. The results are given in table 1.

Table 1.
The results of laboratory tests of the active pellets
№ p/pThe composition of the pelletsThe composition of the exhaust gases, mg/m3
CONOxSkhnh
1spruce bark63839
2chips from birch stumps57637
3meal sunflower seed48698
4maple leaves51716
5wheat straw53735
6wheat chaff52 686
7shuck peanuts47628
8peat431039
9waste paper679011
10sawdust of hardwood trees without catalyst8914113

In the production of pellets "Totec were received samples active pellets "Totc" with catalytic combustion. Three samples were obtained by introduction of solid catalysts combustion - acetylacetonates of chromium and magnesium and reinvoking copper directly in dry sawdust with a normalized humidity. The other two samples were obtained by adding aqueous solutions of Nickel acetate and potassium permanganate to dry filings.

Samples 7-9, containing both organic and inorganic derivatives of metals in 1:1 ratio of magnesium acetylacetonate and potassium permanganate, acetylacetonate, HRO is a and calcium bichromate, ferrocene and nitrate of copper, were obtained by introduction of solid catalysts for combustion directly in dry sawdust with a normalized humidity.

Enter the catalysts in aqueous solutions is not possible due to the almost complete insolubility of organic derivatives in water.

Use of organic solvents because of their high risk of fire.

Testing of active pellets is carried out by burning them in a solid steel pellet boiler brand FACI 10 in the following sequence: pellets "Totc" standard, pellets "Totc"modified catalysts burning, and again the standard pellets "Totc". The composition of the exhaust fuel gases was determined stationary gas analyzer for continuous measurement of the IMR 7500. The results are given in table 2.

Presented in tables data confirm the effectiveness of the proposed technical solutions. Moreover, the effective use of as a mixture of organic and inorganic derivatives of metals, and each of the catalysts separately. However, the use of a mixture of catalysts more efficient.

Table 2.
The results of the tests of the active pellets "TOTC" with catalytic combustion
№ p/pThe composition of the pellets, %The composition of the catalystProperties of the pelletsThe composition of the exhaust gases, mg/m3
sawdustcatalystHumidity, %Density, kg/m3Heat of combustion, MJ/kgCONOxSkhnh
1100--10,31,1118,38713412
297,03,0the magnesium acetylacetonate10,21,1218,350867
399,01,0 chromium acetylacetonate10,31,1218,553938
498,81,2oleinovaya copper10,21,1118,331776
598,50,5acetate Nickel10,41,1218,445817
6at 99.950,05the potassium permanganate10,21,1118,527635
797,03,0acetylacetonate magnesium:potassium permanganate 1:1 10,21,1118,521584
895,05,0chromium acetylacetonate:calcium bichromate 1:110,21,1218,435645
998,02,0ferrocene: nitrate copper10,31,1218,429705
10100--10,31,1118,38513111

1. Solid biofuels based on woody plant components and/or peat, characterized in that it additionally contains a catalyst for the combustion in the following ratio, wt.%:

The catalyst combustion0,001-10
Shredded woody plant component and/or peat100

2. Solid biofuels according to claim 1, characterized in that as a woody plant components it contains sawdust, wood chips, bark, straw, chaff, hulls, seeds, oil cake, stems, and leaves of plants, waste paper.

3. Solid biofuels according to claim 1, characterized in that the catalyst burning it contains organic and inorganic derivatives of metals I-II and VI-VIII groups of the Periodic system of chemical elements of Mendeleev.



 

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