Method for formation of nanosized structures on semiconductors surface for usage in microelectronics

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method for formation of nanosized structures on semiconductors surface for usage in microelectronics includes formation of a monoatomic thickness buffer layer of gold with formation of an orderly 2D underlayer Si(111)-Si(111)-α√3×√3-Au, subsequent precipitation of 1-3 fullerene layers of onto the 2D underlayer Si(111)-Si(111)-α√3×√3-Au to form a fullerite-like lattice and precipitation of a 0.6 - 1 gold monolayer onto the prepared substrate under extra-high vacuum conditions, the substrate temperature being 20°C.

EFFECT: invention enables controllable formation of ultrathin gold nanofilms with the preset electric conductivity value on a semiconductor substrate surface.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the technology of nanostructured elements of semiconductor devices and can be used to create solid-state electronic devices.

The problem of creating conductive films ultra-small thickness, having a high conductivity, is currently particularly relevant in the field of semiconductor devices. Great interest in this regard are attracted by the possibility of obtaining such conductive films using fullerenes. It is known that there is the ability to control the state of the silicon substrate by forming on her surface reconstructions of atoms of metals such as silver or gold, with the inclusion of fullerenes. In particular, layer-by-layer growth of fullerenes observed on the surface of Si(111)-α-√3×√3-Au using the method of scanning tunneling microscopy [A.V.Matetskyi, D.V.Gruznev, A.V.Zotov, A.A.Saranin, Modulated With60monolayers on Si(111)√3×√3-Au reconstructions // Phys. Rev. B, 2011, v.83, p.195421].

Such layers of ordered two-dimensional layer of fullerenes can be of great practical value, for example, as an organic semiconductor in electrical circuits, for example, in the manufacture of thin-film transistors; as a conductive material in organic electroluminescent elements and devices; as electron acceptor in photoact the main layer in the photodiodes; in the production technology of semiconductor devices, particularly field-effect transistors and other

The literature describes various methods of obtaining ultrafine conductive films on semiconductor surfaces.

The known method of forming ultra-thin silver films, which consists in the deposition of silver on the surface of the silicon Si(111)7×7 in ultrahigh vacuum conditions. A significant drawback of this method of producing films is their formation only at low temperature (83 K). In the case of deposition of silver on the surface of Si(111)7×7 at room temperature is observed islet film growth, the morphology of which also depends on the deposition rate of silver. This method of growth significantly reduces the conductivity of the silver film and further leads to the grain size. Thus the conductivity of a film of silver is formed at a temperature of 83 K, is detected only when the floor is greater than 1 monolayer [S.Heun, J.Brange, R.Schad, M.Henzler, Conductance of Ag on Si(111): a two-dimensional percolation problem // J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 1993, v.5, p.2913].

There is also known a method of forming an ordered metal films, consisting in the deposition of indium on the surface of Si(111)√3×√3-in ultrahigh vacuum conditions at room temperature. The surface is reconstructed from the √3×√3 2×2, then √7×√3, which is met lechaschau. The drawback of this method is that when the floor more than four monolayers of India observed islet film growth India, as well as the fact that coverage about one monolayer film India (reconstruction of the 2×2) has a low surface conductivity (of the order of ~2×10-5Ω-1/□) [S.Takeda, X.Tong, S.Ino, S.Hasegawa, Structure-dependent electrical conduction through indium atomic layers on the Si(111) surface // Surf. Sci., 1998, v.415, p.264].

Closest to the claimed invention to the technical essence and the achieved result is a method of forming ultra-thin gold films on the surfaces of Si(111)7×7 and Si(100)2×1 [D.A.Tsukanov, S.V.Ryzhkov, S.Hasegawa, V.G.Lifshits, Surface Conductivity of Submonolayer Au/Si System // Phys. Low-Dim. Struct., 1999, v.7/8, p.149] (prototype), which includes the following stages:

preliminary obtain atomically clean silicon surface by high-temperature annealing (1250°C) in ultrahigh vacuum conditions;

the deposition of the required number of gold prepared by the above method, the substrate in ultrahigh vacuum conditions at a temperature of 20°C.

The disadvantage of this method is that such ultrathin films with coatings of gold from 0 to 4 MS deteriorate the electrical conductivity of the substrate, which is caused by the process of silicidation, which significantly alters the morphology of the film surface, increasing its roughness. This results in the significant scattering of charge carriers in the surface region of the film, that reduces their mobility, and hence the electrical conductivity of such films in General.

The claimed invention solves the problem of creating conductive films extremely small thickness on the surface of a semiconductor substrate having a high electrical conductivity.

The technical result that can be obtained when implementing the present invention is the ability for the controlled formation of ultrafine nano-structures on the surface of a semiconductor substrate with a specific conductivity value.

The problem is solved by the claimed method of forming nanoscale structures on semiconductor surfaces, including deposition of a buffer layer of gold of thickness 0.9 monolayer on atomically clean silicon surface (111) at a temperature of 600°C in ultrahigh vacuum conditions with the formation of ordered two-dimensional substrate Si(111)-α-√3×√3-Au, subsequent deposition from 1 to 3 layers of fullerenes at a temperature of 20°C and deposition at a temperature of 20°C over a is formed fullerites lattice layer of gold from 0.6 to 1 monolayer of gold in the quantity necessary to obtain the given conductivity.

With one monolayer of gold, deposited on the silicon surface, corresponds to the atomic concentration of 7.8×1014cm-2to surface the surface of the silicon (111).

Distinctive features of the proposed method are:

- formation of a buffer layer of gold monatomic thickness with the formation of ordered two-dimensional substrate Si(111)-α-√3×√3-Au;

- deposition on a two-dimensional sublayer Si(111)-α-√3×√3-Au from 1 to 3 layers of fullerenes at a temperature of 20°C with the formation of fullerites lattice;

- deposition on the prepared surface from 0.6 to 1 monolayer of gold.

A preliminary stage of implementation of the invention is to prepare the surface of Si(111) by heating the sample at a temperature of 1250°C for 20 ° C in ultra high vacuum of not more than 1×10-7PA; receive an atomically clean surface of Si(111) with a concentration of structural defects less than 3%.

On the cleaned surface of the silicon Si(111) create a buffer layer representing the surface reconstruction of Si(111)-α√3×√3-Au of gold atoms and silicon monatomic thickness, with the property that the fullerene molecules deposited on the layer at room temperature, do not enter into chemical reaction with silicon atoms and gold, and freely flowing on the surface of the atomic terraces, condense on them, forming a layer of monomolecular thickness with a lattice period of fullerite. The floor of fullerenes from 1 to 3 layers (1 monolayer of fullerene corresponds to their surface concentration of 1.1×10 cm-2it is essential to be sure to cover the surface of the substrate as a continuous layer. The role of fullerenes is that they assume the electrons, which in the absence of fullerenes gold atoms could dhiravat in the substrate and thus to influence the properties of the space charge in the surface layer of the substrate. The use of fullerenes leads to the fact that the space-charge layer does not change or changes only slightly. In the electric conductivity of the substrate remains stable at the initial stages of the formation of a film of gold, unlike the prototype.

The invention is illustrated by drawings:

figure 1 - the technological sequence of the formation of nanofilms Au on the surface of the silicon substrate Si(111);

figure 2 presents an image of the surface with nanoplasma gold under a layer of fullerenes 0.5 monolayers (a), 1 monolayer (b), 2 monolayer (b) and 4 monolayer (g);

figure 3 presents the results of the conductivity measurements of the samples.

This image of the surface represented in figure 2, obtained in a scanning tunneling microscope (Omicron" VT STM; image size 21×21 nm2. These images show that the fullerene molecules form a continuous ordered layer, which repeats the two-dimensional surface topography is of odlaa Si(111)-α√3×√3-Au (figure 2 and clearly visible domain boundaries). The adsorbed gold atoms penetrate through a layer of fullerenes and form a first islets (figure 2,a-b), and then a continuous film (figure 2,b-d), while the fullerene molecules continue to be on top, experiencing only a small displacement from their positions in the lattice due to the stretching surface and/or interaction with adsorbed gold atoms.

The inventive method of forming nanoscale structures on semiconductor surfaces is as follows.

On the cleaned surface in ultrahigh vacuum conditions precipitated atoms of gold with a thickness of 0.9 monatomic layer (MS). Gold precipitated from effusions cell at a rate of 0.5 MLS/min, the temperature of the substrate during deposition to 600°C. as a result, the surface of the substrate, a surface reconstruction of Si(111)-α-√3×√3-Au monatomic thickness [.Nagao, S.Hasegawa, K.Tsuchie, S.Ino, C.Voges, G.Klos, H.Pfn··ur, and M.Henzler, Structural phase transitions of Si(111)-(√3×√3)R30°-Au: Phase transitions in domain-wall configurations, Phys. Rev. B, 1998, v.57, p.10100] (Fig.1,a).

On the formed surface of the Si(111)-α-√3×√3-Au at a temperature of 20°C is precipitated by the fullerene molecule with a thickness in the range from 1 to 3 MS; thus precipitated molecules are condensed on the atomic terraces with education fullerites lattice (Fig.1,b).

At the final stage on the thus prepared surface at a temperature of about 20 the C precipitated the necessary amount of gold to achieve the desired conductivity value (1,in).

It is found experimentally that when the deposition of gold on the surface reconstruction of Si(111)-α-√3×√3-Au without fullerene layer at the gold coating from 0 to 1.5 monolayers, a deterioration of the conductivity of the obtained film of gold, which is confirmed by the measurement results presented in figure 3.

To characterize the conductivity of the formed layers of gold films with fullerenes were measured conductivity depending on the thickness of the gold films directly after the formation of these films in ultrahigh vacuum conditions.

Enablement of the claimed invention is illustrated by examples of its implementation.

Example 1. On the surface of the substrate Si(111) formed with a buffer layer of Si(111)-α√3×√3-Au and besieged him with a layer of fullerenes sprayed 0.6 monolayer of gold in ultrahigh vacuum conditions at a temperature of the substrate equal to 20°C. the electrical conductivity Measurements show that the conductivity of such substrate increased (0,25±0,09)×10-4Ω-1/□.

Comparing this example with the results of electrical measurements of the prototype shows that with the same gold coating conductivity of the substrate Si(111)7×7 (prototype) practically does not change. The same result is observed if under the same conditions as in example 1, sadati,6 monolayer of gold, but without applying a layer of fullerenes (see, for example, Fig 3).

Example 2. On the surface of the substrate Si(111) formed with a buffer layer of Si(111)-α√3×√3-Au and besieged him with a layer of fullerenes sprayed 0.2 monolayer of gold in ultrahigh vacuum conditions at a temperature of the substrate equal to 20°C.

The electrical conductivity measurements show that the conductivity of such a substrate is not changed, while a deterioration of the conductivity of the substrate Si(111)-α√3×√3-Au, but without applying a layer of fullerenes (figure 3); the deterioration of the conductivity of the sample obtained in similar conditions, is observed also in the way that, taken as a prototype. Thus, the experimental data show that the gold coating deposited on the surface of the substrate, should not be less than 0.2 monolayers.

Example 3. On the surface of the substrate Si(111) formed with a buffer layer of Si(111)-α√3×√3-Au and besieged him with a layer of fullerenes sprayed in ultrahigh vacuum conditions 1 monolayer of gold at the temperature of the substrate equal to 20°C. the electrical conductivity Measurements show that the conductivity of such substrate increased (0,40±0,07)×10-4Ω-1/□, which is also greater than the conductivity of the prototype.

The measured conductivity of the substrate Si(111) with super-thin gold films obtained by sputtering under conditions of ultra high vacuumisolated on the surface of Si(111)-α-√3×√3-AU, covered with a layer of molecules of fullerenes, and on the surface of Si(111)-α-√3×√3-Au layer without fullerenes. In both cases, the measurements show different values of electric conductivity depending on the thickness of deposited gold (figure 3). This suggests that using the state of the surface of the semiconductor substrate and the amount of deposited gold, you can get a nanoscale structures with a given conductivity value.

Experimental data show that the optimal number of sputtered gold is from 0.6 to 1 monolayer, allowing to form nanostructures ultrafine sizes with optimum conductivity values. If the gold coating will be less than 0.6 monolayer, the contribution of this layer of gold in the conductivity of the substrate will not be noticeable against the background conductivity of the substrate with the buffer layer. When the gold coating more than 1 monolayer values of conductivity will be determined by the surface morphology and the interaction of the adsorbed layer with fullerene molecules. In this case, the conductivity can be close to the prototype.

Comparative analysis of the essential features of the claimed method from the essential features unique and prototype demonstrates its compliance with the criterion of "novelty".

This set is great for the positive features of the proposed method enables not only the formation of ultra-thin nanofilms of gold on the surface of a semiconductor substrate with improved conductivity, but also allows you to control the process of creating nanostructures provides the possibility of the formation of ultra-thin nanofilms with a given conductivity value.

The practical significance of the proposed method lies in the possibility of creation on the basis of nanofilms obtained by the claimed method, the electrical contacts and conductive elements for integrated circuits. The inventive method is proposed to use in the technology of semiconductor devices nanometric scale, which can be used in digital electronics, microwave electronics, sensors and gas sensors, thermal or radiation.

1. The method of forming nanoscale structures on semiconductor surfaces for use in microelectronics, including creation of a sublayer of gold on an atomically clean surface of Si(111)7×7, characterized in that the first form a buffer layer coating 0.9 monolayer of gold at a temperature of 600°C in ultrahigh vacuum conditions with the formation of ordered two-dimensional substrate Si(111)-α√3×√3-Au, after which the precipitated fullerenes with subsequent deposition on the prepared substrate from 0.6 to 1 monolayer of gold in ultrahigh vacuum conditions at a temperature of the substrate equal to 20°C.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that precipitated from 1 to 3 the Loew fullerenes at a temperature of 20°C with the formation of fullerites lattice.



 

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2 cl, 1 tbl, 6 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: in the method to prepare a powdery nanomodifier for a concrete mixture, including mixing of a plasticiser and a mineral component in a mixer of cyclic action and their further grinding in an activator, the plasticiser is a hyperplasticiser on the basis of polycarboxylates, the mineral filler is a mixture of siftings from crushing of broken concrete and microsilica in the weight ratio of 3:1, and when preparing the nanomodifier, the specified hyperplasticiser and the mineral component in amounts of accordingly 2-3 wt % and 97-98 wt % are mixed in the mixer of cyclic action for 1-2 minutes, and grinding is carried out in an industrial activator with a vertical working chamber of AKRK series to produce a powdery nanomodifier with nanoparticle size of less than 100 nm in amount of 5-7 wt %, dusty parties with size from 100 nm to 100 mcm 20-25% and particles with size from 100 to 300 mcm - balance.

EFFECT: concrete strength improvement.

FIELD: carbon materials.

SUBSTANCE: weighed quantity of diamonds with average particle size 4 nm are placed into press mold and compacted into tablet. Tablet is then placed into vacuum chamber as target. The latter is evacuated and after introduction of cushion gas, target is cooled to -100оС and kept until its mass increases by a factor of 2-4. Direct voltage is then applied to electrodes of vacuum chamber and target is exposed to pulse laser emission with power providing heating of particles not higher than 900оС. Atomized target material form microfibers between electrodes. In order to reduce fragility of microfibers, vapors of nonionic-type polymer, e.g. polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylbutyral or polyacrylamide, are added into chamber to pressure 10-2 to 10-4 gauge atm immediately after laser irradiation. Resulting microfibers have diamond structure and content of non-diamond phase therein does not exceed 6.22%.

EFFECT: increased proportion of diamond structure in product and increased its storage stability.

2 cl

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